Joan of Arc - Maid of Heaven

The Trial of Joan of Arc
By W.P. Barrett

Chapter 35: Dramatis Personae by Pierre Champion

DRAMATIS PERSONAE by PIERRE CHAMPION Translated by

COLEY TAYLOR and RUTH H. KERR

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PARTISANS OF FRANCE

CHARLES VII Charles VII was twenty-six years old at the time Jeanne came to see him. As far as we can learn he was then a prince of sad countenance, extremely pious, and had grown very timid because of the excesses of his partisans who had dishonored his cause by murdering Jean sans Peur [Duke of Burgundy] on the bridge of Montereau. Charles, who had left Paris after the revolution of 1418, lived in Berry and Touraine "immured and shut up in castles, foul places and manors with little rooms," as Jouvenel des Ursins wrote, keeping himself "beyond the river Loire," far from the seat of war and the frontier provinces. Very cautious, rather indolent and secretive, and greatly in need of money, the King was ruled by those who could procure resources for his treasury; he was a very temperate man, but lacking in will-power. It was only in his middle age that he gave himself to pleasure and to women.

In Jeanne d'Arc's time, it is certain that the King was like a sleepwalker. The question "Quare obdormis, domine?" was the refrain of the strong and fine letter of Jouvenel, who had a very especial authority in that time, since he took part in the council of 1430, "where he was often summoned" (Bibl. Nat. ms. fr. 16259)

Charles VII has often been accused of ingratitude to Jeanne, who had him crowned at Reims. He was certainly mistaken in believing in the sincerity of the Burgundian truce, and in not attempting to take Paris in September, 1429. In brief, Charles VII did not see an immediate advantage in prosecuting energetically the conquest of his kingdom. He did not know how to profit by all the consequences of

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the national movement that was aroused by Jeanne's advent. Abandoned in this fashion, the Maid could not but run the risks of every captain of the time, without the benefit of the power of being ransomed from implacable enemies.

But it is not just to pretend that Charles VII did nothing to get her out of the hands of her enemies. In the Morosini correspondence we find, under the date of December 15, 1430, that the news that the Maid had fallen into the hands of the Duke of Burgundy was so widespread that Charles, informed of it, had sent an embassy to Philippe te Bon to say to him that if there was nothing he could offer him to induce him to set her free, then he would exact vengeance for her upon his men that he had captive. Under the date of June 21 , 1431, correspondents of the same banker affirm that "The English wished to burn her (Jeanne) as a heretic, in spite of the Dauphin of France who tried to bring threatening forces against the English." The King felt a "very bitter grief" upon the death of Jeanne, "promising to exact a terrible vengeance upon the English and women of England."

These last words show sufficiently what was felt and said by the good people of France. We know, too, that during the winter of 14301431, La Hire, master of Louviers, made frequent expeditions into the neighborhood of Rouen, and that he worried the English government. In March, 1431, an expedition against Rouen by Dunois was paid for by the King. Another attempt was made against the Chateau d'Eu.

It does not appear that before Charles's entrance into Rouen that anything could have been done towards Jeanne's rehabilitation. This is not surprising if one remembers the unfortunate and decisive influence that Regnault de Chartres, Archbishop of Reims, had upon the King. The Archbishop had the temerity to disavow the Maid publicly. It is also welt to remember that in the address that Jean Jouffroy made before Pope Pius 11 in 1459, he declared that it was in order to manage Charles, Jeanne's admirer, that he had not objected more than he had to his making use of her. Pius II, who had for informers the University men of Bâle and Jean Jouffroy, declared that he had found nothing reprehensible in her save her wearing men's clothing. Charles, he knew, "bore very bitterly the death of the Maid." It is true that Charles considered himself attainted in honor by Jeanne's conviction, and that he ordered the first steps in the revision of her Trial.

Charles VII was represented kneeling, turned toward Jeanne d'Arc

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at the foot of the crucifix and the Virgin, in the first monument raised in Jeanne's memory, on the bridge at Orléans at the end of the Fifteenth Century.

JACQUES D'ARC

Jacques d'Arc, or Jacquot d'Arc, father of the Maid, was born about 1375 at Ceffonds, in the diocese of Troyes, according to the Traité sommaire of Charles du Lys. It was about the time of his marriage that he established himself at Domrémy, for Isabelle Romée was from Vouthon, a village seven kilometers distant. He seems to have enjoyed an honorable position in this countryside, whether he was rich, as some have implied, or not. In 1419 he was the purchaser of the Chateau de I'Ile, with its appurtenances, put up at auction that year. In a document of 1423 he is described as doyen or sergeant of the village; he therefore took rank between the mayor and the provost, and was in charge of collecting the taxes, and exercised functions analogous to those of the garde Champêtre. The same year finds him among the seven notables who responded for the village in the matter of tribute imposed by the damoiseau of Commercy. In 1427 in an important trial held before Robert de Baudricourt, captain of Vaucouleurs, he was again acting as a delegate of his fellow-citizens. We know that he opposed with all his power the mission of his daughter, whom he wished to marry off, without a doubt. However, he went to Reims for the coronation of the King, and the King and the municipality defrayed his expenses and gave him a horse for his return to Domrémy. He was ennobled in December, 1429. Jacques d'Arc died, it is said, of sorrowing over his daughter's end.

ISABELLE D'ARC

Isabelle or Isabeau. d'Arc, mother of the Maid, nee Romée, and called Zabilet in her patois, was born at Vouthon, near Domrémy. We learn from the testimony of Brother Pasquerel at the Rehabilitation proceedings that she returned from the great pilgrimage to Puy en Velay at the time when Jeanne was being conducted to the King, while the expedition to Orléans was being prepared. She was ennobled in the month of December, 1429. After the death of her husband Isabelle left Domrémy, and eventually settled at Orléans, where one finds her established in 1440. We may recall that Jeanne had desired to establish herself in Orléans, for before undertaking the expedition to Reims she

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had taken a long lese on a house in rue des Petits Souliers, in Saint Maclou parish, near the apse of Saint Catherine's church.

"Very ill" upon her arrival, Isabelle, who was then about sixty years old, was cared for at the expense of the city of Orléans, and taken care of by the chambermaid of Messire Bertrand, physician. She lived in the house of Henrier Anquetil and the municipality granted her 48 sous parisis a month "to aid her in living and acquiring her necessities in the said city."

She acted as plaintiff at the time of the Rehabilitation, and lived in the house which her son Pierre occupied in rue des Africains. She was then said to be "decrepit through age," and she asked to be allowed not to attend all the hearings. She appeared before the Archbishop of Reims, not as witness, but always as plaintiff. She died on November 28, 1458, after having testified. In 1428 she founded at Domrémy an obit of two gros barrois for anniversary masses, as did Jacques d'Arc.

ROBERT DE BAUDRICOURT

Robert de Baudricourt was the son of Liébaud, a man of Lorraine, chamberlain of the duc de Bar, and a lady of Champagne, Marguerite d'Aunoy. He was captain of Vaucouleurs at the time of Jeanne d'Arc and later Bailly of Chaumont for King Charles VII - after October 17, 1437.This personage, prudent and rich, was very strong in favor with René d'Anjou, who made him his councillor an chamberlain. He was still living in 1450. A squire, then made a knight, he was lord of the territory of Baudricourt in the Vosges, a fief o the duchy of Lorraine. This family had already served against the English. Jean, Robert's son, was the first son of Lorraine to bear the bâton of marshal of France.

CHARLES II, DUC DE LORRAINE

Charles II had Jeanne brought to Nancy. But he did not receive her with Baudricourt. This prince, who had checked the attempts of Louis d'Orléans to establish himself on the Rhine, as a feudal vassal of the Anglo-Burgundian power. He had married the very pious Margaret of Bavaria, who bore him only daughters. Jeanne's remonstrance was aimed at his passion for Alison May, Of Nancy, his mistress, whose mother sold vegetables in a shop near the ducal palace, and whose father was precentor of the collegiate church of Saint Georges. On January 11, 1425, Charles II ceded her the hose she was living in

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with its furnishings and gold and silver plate. When he died Alison was taken to the square and put to death by the populace.

We know that Charles II listened to Jeanne with astonishment and that he gave her a sum of four francs to pay her for her trip (Durand Laxart's deposition) and that he gave her a black horse (Jean Morel's deposition) on which the Maid returned from Nancy to Vaucouleurs, at the end of February, 1429. The fabulous Chronique de Lorraine, which is entirely untrustworthy, states that Jeanne was armed by Charles II and that she engaged in a tourney in the castle grounds at Nancy.

RENÉ D'ANJOU

René d'Anjou, at that time about twenty years old, was the son-in-law of Charles 11 of Lorraine. He was a son of Louis 11, King of Sicily, duc d'Anjou, Count of Provence, and Yolande of Aragon. He was brought up with the Dauphin Charles and married Isabelle, the heiress of Lorraine, in 1419. He was then a handsome and robust young man. After having seen his county of Anjou pass into the hands of Bedford, he had to endure, much against his will, the seizure of his county of Guise by Jean de Luxembourg (1424). He took part in the siege of Vaudemont and then in the expedition directed against Metz.

We may believe that he was in secret sympathy with Jeanne. But we find that on April 13, 1429, he was still paying homage to the lieutenant of the King of England, and on May 5, the Duke of Lorraine swore fidelity to Bedford in his name. In the same way he was named on a roll of those submissive to the English king, homage that he did not delay in disavowing (August 3). We may believe that he arrived at Reims too late for the coronation sacrament. René figures henceforth among the ranks of the royal army, demanding, after the Maid, to lead the van. Put in possession of the duchy of Bar, and then the duchy of Lorraine, René was taken prisoner at the battle of Bulgneville on June 30, 1431. He was imprisoned at Dijon and was not freed by Philippe le Bon until 1437, Unfortunate in his knightly efforts to keep his kingdom of Naples, King René lived henceforth in Anjou and Provence, an epicurean, a friend of books, poetry and women, composing pastorals and painting pictures in the manner of the Flemish artists.

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JEAN DE NOUVILONPONT

Jean de Nouvilonpont, the present Nouillonpont, on the right bank of the Othain, of the arondissement of Montmédy -- was also called Jean de Metz, squire. It was he who discovered Jeanne, when she was dressed in a poor red dress, and when she was lodged in the house of Henri le Royer. And he said to her: "My friend, what are you doing here? Is the King going to be chased out of his Kingdom and are we going to be English?" And the Maid replied: "I have come here to the King's chamber to speak to Messire Robert de Baudricourt, so that he will take me to the King or have me taken to him. And he hasn't troubled about me or my words. Nevertheless, before mid-Lent, I must go before the King even if I wear my feet off to the knees. For no kings or dukes or king of Scotland's daughter or anybody else in the world can recover the Kingdom of France; there is no aid but myself although I should rather drown myself before the eyes of my poor mother, for it isn't of my estate. But it is necessary that I come, and that I do this, for Our Lord wills that I do it." Then the young squire believed in her, promised to take her to the Dauphin, and gave her his attendants' clothes.

We learn that upon the arrival of the Maid in France, on April 21, Jean de Nouvilonpont received from Guillaume Charrier, receiver-general of the King, 100 livres for his expenses and those of the Maid's company in the town of Chinon. That same month he received 200 livres more for "the Maid's expenses" and 125 livres to procure armor for himself. He was lodged at the house of Jacques Boucher, the treasurer of Orléans, and was ennobled by the King in March, 1444, "in consideration of the laudable and very welcome services which he has rendered us in our wars and elsewhere." Gobert Thibault, equerry of the King and judge of the city of Blois, who testified at the time of the Rehabilitation, numbered him among his friends. Jean de Nouvilonpont was questioned as a witness in the course of the Rehabilitation sessions. He was described as a nobleman living at Vaucouleurs, and about sixty-seven years old.

BERTRAND DE POULENGY

Bertrand de Poulengy was the squire who accompanied Jeanne to Chinon. He was armed at the expense of the King, and was lodged

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at Orléans at the home of Jacques Boucher, and he was a friend of Gobert Thibault, the King's judge at Blois. He was questioned at Toul, at the time of the Rehabilitation, in 1455. He was described as a nobleman, an equerry of the King, and about sixty-eight years old.

As a young man he knew Jeanne's parents, and had spent some time in the house of these "good workers." He said she was a good young woman, "as good as a saint," and very devout; that she tended her father's animals and horses. Bertrand had met Jeanne again at Vaucouleurs and with Jean de Metz procured military equipment for her. Then they took the "road to France" with his servant, Julien, Jean de Honnecourt, servant of Jean de Metz, Colet de Vienne and Richard the archer.

CHARLES D'ORLÉANS

Charles d'Orléans (1394-1465) was the son of Louis d'Orléans and Valentine Visconti. The murder of his father by Jean sans Peur made him the head of the faction for whom the Armagnacs and the national party were fighting (his enemies even said that he wanted to become king and that he had been anointed as such at Saint Denis). Charles spent all his fortune in prosecuting vengeance for his father's murder, fell into the hands of the English-whom the Orleanist and Burgundian factions in turn had called into France-at the disaster of Agincourt in 1415. He was not freed until 1440, and then due to the efforts of the Duchess of Burgundy. From that time on he swore allegiance to Philippe le Bon, and was made a knight of the Toison d'Or. Peaceful by nature, and rather badly off financially, after a vain attempt in Italy to recover Astesan, he lived quietly at Blois for many years, devoting himself to meditation and the composition of melancholy verse.

He was, in short, an epicurean, this prince whom Jeanne saw as a lover of God, and whom she was charged to go to England and set free. But she always saw in him, as did all the good folk of France, the Unfortunate Prince, the head of the most active party up to 1414, the prisoner despoiled of his estates and who could not defend them.

Did Charles of Orléans know all that Jeanne had done for him, or about the delivery of Orléans? It is possible, for many messengers went to him in England to take him money. But it must not be forgotten, however, that Charles was a captive. All that we can learn is that after the Maid's capture a scholar of Pavia, Antonio Astesano, addressed to the duke some Latin verses about Jeanne, developing the terms of a

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letter that Percival de Boulainvillier had sent to the Duke of Milan; but it remains very doubtful whether Charles ever received these verses.

We may imagine however that the duke awaited his deliverance through pacific means. Afterwards he did not speak of her, while the good city of Orléans never ceased honoring her memory in the annual celebration of May 8th (after 1435 the city paid the expense of the celebration). We must confess that the indifference of Charles d'Orléans, who was so careless but so good, is a shocking matter. But we must note however that his giving to Pierre d'Arc the enjoyment of the hereditary title to the Ile des Boeufs on July 29, 1443, was done "in favor and contemplation of his sister, Jeanne the Maid."

CHARLES DE BOURBON

Charles de Bourbon, comte de Clermont, and later duc de Bourbonnais, fought the Battle of the Herrings. He remained at Blois during the siege of Orléans, but he contributed to its defense, figured at the siege of Troyes, was present at the coronation of Reims, where he fulfilled the functions of a peer. He conferred with Jeanne at Senlis. Discontented with the return from Reims, he took part in the battle of Montepilloy, in the attack on Paris, and he was established as the lieutenant-general of Ile de France. But he renounced this and lost the château of Gournay sur Aronde.

As handsome as Absolom, much addicted to adventure and very talkative, he was very vigorously against Philippe le Bon who forced him to submit to his allegiance. We may consider him as suspect, for he took part in the misunderstanding between Charles VII and his son. He died in 1456, in his own territory, "dying sad and very helpless from gout."

JEAN AND PIERRE D'ARC

Jean d'Arc, who fled with his sister to Neufchâteau, accompanied her to France, and was lodged at the house of Jacques Boucher at Orléans. He was ennobled in December, 1429. He pretended to have recognized his sister at Metz in 1436, and claimed for himself gratuities from the city of Orléans. This conduct is very singular under the circumstances, even if he were admitting the common belief in the power Jeanne was said to have to escape the flames. When provost of Vaucouleurs he worked for the rehabilitation of his sister, appeared at Rouen and Paris, and formed a commission to get evidence from their

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native district and produce witnesses. He was Bailly of Vermandois and captain of Chartres and was discharged from the provostship of Vaucouleurs in 1468.

Pierre went to seek his sister "in France," fought along with her at Orléans, lived in the same house with her in that city, accompanied her to Reims, and was ennobled with the rest of the family. He was captured with Jeanne at Compiègne. He declared, as did Jean, that he recognized his sister at Metz in 1436, received many gifts from the King, the city of Orléans, and Duke Charles, among them the Ile aux Boeufs in 1443.

PIERRE DE BOURLEMENT

Pierre de Bourlement, knight, was lord of the southern part of Domrémy. His wife "came from France" (Deposition of Zabillet, wife of Girardin d'Epinal). The Bourlemont family owned the serfs of the Barrois part of Domrémy, about thirty-five families at the end of the Fifteenth Century. They lived at times in a strong house situated facing the village on the island formed at the meeting of the two branches of the Meuse, and they were lords of parts of Greux, Maxey and Bourlemont. The château de Bourlemont dominates the Meuse on the right bank. above Domrémy. We know that Pierre de Bourlement and his wife and daughters never failed to attend the May Day fêtes.

THE DEMOISELLE op LUXEMBOURG

Jeanne, Demoiselle de Luxembourg, was the sister of Count Waleran, and "very ancient" in 1430 according to Monstrelet. She was then at Beaurevoir "where governed Messire Jehan de Luxembourg, her nephew." She had just inherited the seigneuries of her brother as the nearest heir of Philippe de Brabant, and took from that time the titles of Countess of Ligny and of St. Pol. "And because she loved her nephew so dearly" she left him most of her fiefs to the great discontentment of the lord of Enghien, his older brother. This old lady was the sister of the illustrious saint, Pierre de Luxembourg, and was the godmother of Charles VII. She died at Boulogne sur mer on October 13, 1430. Jeanne de Bethune, Viscountess of Meaux, was the wife of Jean de Luxembourg, and was French in sympathy as far as one can learn.

BROTHER RICHARD

Brother Richard was a Friar Minor. He preached at Paris before large gathering of people that the Antichrist was born and that the

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Day of Judgment would fall in 1430. His last preaching was done or April 26, 1429. Shortly afterwards Brother Richard had to flee the city for he was threatened with prosecution by the Faculty of Theology on account of his errors.

We find him at Troyes in July, where he went to meet Jeanne. And Brother Richard preached there that Jeanne knew the secrets of God and those of any saint in Paradise as well, and that she had the power of introducing an army into any city whatever. According to Monstrelet, Brother Richard was again obliged to take to his heels as a follower of the party of Charles VII. He was in Poitiers in March, 1431, a prisoner in the monastery of the Friars Minor of that city. The vicars-general of the bishop and the inquisitor, whom the Court of Parlement joined in this action, forbade him to preach. Brother Richard was a person whose orthodoxy was very questionable, an illuminatus whose bad reputation in University and clerical circles certainly reacted against Jeanne.

JACQUES BOUCHER

Jacques Boucher, Jeanne's host at Orléans, was treasurer and later receiver of the finances of Charles, duc d'Orléans, and was a very devoted servant of that prince. His house was situated at the Renard Gate. On February 10, 1416, Jacques Boucher is cited as clerk of the bailiffs of the Duke; he was given 14 livres to join the men at the council of Orléans at Calais, where the Duke was, in November, 1415. February and September, 1422, he replaced Pierre Renier as treasurer. On December 18, 1422, he obtained a safe-conduct in order to treat for the ransom of the Count of Angoulême. In June, 1439, at Calais Jacques Boucher delivered to Duke Charles 40 ecus d'or "for his pleasure." On January 3, 1444, he was dead and was replaced by Jean Chardon, the Duke's secretary. Jacques Boucher was able, without doubt, to see Charles d'Orléans during his captivity.

REGNAULT DE CHARTRES

Regnault de Chartres was Archbishop of Reims, noted as prelate and diplomat. He was the son of Hector de Chartres, Lord of Onz-en-Bray, grand master of forests and waters in Normandy and Picardy, who was killed at Paris during the rising of 1418, when the Burgundians entered the city. Regnault was at that time thrown into prison. Three brothers of Regnault had already found their deaths at the disaster

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of Agincourt. An immense fortune recompensed these faithful servants in the person of the young prelate.

Regnault's ecclesiastical career was in effect very rapid; he was dean of the cathedral of Beauvais before 1410, and was master of the great schools of the Cholets. He is cited, September 17, 1412, as camérier of the pope, référendaire, and his constant messmate; he intrigued to be elected Bishop of Beauvais. In 1414 Jean XXIII named him Archbishop of Reims in spite of the city and the Chapter. As the Pope's friend he was entrusted at Constance with explaining the flight of the Pope; he went to see Emperor Sigismund in August, 1414, to have him determine the removal of the Council. Jean XXIII sent him as ambassador to Louis II of Anjou as well as to Charles VI. These missions continued to increase Regnault's importance in France, and from '1414 he undertook futile reconciliations between the houses of Orléans and Burgundy. He was created councillor of the King in 1417, and in 1418 we see him at the conference at Montereau representing the King and the Count of Armagnac. In 1417 he went to England; in 1418 to Languedoc, where he raised troops, and in Savoy; in 1420 he went to Scotland to look for aid, and in 1422 to Spain. In 1425 we encounter him at Rome.

This young man had even then a reputation as an expert, a good diplomat, entrusted with the most difficult missions, as if he were an old ambassador. On May 8, 1424, he was created chancellor. The English confiscated his mansion in Paris, and Charles VII remitted to him 4,000 &us d'or so that he could marry one of his nieces to the Sire de Vauvert. The King sold for him the seigneurie of Vierzon.

A prudent man, reasonable to excess, having full confidence in his diplomatic ability, Regnault worked to end the English war by breaking the Anglo-Burgundian alliance. He was a witness of the decisive interview of the King and Jeanne, and was one of her examiners, was sent to Blois to direct the relief of Orléans. Regnault wrote from Troyes to the inhabitants of Reims to dispose them to receive the King with honor. He consecrated the King and recovered his capital city. It seemed at that instant that all would be accomplished for him as well as for Jeanne. The singular question that he asked Jeanne on the road to Crepy-en-Valois shows him already in defiance and from that moment we see Regnault return to his former and great idea of peace through an alliance with Burgundy. The extraordinary letter that he addressed to the people of Reims on the day after Jeanne was made

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prisoner is perhaps that of a politician; but it is also a testimonial to his hardness of heart. Jeanne had become at a day's notice a hindrance, setting at naught the system of truces which stopped short the march of the victorious army and determined the check before Paris. But in any case we cannot see anything there but gloomy maneuvers. It would be more unwise still to regard Guillaume de Flavy, Regnault's half-brother, as a traitor abandoning the Maid before his besieged city. Regnault, after Reims, always represented the cause of peace in the King's council, against Jeanne and those who desired adventures, like the duc d'Alençon To this extent one can say that Regnault was responsible for her loss. It is unfortunate that he could not have read, as we can in the papers of Ghillebert de Lannoy, the Burgundian memoranda advocating the continuance of the Anglo-Burgundian alliance. And we must not forget that Regnault's idea was to be realized five years later in the happy peace of Arras, for which he had worked so hard, and which led to the end of the Hundred Years' War. Regnault de Chartres died full of honors in 1445, after mid-Lent, at Tours, while as an obstinate peacemaker he was treating for peace between France and England.

CHARLES DE BOURBON

Charles de Bourbon (1401-1456) in Jeanne's time Count of Clermont, was the son of Jean I, fourth duke of Bourbon, who was made prisoner at Agincourt and died captive in England in 1433. After the murder of Jean sans Peur at Montereau, Charles fought for the Armagnac party and sent back to Philip of Burgundy his little fiancée Agnes. The Duke of Bourbon received charge of the government of Languedoc and Guyenne, and then of the Dauphiné. He was made lieutenant-general of the King in the Bourbonnais, Auvergne and Le Forez. He attacked La Trémouille strenuously and laid hands on the Chancellor, Gouge de Champaigne, then for a short time reconciled himself with the Duke of Burgundy and asked for his fiancée back again. Handsome, enterprising, very much the adventurer, but decidedly versatile, Charles de Bourbon led an army to Charles VII for the relief of Orléans. He was wounded and vanquished at the Battle of the Herrings. We meet him again at the siege of Troyes, at Reims where he fulfilled the functions of a peer of France and created knights. He was present at the battle of Montepilloy, communicated with Jeanne at Senlis, took part in the attack on Paris and witnessed with great

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dissatisfaction the rapid retreat of Charles VII. He was established as lieutenant-general of Ile de France, but he showed very little character in that office. We know that later, jealous of the influence his brother-in-law, Charles du Maine, had in the government, he took part in the Praguerie and was reconciled with the Burgundians. He died worn out by pleasure, war and gout.

GEORGES, SIRE DU TRÉMOUILLE

Georges, Sire du Trémouille (1382-1446), was brought up at the court of Jean sans Peur of Burgundy whom he accompanied to Paris in 1413. He was named in that same year Grand Chamberlain of Charles VI. Taken prisoner at Agincourt, Georges did not recover his liberty until he paid a high ransom. He married, in 1416, the very rich and old Jeanne de Boulogne, widow of the duc de Berry, who died about 1423. From 1418 on Georges played the rôle of mediator between Charles VI and the princes. On January 21, 1420, Philip of Burgundy commanded the gens de Comples to grant him the Count of Boulogne to pay feudal homage. Sent on a mission close to the Duke of Burgundy in December, 1425, Georges was arrested at La Charité sur Loire by Perrinet Gressart, the captain who vainly fought against Jeanne d'Arc. In February, 1427, Georges took possession of Issodoun, where he captured Pierre de Giac, the favorite and minister of Charles VII. Giac was drowned, and his wife Catherine de l'Ile-Bouchard gave to the audacious Georges Giac's jewels and money, and later herself. Thus in July, 1427, the former chamberlain of Jean sans Peur, Duke of Burgundy, this powerful baron whose family belonged to the Burgundian party, came into power as Charles VII's first minister. Georges, moreover, held in his hand the great military lords of that time, and this fat man was able to advance money to King Charles VII who was always in need of it.

After the winning of Beaugency, Jargeau and Troyes, Georges de la Trémouille took part in the coronation at Reims. We know that after the defeat at Paris Jeanne stayed for some time at Trémouille's castle at Sully sur Loire and that this sojourn was in the nature of a semicaptivity. We know also that in 1433 the Constable du Richemont, who was himself also accused of having forfeited Jeanne's confidence, surprised Trémouille at Chinon. Georges, wounded by a dagger thrust, owed his life to nothing but his fat. He was confirmed in his pensions, but remained alienated from the court and later, at the time of the

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Dauphin Louis's insurrection against his father Charles VII, Trémouille joined the revolutionists. He died at Sully on May 6, 1446.

JEAN, DUC D'ALENÇON

Jean, duc d'Alençon, lost his father at Agincourt in 14T5, and as soon as he could do so, at the age of eighteen, he took up a career in arms, seeking to recover the lands held by the enemy. He married, in 1423, Jeanne, daughter of Charles d'Orléans and Isabelle of France. As lieutenant-general of the Dauphin in Normandy, Jean fought in 1424 the unfortunate battle of Verneuil, where so many lords of France and Scotland were lost. He was taken prisoner by the Duke of Bedford, and held for three years at Crotoy until he paid 200,000 saluts d'or for his ransom. He sold all he possessed to the English, and his fief of Fougères to the Duke of Brittany. When he left prison Jean d' Alençon was "the poorest man in France."

Faithful to France, having nothing to lose and everything to gain, the duc d'Alençon took command of a company of men-at-arms. We know how he led in the Maid's enterprises everywhere, and the confident friendship that Jeanne had for her "beau duc." Jean hoped to lead her sometime to conquer his duchy of Alençon in Normandy. About 1440 Jean d'Alençon who had until then the highest renown for prowess and fidelity, changed all at once. He took part in the revolt of the princes, received the Toison d'Or, had himself dismissed from his office as lieutenant-general, and believed that he was persecuted by the Count of Maine, and said that the King mocked him and did not treat him as he deserved. Jean talked indiscreetly, entered into relations with the English, promised them Granville, gave himself up to drinking, women and magic. On May 3, 1456, Jean testified at Paris at the Rehabilitation proceedings, but he was arrested on the thirty-first by Dunois. He was condemned to death by the peers of France in 1458 as guilty of lèse-majesté, but he was pardoned and freed upon the accession of Louis XI to the throne. d'Alençon was again condemned to death at a second trial in 1474, and this time, too, he was set at liberty. He died in 1476.

THE LORD OF THE BEAR

By the Lord of the Bear is meant the proprietor of the hostelry of that name at the Baudoyer gate in Paris. This Bear Inn is again mentioned in a document of 1465. Anatole France is the first to have

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identified in this "lord" Maître Jacquet Guillaume, a man of the Armagnac party about whom Parisian documents instruct us.

JEAN DE LA BROSSE

Jean de la Brosse, Marshal of France, is sometimes called Marshal de Boussac and Marshal de Saint Sévère, from the names of his fiefs. He commanded the guard of a hundred men who were the special bodyguard of the King. He distinguished himself at Orléans and at Patay, attended the coronation of Charles VII at Reims, and was appointed the King's lieutenant beyond the Seine, Marne and Somme.

On June 5, 1430, Charles VII announced to the people of Reims that he was going to give prompt aid to the town of Compiègne. It was a question of Boussac's coming: he was in command of a column of wagons following the army of Saintrailles an Vendôme which delivered Compiègne on October 25. We find de Boussac later in the army which offered combat to Burgundian troops at Montdidier in November. On February 3, 1432, a troop of six hundred French under his command approached Rouen secretly, planning to take the city by scaling the wall at night. Jean de la Brosse died in 1433.

deliverance of Jeanne d'Arc from Rouen. But he was captured by the Burgundians who held him for a ransom of 1,500 réaux d'or and kept him prisoner at Dourdan. In September, 1432, La Hire appeared at Lagny, which was besieged by Bedford, and he ravaged the lands of the Duke of Burgundy around Cambrai the following year. Captain general of the hither side of the Seine, in December, 1433, he took Ham and Breteuil from the Burgundians and defeated the Earl of Arundel at Gerberoy (1435). In spite of the peace of Arras he continued to wage guerrilla warfare in Artois, around Caux, but he was taken prisoner by the Lord of Offémont at Beauvais (1437). In the service of René d'Anjou, La Hire led the Écorcheurs in Lorraine (1438-1439). He took part in the sieges of Harfleur and Pontoise, and in the battle of Tartas. He died, poor and glorious, at Montauban on January 12, 1443.

ÉTIENNE DE VIGNOLLES

Étienne de Vignolles, called La Hire, was a Gascon captain and Bailly of Vermandois. He was born about 1390 and entered the Dauphin's service about 1418 and waged guerilla warfare in the country around Laon and in Vermandois. He was captain of Château Thierry in 1421 and then of Vitry in Champagne in 1422. He was seriously wounded at Saint Riquier and remained lame. He commanded the Lombard knights at Verneuil (August, 1424) and delivered Vendôme from Suffolk, succored Montargis in 1427, surprised Marchenoir but let the English retake Le Mans. He undertook the reprovisioning of Orléans which he entered on October 25, 1428. At the Battle of the Herrings La Hire protected the retreat of the French companies; he encountered the Maid at Blois and reëntered Orléans with her on April 29, 1429. He prosecuted the whole campaign of Beauce and commanded the forces that escorted Jeanne and the King on the March to Reims. Created Bailly of Vermandois, he installed himself at Laon. But we encounter him shortly afterwards in Normandy, of which he was captain-general after the taking of Louviers (1429). He conducted two mysterious enterprises which appear to have had as their object the

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deliverance of Jeanne d'Arc from Rouen. But he was captured by the Burgundians who held him for a ransom of 1,500 réaux d'or and kept him prisoner at Dourdan. In September, 1432, la Hire appeared at Lagny, which was besieged by Bedford, and he ravaged the lands of the Duke of Burgundy around Cambrai the following year. Captain-general of the hither side of the Seine, in December, 1433, he took Ham and Breteuil from the Burgundians and defeated the Earl of Arundel at Gerberoy (1435). In spite of the peace of Arras he continued to wage guerrilla warfare in Artois, around Caux, but he was taken prisoner by the Lord of Offémont at Beauvais (1437). In the service of René d'Anjou, La Hire led the Écorcheurs in Lorraine (1438-1439). He took part in the sieges of Harfleur and Pontoise, and in the battle of Tartas. He died, poor and glorious, at Montauban on January 12, 1443.

JEAN IV, COMTE D'ARMAGNAC

Jean IV, Count of Armagnac (1418-1450) was the son of Constable Bernard VII of Armagnac, a victim of the Paris rebellion. We know that this prince, who had married Isabelle of Navarre, and had sworn fidelity to the King of England in 1421, followed a fluctuating diplomacy of which he was later the victim. In the question of the Schism he supported Benedict XIII and then Clement VIII. Rebellious and submissive in turn, Jean IV was declared, on March 4, 1429, a schismatic, apostate, and placed under interdict. After the renunciation of Clement VIII, Jean asked forgiveness of Martin V. On March 4, 1430, he was relieved of the interdict and reëstablished in his dignities. What motive incited him to consult Jeanne on such a tangled question as that of the legitimacy of the pope? Did he wish to color his change of attitude with a pious pretext?

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PARTISANS OF ENGLAND

PIERRE CAUCHON Pierre Cauchon, born about 1371, in the environs of Reims, studied at the University of Paris. Licentiate in law in 1398, he was among the Parisian students who took part in the vote on withdrawing from obedience to Pope Benedict XIII; in 1403 he was a student in the sixth year in theology. When rector of the University, he sought to obtain a benefice near the Chapter of Reims, although he had already accumulated a canonicate and prebendary in the church of Chalons, and was curé of the parish church of Égriselles in the diocese of Sens. In 1406 he carried the matter of refusing obedience to Benedict XIII before the Parlement of Paris. The following year he was a member of the large embassy to Italy to summon Benedict XIII to renounce the Papacy. In 1408 as a recompense for his services in this matter he obtained the major chaplaincy of Saint Etienne of Toulouse. He was canon of Reims in 1409; bishop's deputy at Reims in 1410, and canon of Beauvais, June 28, 1410 (Register of the cathedral chapter). In 1412 he was among the reformers charged with severity against the excesses of the Armagnacs; in 1413 at Paris he led the rising of the Cabochiens. Banished from the capital in 1414, this revolutionary prelate went, as ambassador of the Duke of Burgundy, to the Council of Constance (1415), where he intervened in favor of Jean Petit, the Burgundian tyrannicide. In 1418, as King's master of petitions, he pleaded to obtain the provostship of Lille, vacant upon the death of Jean de Montreuil. On this occasion the University entreated the Pope to accord him the favor of uniting various incompatible benefices, citing his courage and his works for the good of the Church. He was next archdeacon of Reims, canon of Reims, Chartres, Châlons and Beauvais, chaplain of

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the chapel of the Dukes of Burgundy at Dijon, holder of the benefice of St. Clair in the diocese of Bayeux, all of which brought him about 2,000 livres a year. He obtained in addition the archdeaconate of Chalons. In 1419 Pierre Cauchon was réferendaire of Pope Martin V, whom he helped elect, then conservator of the privileges of the University of Paris.

Elected Bishop of Beauvais on August 21, 1420, on the recommendation of the University of Paris, and ecclesiastical. peer of the kingdom by favor of Philippe le Bon-who came himself to attend his taking of office -- Pierre Cauchon served the English party from that time and followed Henry V to Paris, where he fought the Chapter and Bishop Courtecuisse. In Bedford's confidence, an executor of the will of Charles VI, and councilor of Henry VI with a salary of 1,000 livres, Cauchon was guardian of the privy seal in the absence of the chancellor. He was in charge of important missions.

At Rouen, after 1426, Pierre Cauchon put in accord the Chapter and the Bishop on the subject of the Cardinalate. Expelled from Beauvais with the English (August, 1429), Cauchon fled to Rouen where he had already visited many times: the English indemnified him for the loss of his revenues and put him in charge of special missions in England, Paris, etc. was one of them. Pierre Cauchon did not, however, obtain the archbishopric of Rouen, which he had administered in matters spiritual and temporal, but he became Bishop of Lisieux in 1432. He lived for the most part at Rouen, near the Grand Council, of which he was a member.

As the Queen of England's chancellor in France, Cauchon went to the Council of Bâle as a deputy of England in 1435, and was present at the Council of Arras where he sustained until the end the exclusive right of Henry VI to the crown of France. He was nearly captured at Paris, in the Bastille Saint Antoine, in 1436, when the French reëntered the capital.

In that year Pierre Cauchon received the commission to-call together at Caen the Three Estates and informed them of the King of England's intention to found a university at Caen (Bibl. Nat. ms. fr. 26,061). He fulfilled numerous diplomatic missions relative to the English peace (the conferences of Calais and Gravelines). On July 29, 1437, he gave a receipt to the Treasurer-general of Normandy for 770 livres, the balance of a sum of 2,177 livres for a trip from Paris to Rouen in the King of England's service (Bibl. Nat. ms. fr. 26,063). In 1439 and 1440

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Pierre Cauchon was commissioned with several trips to Calais and to England to treat for peace between the two kingdoms, and concerning the deliverance of the duc d'Orléans.

Pierre Cauchon died suddenly, while he was being shaved, at his fine hotel Saint-Cande, on December 18, 1442, at the height of his honors. He left as heirs his nephew, Jean Bidault, canon of Reims and Lisieux, and Jeanne Bidault, wife of Jean de Rinel, secretary of Henry VI, whose name appears at the end of the Treaty of Troyes. Cauchon's body was carried in state to Lisieux, accompanied by his friend and executor, Nicolas Caval, canon of Rouen. He was interred near the altar in the magnificent chapel of the Virgin which he had rebuilt and decorated at his own expense. It is remarkable to note that the admirable, Frenchman who succeeded him as Bishop of Beauvais, Jean Jouvenel des Ursins, a propos of the fidelity of the people of Beauvais to Charles VII, made but a brief allusion to his predecessor, and did not mention Jeanne's trial in this connection: "And although they held your adversary for Lord, that was because the Lord Bishop was in this foolish error; but always they were your servants at heart. . ."

JEAN LE MAISTRE

Jean Le Maistre, Magistri, Dominican, bachelor of theology from some university other, than Paris, was vicar of the Inquisitor of France in the diocese of Rouen from 1424. In 1431 we find him referred to as prior of the monastery of Preaching Brothers at Rouen, where he enjoyed a reputation as a preacher. He was still living at the time of the first investigations made at Rouen in Jeanne's Rehabilitation (he preached a sermon in January, 1452); but it is probable that he was dead by 1455. At any rate, he was not consulted nor cited in the course of the second Procès.

He has been represented, by later historians, as acting on the threats of Pierre Cauchon, and even as speaking on the irregularities of the Trial. In truth he was less zealous than Jean Graverent, the Grand Inquisitor of France, at that time detained at Coutances by another trial, who ordered La Maistre to join Jeanne's trial, and preached at Paris against remembrance of Jeanne. Le Maistre reserved his opinion on the matter of torture; but he condemned the monk Pierre Bosquier, who spoke critically of Jeanne's sentence. On April 24, 1431, Jean Le Maistre received from the English government a gratuity Of 20 salus d'or "for his pains, labors and diligence in having been present and

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assisted at the trial." He was, perhaps, simply a timid man, but entirely devoted to Cauchon, and but little convinced of the regularity of the Trial (at least according to the testimony of Nicolas de Houppeville). Jean de Maistre certainly hesitated in accepting the conduct of the business and he took the precaution of protecting himself behind the Inquisitor-general. On December 7, 1443, however, he preached to the people on the occasion of the election of Raoul Roussel as Archbishop of Rouen, Roussel who was one of Jeanne's most English-minded judges, and successor to the Cardinal de Luxembourg.

JEAN GRAVERENT

Jean Graverent, Dominican, Grand Inquisitor of France: He was referred to in 1413 as master of theology of Paris, and was present at the Council of Paris where he gave an opinion in favor of appealing to the Pope the question of the propositions of Jean Petit. Inquisitor of the Faith from 1425 on, he succeeded Jacques Suzay, an event which du Boulay cites as of the year 1422 (Hist. Univ. Paris). On August 16, 1429, in the capacity of prior of the Jacobin monastery in Paris, Jean Graverent took the oath of loyalty to the English government before the Parlement of Paris. He directed the trial of Jean Le Couvreur, a burgess of Saint Lô, which was still in process on March 4, 1431; thus it was that this Dominican, whom one may believe very favorable to the Burgundian party, could not take part in . On July 4, 1431, Jean Graverent preached a sermon in Paris, accusing Brother Richard as a "beau père," that is, the mentor, of four suspect female visionaries, among them the Maid.

MARTIN BILLORIN

Martin Billorin, Martinus Billorini, Dominican, professor of theology, was vice-gérant of the Grand Inquisitor. A licentiate in theology in 1416, maître régent at Paris in 1425, at the same time as Jean Beaupère he censured the propositions of Brother Jean Sarrasin, in March, 1430. He is also recorded as teaching in Paris in 1433

PHILIPPE LE BON

Philippe le Bon, son of Jean sans Peur, Grand duc de L'Occident. A magnificent prince, at the same time cunning and chivalrous, reigning over the most fertile and active provinces of the kingdom, and maintaining order there, he recognized Henry VI of England as King

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of France, and brought the body of his father, Jean sans Peur, from Montereau to the Chartreuse at Dijon. French in origin, Flemish at heart, and English by self-interest, Philippe was clever enough not to accept the regency of the kingdom; but he gave his sister to Bedford in marriage. It is well known how Gloucester's aims for the territories of the north turned Philippe to the French party, to which, however, he never adhered completely. Philippe le Bon, wavering and ambitious, was nevertheless the arbiter of the Franco-English struggle and until the Treaty of Arras (1435) he conducted missions, embassies, truces and negotiations which were sometimes favorable to the efforts of the French party, sometimes discouraging, and which led finally to Jeanne's destruction. Philippe acted at that time like an actual King of France, which he always half-way dreamed of being, according to the testimony of Chastellain who has left an unforgettable portrait of him: "His outward bearing only judged him to be emperor."

It was thus that Philippe le Bon could receive the embassy from the besieged Orléannais, and recalled those of his subjects who were participating in the siege of that city, and then turn about and denounce at Reims a conspiracy on behalf of the French. Exhorted by the Maid to make peace, summoned by her to the coronation at Reims, Philippe le Bon concluded a treaty at Compiègne with the Dauphin, a treaty that Jeanne could not have accepted. He continued to levy troops and receive embassies. We know that he was at Compiègne when Jeanne was taken captive, and that he had conversation with her. He announced the news of her capture to the world and received from the English government the account of her trial at Rouen.

It is very singular, after all that, to see that the first witness in Jeanne's favor after her condemnation is to be found in a manuscript which is dedicated to Philippe le Bon in 1440, in Martin Le Franc's _Champion des Dames_. a debate in which the pro and con are set forth.

JEAN DE LUXEMBOURG

Jean de Luxembourg, Lord of Beaurevoir, comte de Ligny, was the younger brother of Cardinal de Luxembourg, Chancellor of England.

Governor of Arras in 1414, Jean de Luxembourg waged a cruel war on the French frontiers; he delivered Senlis in 1418, was wounded at Mons-en-Vimieu (1421), made many expeditions into Picardy and Hainault, was put in charge of the siege of Guise by Bedford, in 1424, led an Anglo-Burgundian expedition against the French forts of the

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Argonne and ravaged the Beauvais district. In August, 1429, at the head of an embassy, he went to Compiègne to bring the King false promises of peace. On February 20, 1430, he evacuated Peronne and formed the advance guard of Philippe le Bon, who was marching on Compiègne.

We know that the Bastard of Wandomme, who took Jeanne prisoner, served in the company of this captain: he turned Jeanne over to Jean de Luxembourg, who gave up the siege of Compiègne (which he had strategically invested with forts) thanks to the vigorous defense of captain Guillaume de Flavy. On October 26, Jean de Luxembourg had to follow the retreat of his troops, mortally wounded, and he left his artillery in de Flavy's hands. Jeanne d'Arc was kept in his castle of Beaurevoir during the month of August.

Required to give her up to the English, Luxembourg at first refused, restrained from this villainy, perhaps, by his aunt. Later on he yielded her on the demands of Pierre Cauchon, and sold her to the English for 10,000 livres; he visited her later in her cell at Rouen.

The paid protector of the towns of Picardy, Jean de Luxembourg tried to shield them from the pillaging of de Flavy and the French captains; he refused to sign the Treaty of Arras in 1435, and continued to ravage, in reprisal, the country about Soissons and Laon (in 1436, La Hire took possession of Soissons). In 1437 we see him in agreement with Charles d'Orléans, who made him send his poursuivant d'armes, Porte Espy, from Blois in Picardy. This rough Burgundian condottiere died at the Château de Guise in 1440. The comte de Ligny is represented in the tournament of the Knights of the Torsion d'or in 1431.

HENRY VI OF ENGLAND

Henry VI, the little son of Henry V and Catherine of France, was born at Windsor on December 6, 1421. In his name the Dukes of Bedford and Gloucester governed in turn during the regency. Proclaimed King of France upon the death of Henry V, he received as "tutor" Richard Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick, in 1428. He was crowned King of England on November 6, 1429, at Westminster. He arrived in France on April 23, 1430, On July 29, he made his entry into Rouen; then at Paris, on December 2, 1430, he made another triumphal entry.

On December 16, Henry was crowned King of France by Cardinal Beaufort at Nôtre Dame. We know how the consecration of Charles

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VII at Reims removed all significance from this ceremony. On the twenty-sixth the infant king left Paris for Rouen, where he resided all through .

Henry VI was unfortunate, especially after the breaking of the Anglo-Burgundian alliance, in the attempts to maintain English rule in France. Peaceful by nature, and not very capable, and an object of suspicion to the English after his marriage to Margaret of Anjou, daughter of King René, Henry was discredited by the influence that the pacific Suffolk had in the government. Henry VI disappeared very mysteriously after having been shut up in the Tower of London (1471).

MARTIN V

Martin V (Othon Colonna) was elected Pope in 1417. He was recognized by almost the entire kingdom. But Jean IV, Count of Armagnac, continued to have negotiations with the anti-pope, Benedict XIII, who on October 27, 1418, retired to the rock of Peñiscola, and who had accorded to the Count and his family a series of spiritual favors. In 1420 the rupture was complete. Upon the death of Benedict XIII in 1424, Jean IV of Armagnac supported Gilles Munoz, who took the title of Clement VIII.

GILLES DE DUREMORT, ABBOT OF FÉCAMP

Gilles de Duremort, Aegidius Duraemortis, Benedictine, most frequently referred to as the abbot of Fécamp, was a Cistercian monk of Beaubec and bachelor formé in theology when he was named abbot of Beaupré in 1403. Licentiate in theology in 1408 he became abbot of Beaubec in 1413; he was named abbot of Fécamp in 1423 and master regent of the Faculty of Theology at Paris, an office he held until about 1429. He became Bishop of Coutances in 1439. Gilles de Duremort died at Rouen on July 29, 1444, and was interred in the church of the priory of Saint Lô, which pertained to his diocese.

Gilles de Duremort was a man of considerable importance, and resided chiefly at Rouen, sometimes in the great hotel de Fécamp, sometimes in his hôtel in the parish of Saint Vincent. He had long enjoyed the entire confidence of the English government when in June, 1421, he was commissioned to intervene in favor of the University of Paris before Henry V. The Duke of Bedford sent him on an embassy in Burgundy to pacify the quarrel between Gloucester and the duc de Brabant in 1424. Gilles de Duremort went many times to England and

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to Burgundy before 1426. In 1427 he went on an embassy to Brittany. Appointed councilor of the English king, with the considerable salary of 2,000 livres, he took the oath of office in 1428. In 1429 Gilles de Duremort went to England on matters of state. In 1431 he was entrusted with the embassy to the Council of Bile. On November 16th of that year, Henry VI ordered the Treasurer-general, Thomas Blount, to pay the wages of ten lancers and thirty mounted archers who escorted the abbots of Fécamp and Mont Saint Michel and the Lord of Saint Pierre, who were summoned to Paris by the king. In 1438 he was designated as the ambassador of Henry VI to treat for peace with the King of France; on July 5, 1439, he was given 300 livres and sent on an embassy to Calais; in 144o he was given 250 livres from the English treasury as a quarter of his salary.

Gilles de Duremort was strongly allied with the Cardinal de Luxembourg, who named him among the executors of his will. He was one of the most assiduous judges at Jeanne's trial, and upon the testimony of Jean Massieu himself, this regent in theology "seemed oftener to act through hatred of Jeanne and through love of the English than through zeal for justice." In the session of May 29th Gilles de Duremort formulated the opinion, or rather, the death sentence, in which the assessors lost no time in joining him, without lengthy explanations.

NICOLAS LE ROUX

Nicolas Le Roux, Ruffi, Benedictine, of a noble family of Rouen, entered the abbey of Jumièges towards 1395. He studied in Paris where he is mentioned as a bachelor of law in 1403; he received his doctorate in law in 1411. Ambassador to the councils of Pisa, Rome and Constance, this "worthy doctor" was recommended by the University to the Pope, to be named abbot of La Croix Saint Leufroy in 1412, and then abbot of Jumièges on September 28, 1418. He is to be found among the regents of the Faculty of Law in Paris in 1419, with Jean Garin and Raoul Roussel. He took the oath of loyalty to Henry V in 1420, and died (June 17, 1431) shortly after Jeanne d'Arc was burned at the stake. He left a personal fortune Of 32,000 livres which his relatives took away from the religious community of Jumièges although this sum had been reserved in accordance with his intentions for the restoration of that celebrated monastery, which had been greatly damaged by the war. Nicolas Le Roux had greatly cherished that abbey and he had attempted to reëstablish there the observance of the rules

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of the order. Le Roux had the reputation of a good administrator and that of a man of good character. He played only a secondary part in Jeanne's trial, and agreed entirely with the University.

PIERRE MIGET

Pierre Miget or Muguet, also named de Glenesiis, Migecii, Benedictine, doctor of theology, was prior of Longueville-Giffard. Licentiate at Paris in 1413, he contested with Jean Bouesgue in 1416, before the Parlement on the subject of the priory of Gournay. Although master regent in theology, Pierre Miget resided constantly at Rouen, in the hôtel de Longueville, situated before the gates of the archbishop's palace. In 1420 he obtained from King Henry V the restitution of the revenues of his benefice and he seems to have been strongly linked to Beaupère who entrusted to him the administration of his diocese in 1434. With this latter, also, he is to be found at Paris among the masters of the Faculty of Theology from 1421 on. There he must have known Erard Emengart, Nicolas Midi, Pierre de Houdenc, Martin Billorin, Pierre de Dyerée, Jean de Troyes, his confrères, who were all assessors at Jeanne's trial.

Pierre Miget was very assiduous in the matter of the Trial, and he was in no way favorable to the accused. (In 1414 at the Council of Paris he showed himself as a zealous Burgundian and sustained the propositions of Jean Petit.) He testified as a witness at the Rehabilitation in 1452: but he declared that he wept at Jeanne's death, of which he had been, however, one of the promoters. He testified that the sentence rendered against the Maid was unjust. In summary, he seriously accused the Bishop of Beauvais, whose accomplice he had been.

RAOUL ROUSSEL

Raoul Roussel, born at Saultchevreuil near Villedieu, licentiate in law in 1416, was dean of the Faculty of Law at Paris from November, 1417, to January, IV% and was elected canon of Rouen in 1420. Treasurer the following year, he was deputized to the regent Bedford to obtain permission to proceed with the election of an archbishop, and he defended with care the canonical prerogatives. In 1424 Raoul Roussel was sent by Bedford on a mission to the Duke of Gloucester to pacify the quarrel between the latter and the duc de Brabant. Roussel fulfilled even military missions at times, since in August, 1428, in the capacity of master of petitions, he gave a receipt to Pierre Surreau, Receiver-general of

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Normandy, for an inspection of fortresses in lower Normandy. On November 7, 1429, his procureur declared to the Chapter of Nôtre Dame of Paris that he accepted the canonicate of the late Jean Gerson, who had remained faithful to the French cause.

Canon of Coutances, vicar-general at Rouen during the archiepiscopal vacancy (1429-1443), councilor master of petitions of the English king with a salary of at first :zoo livres, and later 300, twice ambassador to the French party to treat for peace (1435, 1438), Raoul Roussel received the Duke of York, lieutenant of the King of England in 1441, and addressed compliments to him in the cathedral of Rouen. Roussel succeeded Cardinal de Luxembourg as archbishop of Rouen in 1444. But he took the oath of fealty to Charles VII when that monarch entered Rouen. Roussel died December 31, 1452.

He was one of the most zealous judges at the Trial, and he actively adhered to the opinion of the University and the theologians. He must have been present at the preliminary investigations made for the Rehabilitation. It is well to remember that this strict legalist considered the Trial well conducted and that it was essential not to employ torture, which might bring it into bad repute.

NICOLAS DE VERNERES

Nicolas de Venderès, Lord of Beausseré, was born about 1372. Licentiate in law, he swore fidelity to Henry V and was received as a canon in the church at Rouen in 1422, and was made archdeacon of Eu. Since his name figures in the treaty of agreement of the city of Rouen with Henry V (January 13, 1419), we may believe that he was one of the first Norman ecclesiastics to adhere to the English government. Vicar of Mgr. Louis d'Harcourt, with a salary of 120 livres (1412-1422), vicar sede vacante (1429-1431) he was nearly elected archbishop of Rouen after the death of Louis d'Harcourt (the majority of the canons having voted for him for that office) and he was at one time considered as such. Nicolas de Venderès enjoyed also the office of curé of Gisors. He died at Rouen on the first of August, 1438. For executors of his will he had André Marguerie, Nicolas Caval and Jean Mahommet, priest, all among Jeanne's judges (Arch. de la Seine Inférieure G. 2089). Venderès was very zealous in the affair of the Maid. He was a familiar of Pierre Cauchon. He judged as did his masters in the matter of the twelve articles, and like Raoul Roussel, at the time of Jeanne's relapse, he held that the trial had lasted too long.

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ROBERT LE BARBIER

Robert Le Barbier, Barberii, born about 1388, master of arts, licentiate in both canon and civil law, became canon of Rouen in 1419. He was, on various occasions, a deputy to the provincial Estates. He died at Rouen on August :29, 1444, and was buried in the cathedral. Robert Le Barbier did not like to make a decision and he was especially afraid of compromising himself. He agreed in turn with Erart, Gilles Deschamps, and the Faculty of Theology.

NICOLAS COUPPEQUESNE

Nicolas Couppequesne, of the diocese of Rouen, referred to as master of arts in 1403, bachelor of theology, was rector, for the Chapter, of the great grammar schools of Rouen in 1417. He became canon of the cathedral in 1423 in place of Jean d'Étampes who remained loyal to France, Couppequesne was curé of Hermanville and Saint Pierre d'Yvetot, and became pénitencier of the diocese in the vacancy of the archbishop's See. He died intestate, on July 10, 1442

He was certainly an educated person and very agreeable to the English government, since, on June 5, 1430, when advised of the near approach of the King of England, the Chapter of Rouen decided that Nicolas Couppequesne should welcome the King in case Pierre Maurice were not able to do it. A few months afterwards, when Bedford was received as canon, this worthy grammarian complimented the noble duke, and received for his pains a gallon of wine worth six shillings eight pence. A short while before he was summoned to take part in the Trial, Nicolas Couppequesne published at the library of the Chapter a book entitled Lyrenensis Lugdunensis contra hereses (August 4, 1430). In his judgment Nicolas Couppequesne invoked especially the authority of the University of Paris.

NICOLAS LOISELEUR

Nicolas Loiseleur, Aucupis, was born at Chartres in 1930, and was master of arts at Paris in 1403. He was not admitted as bachelor of theology until October, 1431. Already canon of Chartres in 1421, he was made a canon of Rouen in the place of Martin Ravenot, who remained faithful to France. He fulfilled for the Chapter many delicate missions, going to Paris, for example, to take part in various trials. On July 8, 1429, he was delegated, with Baudribosc and Basset, by the Chapter of

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Rouen to deliberate the matter of an embassy to Rome. He was, without doubt, a man greatly regarded by the English government.

A deputy to the Council of Bâle with Midi and Beaupère, Nicolas Loiseleur went from Rouen to Paris "for the liberties of the Church". He did not attend the Council before 1435, when he sustained with the University men and the clergy of Charles VII the theory of the preeminence of the General Council over the Pope. This was no longer the opinion of the English government nor that of the Chapter of Rouen, which sought to have its ambassador return. He was, seemingly, rather badly received in England, where Henry VI secretly supported Eugene IV. Nicolas Loiseleur was later, in 1438, recalled, on two occasions. In 1439 the Fathers at the Council sent him, as lawyer, to the Diet at Mayence; in 1440 by sentence of the court of Rome, he was deprived of his benefice as canon of Rouen. He lived at Rouen, in the rue de la Chaine (the present-day Place des Carmes) in a house of which his brother-in-law, Pierre Le Marie, and his sister Thomasse were the concièrges. Cauchon was one of his frequent visitors. He died at Bâle, after 1442 and before the Rehabilitation proceedings.

Nicolas Loiseleur, intimate friend of Pierre Cauchon, was equally linked to Nicolas Midi, one of Jeanne's bitterest enemies; he played a perfectly odious rôle in the Trial, that of the false confessor, but completely in accordance with inquisitorial procedure. (Eymeric, Directorium Inquisitorium, Romae, 1585, p. 466, Col. 2, cautela nova) G. Colles assures us, none the less, that he wept while witnessing her death. But this much is certain, that he was not banished from Rouen, as has been written of him, nor was consideration of him subject to any attainder because of any conduct of his during the Trial. He is mentioned as a Norman by Pius 11 (de Gestis Basil concilii, in the Opera omnia, Basileae, 1551).

JEAN D'ESTIVET

Jean d'Estivet, called Benedicité promoter-general of the diocese of Beauvais, was canon of Beauvais and Bayeux. On January 16, 143o, he was named canon of Bayeux and was declared by Pierre Cauchon exempt from the tithes to be levied on the clergy in capacity of student of law at the University of Paris. One finds him later at Rouen, where, on April 25, 1437, he obtained a canonial prebend.

He was a former student of law at the University of Paris, intimately connected with Pierre Cauchon, and like him was a fugitive. He was

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an evil man, even according to Manchon's testimony. He was one of Jeanne's most obstinate judges. He insulted her in prison, treating her as a prostitute. Entirely devoted to the English, Jean d'Estivet insinuated himself into Jeanne's cell, like Loiseleur, pretending to be another prisoner. According to Guillaume Manchon, it was he who sent the Twelve Articles to Paris without completely correcting them. He is the author of the list of charges, read at the session of March 27th, and he ordered Jeanne to be taken back to the castle of Rouen after the abjuration. The recorders, whom he paid for their work, detested him, for he was so overbearing with them. Boisguillaume charged him with great responsibility in his testimony at Jeanne's Rehabilitation: "And believed that God, at the end of his life, punished him, for he ended miserably: he was found dead in a certain sewer outside the Rouen gate." This accident, which happened on October 20, 1438, was fabulously interpreted as punishment for his conduct during the Trial, but Jean d'Estivet was at that time the holder of many benefices.

JEAN DE LA FONTAINE

Jean de La Fontaine, de Fonte, clerk of the diocese of Bayeux described in 1403 as master of arts and student in law, was bachelor and promoter of the University in 1421, and was sent to Bedford and Henry VI in 1422 to obtain confirmation of the privileges of the University; he was licentiate in law at Paris in 1424. In 1427, with Guillaume Colles, Manchon and Robert Guérould, he edited the transaction, made with great care by Pierre Cauchon, between the Archbishop and the Chapter of Rouen. Jean de La Fontaine read, in 1436, Charles VII's confirmation of the privileges of the University.

Commissioned assistant counselor of the Trial, delegated by Pierre Cauchon to question Jeanne, La Fontaine advised her to submit to the Church. Upon the testimony of Manchon and Massieu, which need not be taken too literally, he had to flee Rouen under the threats of Cauchon, who found him too favorable to the accused. We do know also that he was a friend of Nicolas de Houppeville, to whom he passed a letter while the latter was in prison. A Guillaume de La Fontaine was cited as lieutenant-general of Jean Salvain, Bailly of Rouen in 1432. A Jacques de La Fontaine, bachelor of law, secretary and intimate friend of the Pope, was, on March 27, 1429, occupied in the matter of exchanging his canonicate of Beauvais.

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GUILLAUME COLLES

Guillaume Colles, called Boisguillaume, and more often, Boscguillaume, of the Colles de Boisguillaume family, was a recorder of the Trial, and a notary of the ecclesiastical court of Rouen.

As early as 1424 one sees the name of Guillaume Colles as the signature of a writ of excommunication. Boisguillaume is to be found as the notary of the inquisitorial trial of Jean Seguent, held by Jean Graverent between July and November, 1430. In 1421, he is cited as curé of Nôtre Dame de la Ronde (a benefice at the disposition of the King of England), and he signed the act by which the members of the clergy of Rouen, assembled in the archbishop's chapel, declared vacant the benefices of their confrères who lived in the territory loyal to the Dauphin. A further reference is made when the court of Rouen is ordered by Henry VI to make an inventory of his property. He was then cited as cure of Nôtre Dame near Bernay, "under sentence of excommunication, aggravated and further aggravated . . . obstinate and a bad example to our mother the Church." This sale of his property was ordered so that the money might be employed for the benefit of his absolution. Guillaume Colles lived at Rouen in the parish of Saint Nicolas. He was a witness at the Rehabilitation, and on December 18 1456, gave details on the work of the notaries, declaring that the Trial had been made at the expense of the English, recognizing the documents that were presented to him, and revealing the trickeries of Nicolas Loiseleur and Jean d'Estivet.

GUILLAUME MANCHON

Guillaume Manchon, recorder of the Trial, notary of the ecclesiastical court of Rouen, was a canon of Rouen and Evreux, curé of Saint Martin de Vitefleur, and later of Saint Nicolas of Rouen, and almoner of the Confrèrie de la Calende of the Doyenne de la Chrétienté of Rouen.

Court promoter, from 1437 to 1443, he prosecuted the matter in which Jean Massieu was accused of being bad-mannered; in this capacity he visited the abbeys and priories of the diocese in 144o, and is cited as promoter; in 1453 he was in charge of taxes and disbursements. He died on December 9, 1456.

We find that, on September 21, 1440, Guillaume de Croisemare, Bailly of La Madeleine at Rouen, attested to certain of his endowments:

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Guillaume Manchon is cited as notary of the court of Rouen, cure of Vitefleur since October 31, 1436, canon of Evreux, promoter of the ecclesiastical court of Louis de Luxembourg, Archbishop of Rouen, premier chaplain by election and appointment of the brothers of the company of notaries, (September 13, 1440). Among the witnesses cited we encounter Pierre Cochon, cure of Vitefleur, notary of the spiritual court of Rouen. We see the signatures of Manchon and Nicolas Taquel on the original act of foundation, 1436. A commission, given in the month of October, 1445, by the commissioners on the matter of incomes pertaining to churchmen, indicates that he was charged to receive the fruits of the revenues "of curacies situate within the diocese of Rouen, of which the curés are absent and living outside of the jurisdiction of the king." Guillaume Manchon, who delivered into the hands of the judges of the Rehabilitation the minutes of the Trial, testified before them in 1450, 1452 and 1456. He testified with prudence, and accused the Bishop and the English.

JEAN MASSIEU

Jean Massieu, priest, doyen, served as bailiff during the Trial. We see that on October 1', '1430, that the city of Rouen recognized a debt Of .47-los, a sum which he had loaned the city. He is called the dean of la £7.10 s, of Rouen, in 1431; that is, according to Quicherat, syndic of the priests of the division of the diocese calling itself the Doyenné de la Chrétienté On February 3, 1431, Jean Massieu was fined for having received money in the cemetery of the cathedral, exempt from the bishop's jurisdiction, from certain priests and clerks cited by him. Massieu made many trips to Bâle in the matter of the "liberties of the Church"; in 1434 he was sent to locate a malefactor. We discover that action is taken against Thomas Milton, chaplain of the Lord of Fauquemberge and Jean Massieu, former dean of la Chrétienté, for bad manners. Jean Massieu, priest of the parish of Saint-Maclou, is prosecuted later for misconduct. In 1450 he is referred to as a canon, cure of Saint Cande le Vieux, upon the endowment Of 300 livres by Pierre Cauchon, in honor of the Holy Sacrament.

Jean Massieu testified in 1450 and was a witness at the Rehabilitation, on December 17, 1455. He was then said to be about fifty years old. He denounced the hatred the English bore Jeanne, and accused Pierre Cauchon of extreme docility in respect to them.

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VINCENT LE FOURBEUR

Vincent Le Fourbeur of Meaux, was a clerk, bachelor of law, and notary of the University. He is to be found in this same capacity in 1433.

MICHEL HÉBERT

Michel Hébert, master of arts, was a notary of the University. Reference is made of him in this capacity as early as 1422. Guillaume Nicolay is cited, in 1449, as the new scribe elected in the place of the late Hébert, who died on August 6, at the Hôtel Dieu, "of great poverty and sickness."

THE BASTARD OF WANDOMME

One first meets the Bastard of Wandomme in the army of Jean de Luxembourg, who laid siege to Beaumont-en-Argonne, on April 8, 1428. May 74, 1430, the day after capturing Jeanne, he received from the war treasurer of Burgundy the sum Of 277 livres for his reward. He is ranked as a squire, and had under him six men-at-arms and sixty-two yeomen.

Seven years before the capture of Jeanne, the Bastard of Wandomme distinguished himself in a tourney, fighting on foot, with a battle-axe, against a French knight; some time later in a real battle he was gravely wounded by the splintering of a lance and was left with a crippled arm.

NICOLAS DE MAILLY

Nicolas, or rather, Colard de Mailly, Lord of Blangy-sur-Somme and of Conty, belonged to the party of the Duke of Burgundy. Captain of Saint-Riquier, which had just been surrendered by the Lord of Offémont, (1422) he received from the English king, in 1423, on the recommendation of the Duke of Bedford, the seigneurie of Rambures, seized by d'Harcourt's men; then after the siege of Guise (1424) he received likewise the lands of Jean de Coucy. In January 1426, Colard de Mailly was created Bailly of Vermandois. That same year he took part in the siege of Mortagne in the retinue of the Earl of Salisbury and later in the Argonne campaign. On July 10, 1428, he wrote to the inhabitants of Reims to urge their obedience to the Burgundians. Colard never changed, as has been written of him, to loyalty to the King of France. He retired to Chauny, in the fortress of Charles d'Orléans, from which, in 1431, the inhabitants routed him. We find later mention of him as ambassador of the King of England at the Council of Arras; in

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1441 he was among Jean de Luxembourg's men at the siege of Pontoise. He died about 1457.

JEAN DE PRESSY

Jean de Pressy, from Artois, knight: We find mention of a Jean de Pressy, King's treasurer of war in 141o among those who assisted the Duke of Burgundy in 1419 in his counsel at Arras "on the matter of the treaty with England." In 1425 he is called counselor of the grand Council of the King, and rendered his expenses for the trip he had made to Champagne to raise aid and to pay the men-at-arms employed at the siege of Moynier. On this mission he must have met Pierre Cauchon who was also employed in it. Jean de Pressy is mentioned among the lords of the entourage of little Henry VI during the sojourn he made at the castle of Rouen from July 29, 1430, to November 20, 1431, and he figures among the members of the Grand Council. He accompanied the young prince to Paris. A Jacques de Pressy was at that time canon of the cathedral of Beauvais.

NICOLAS ROLIN

Nicolas Rolin, of a burgess family, was the lawyer of Jean sans Peur, and presented at the lit de justice of 1420 conclusions relative to the murder at Montereau. Chancellor of Burgundy (1422), he was a sort of minister to Philippe le Bon and conducted all his diplomacy until the Treaty of Arras. Enormously rich, Nicolas Rolin fell in disgrace under the hatred of the Burgundian nobility. He was capable, and as obstinate as he was hard. We have every reason to believe that Philippe le Bon regarded him as another like himself. We know that Nicolas Rolin was educated, and that he contributed to the founding of the universities of Dôle and Louvain; he had luxurious tastes and was a protector of the arts. He built at Dijon the hôtels d'Autun and de Dijon; in his seigneurie the Château d'Authume; at Beaune he built the celebrated hospital. Nicolas Rolin is represented in the magnificent picture by Jan van Eyck in the Louvre: La Vièrge au donateur; on the altar-screen at Beaune he is portrayed by Roger de La Pasture.

JEAN DE RINEL

Jean de Rinel, nephew by marriage of Bishop Cauchon, was notary of the Grand Council and secretary to the King of England. Jean de Rinel is mentioned as present at a dinner offered by the Chapter of

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Rouen in 1413. He signed an order of the Duke of Bedford in 1424, and another in 1428. Jean de Rinel received a prebend, by the procureur, Jean d'Estivet, as canon of Beauvais, on May 25, 1437. On September 3, 1434, he is described as secretary to the King and he received 4 livres a day as his regular salary in the course of a trip he was about to make, from Vire to Savigny, to meet Richard Venables and other men-at-arms and yeomen who were at the abbey of Savigny. Jean de Rinel accompanied his uncle, Pierre Cauchon in 1439 when they went to England. In 1443 he was said to have been twenty-four years in the King's service and he obtained ten gold nobles to consecrate to pious work.

Jean de Rinel's wife was Jeanne Bidault; sister of Jean Bidault, archdeacon of Auge and the church of Lisieux, canon of Rouen and nephew of Pierre Cauchon. The great house of the Rinels was situated in the rue de la Chaine at Rouen, in the present-day rue des Carmes. Another Jean de Rinel was notary and secretary of the King in 1446.

ROBERT GUÉROULD

There are two personages of this name who are to be found as notaries in an act of 1438. (_Arch. de la Seine-Inférieure_, G. 3668)

Robert Guérould, mentioned as notary as early as 1420, edited about 1424 the capitulary registers, and kept them until 1441. He is cited as secretary of the promoter of the archbishopric in 1447. He signed his account, in 1450, with Gilles Deschamps and Raoul Roussel. He is mentioned as Clerk of the archbishop's court between 1453 and 1456. lie was still living in 1460. He was completely in the confidence of Raoul Roussel, whose secretary he was, and also an executor of his will in 1452. A Robert Guérroult is - mentioned as cavalry sergeant at le Châtelet in Paris in 1433

JEAN RUBÉ

Jean Rubé, canon of Rouen, is mentioned in an account of 1426-7 as paymaster of the Chapter: he delegated Jean Volet, priest, as receiver of the vicarage of Pontoise. The following year he signed the construction accounts of the cathedral of Rouen, and again in 1431-32. Pierre Cauchon lived in his house, near Saint Nicolas le Painteur, during the Trial.

WILLIAM HAITON

William Haiton, better spelled Heton, English, bachelor of theology, was the English king's secretary of requests. He went to the court of

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France in 141q as ambassador of Henry V to arrange the marriage of that king with Catherine, daughter of Charles VI. He was part of the English Council in 1431, but he was deprived of his office of secretary on March 1, 1433. He is mentioned in 1445 (_Calendar of patent rolls . Henry VI_, Vol. IV). William Heton held the same opinion of the Trial as did Gilles de Duremort, Abbot of Fécamp, his colleague in the King's Council.

JEAN BEAUPERE

Jean Beaupère, Pulchipatris, was born in the diocese of Nevers. Master of arts about 1397, he finished his first course in the Bible in 1407, after having studied theology. He is referred to as bachelor formé in theology in 141g, and licentiate at the end of that year. He was a man of considerable importance, having been rector of the University in 1412 and 1413. He fulfilled the functions of chancellor in the absence of Gerson. In 1415, one finds him at Constance, with Pierre Cauchon, among the Burgundian ambassadors. On July 30, 142o, by apostolic favor Jean Beaupère was named canon of Nôtre Dame in Paris in place of Jean Charreton: his confrères at first protested against his intrusion in the choir. On June 27, 142o, he took possession at Beauvais of the canonicate of Eustache de Laître; in 141q he was sent to Troyes with Pierre Cauchon to advise Charles VI. In 1422 he went on an embassy to the Queen of England and the Duke of Gloucester to obtain confirmation of the privileges of the University. In 1423, en route between Paris and Beauvais he was attacked by "brigands" who robbed him and left him for dead. He was badly hurt, and at least deprived of the use of his right hand, and could not occupy his benefices. Jean Beaupère received from Martin V a grant for his canonicates of Besançon, Sens, Paris, Beauvais, and the archdiaconate of Salins (March, 1424). Nominated, on September 6, 1430, canon of Rouen by Henry VI, he received, on April 21 1431, an honorarium from the English government Of 30 livres. In 1432 he was cellarer at Sens, canon of Besançon, Paris, Laon, and Rouen, chaplain of Brie; and he was asking to be, in addition, canon of Autun, curé of Saint-Jean-en-Grève, sacristan of Saint-Merry at Paris, canon of Lisieux, etc.! He left Rouen on May 28, 1431, to go to the Council of Bâle, where he arrived on November 2, 1431 (in 1424 he had been sent to the Council of Sienna). He played a very important rôle there, since he was designated to demonstrate to the Pope the necessity of his coming to Bâle, which he did with vehemence. the Fathers of Bâle

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sent him as ambassador to Philippe le Bon in 1432; in 1435 we see that he received a fresh testimonial of the gratitude of the English. Having taken part very actively against the Pope, Beaupère who had been disavowed by the Chapter of Rouen in 1438, had to protest his orthodoxy to keep his canonicate at Rouen; and when the city returned to French domination, in 1450, he invoked his title as a good Frenchman. Jean Beaupère resided chiefly at Besan in a country that was not disloyal to the French King. He must have died in 1462 or 1463 at Besançon.

Beaupère, very active in the Trial, a man of authority and tractable at the same time, played a considerable part in this drama. It was he who was sent to Paris to seek the opinion of the University. He testified in 1452 at the time of the preliminary investigations for the Rehabilitation and maintained his opinion on the natural causes of Jeanne's visions, developing the theory of the malice inherent in feminine nature.

JACQUES DE TOURAINE

Jacques de Touraine, or Le Teissier, Textoris, Friar Minor, was a licentiate in theology in 1422, and later maître regent. In a text written about 1432 or 1433, the University celebrates the greatness of his learning and the purity of his manners.

Summoned to Paris for Jeanne's Trial, Jacques de Touraine was a very active and partial judge. It was he who took to the University, on behalf of Pierre Cauchon, the papers of the Trial, and edited the rough draft of the questions which were to be asked by those present. He was, at Paris, the colleague of Pierre Maurice, Guillaume Erart, Giovanni da Fano and other of Jeanne's judges. He was still living in 1436.

NICOLAS MIDI

Nicolas Midi, licentiate in theology in 1424, was named by Henry VI as canon of Rouen on April 21, 1431, and he was installed there eleven days before the burning of Jeanne. On June it, the canons accorded to him remission of the right of annates, as they had in the case of Jean Beaupère, "by special grace, because of the services he had rendered the Church." Nicolas Midi addressed King Henry VI upon his entry into Paris in December, 1431, as delegate of the University. He was sent to the Council of Bâle in 1432, and became rector of the University of Louvain in 1433. About 1434 he contracted leprosy and had to resign all his commissions and his canonicate, but he retained

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the revenues from them. Midi was still living on November 8, 1438A convinced Burgundian, (in 1416 he had debated in favor of the propositions of Jean Petit with the Nation of Normandy) he was a fanatic supporter of the University (from IV% he was rector of the University of Paris). A terrible malady that he contracted was early interpreted, and in an entirely legendary way, as the sign of divine punishment merited for his role in the Trial: for he was the author of the Twelve Articles summing up misleadingly the doctrine said to be Jeanne's, and he was one of Bedford's confidential friends. (On May 12, 1432, out of regard for the Regent, the Chapter of Rouen decided that Nicolas Midi, sent to the Council of Bile, should receive the money distributions as if he were present.) If Pierre Maurice did not wish to accept the commission of going to the Council, Nicolas Midi was urged to take his place. (Arch. de la Seine-Inférieure, G. 2126).

PIERRE MAURICE

Pierre Maurice, Mauricii, received first rank among the candidates for the theological license in January, 1429, and the first rank among those taking the master's degree on May 23 of the same year. On January II, 1430, by letters of Henry VI, he was named to a canonicate in the church of Rouen which an Englishman named Heton resigned in his favor.

This notorious young theologian was already strongly tied to the English government, since he had obtained from Henry VI the benefice of Saint Sebastien de Préaux, in the diocese of Lisieux. He was curé of Yerville, and exchanged that benefice for that of the chapel of Saint Pierre in the cathedral of Rouen; he was curé of Paluel, and also chaplain of the chapel of Saint Mathurin at the cathedral. On June 5, 1430, he was designated by the canons to speak in their name at the ceremonies attending the entrance of Henry VI into the cathedral. He was elected to plead with the Cardinal of England [Winchester] in their name on behalf of Louis de Luxembourg's candidacy for the vacant archbishopric of Rouen (December 3). He was delegated in 1431 to accompany Pasquier de Vaux, ambassador of the English king to Rome, and he went to Bile in 1434 as ambassador of Henry VI, and the following year he went to England at the order of the Council. Named vicar-general on December 5, 1436, he died shortly afterwards. The thirty-two precious manuscripts that he owned were willed to the library of the Chapter of Rouen; among them were a Terence, a Virgil, a

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Vegetius, and a beautiful breviary which Louis de Luxembourg bought. This educated theologian was very active in the Trial and he displayed a zeal in trying to enlighten Jeanne which does not seem to have been very sincere.

GÉRARD FEUILLET

Gérard Feuillet, Feuleti de Salinis, Fuleti, Friar Minor, bachelor at Paris in 1425, was licentiate in theology in December, 1429, and received his master's degree on March 30, 1430. This professor of theology was one of the masters who worked upon the editing of the articles of accusation in the Trial and who went to Paris to report the conclusions to the Duke of Bedford and the University.

THOMAS DE COURCELLES

Thomas de Courcelles, born at Amiens in 1393, notorious University man, rector of the Faculty of Law in 1426, bachelor of theology of the University of Paris, taught theology there for many years; he died in 1469, dean of the Chapter of Nôtre Dame.

Rector of the University in 1430, he went in this capacity to the court of Rome; he was sent to Arras, where he spoke for peace in 1435, and "Proposed so many fine and solemn words that . it seemed as if an angel of God were speaking, and of those present many were moved to tears." At the Council of Bâle, Thomas de Courcelles shone as one of the lights of the French church (1433-1438). In 1433, in spite of the plague which infested Bâle, he remained at his post. He was delegated by the Council to contribute to the election of the next Pope. He was among those who declared the Pope was an apostate, in July, 1439; he was sent by the Fathers to the Diet of Mayence for the election of a new Pope; in December, at Thonon, Thomas de Courcelles made an address before the anti-pope Felix V which resulted in 1444 in a promotion of cardinals. In 144o he explained eloquently, before Charles VII at Bourges, the doctrine of the French church. On July 18, 1442, at Saint Magloire, he preached before the people the solemn sermon which put an end to the troubles of the University, announcing that the King "had liberally reconfirmed and given anew to our mother the University all her privileges." On July 17, 1447, he returned to the Chapter of Nôtre Dame at Paris where he was received as canon on September 11th There were already in this Chapter a Guillaume de Courcelles, named Chancellor in 1425 in place of Jean Gerson, and Jean de Courcelles,

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referred to as doctor of law and archdeacon of Josas through the King's favor, who had been canon since July 23, 1446; he was a brother of Thomas. In August, 1447, Thomas de Courcelles was at Lyons among the ambassadors who were negotiating for the renunciation of Amadeus, Duke of Savoy. In a letter of April 8, 1448, Gerard Machet, confessor of Charles VII, states that Thomas de Courcelles was entrusted with the Pope's verbal commissions. Courcelles went to Rome to be near Nicolas V and took the title of archdeacon of the Pope. In 1458 he is called dean of Nôtre Dame. In 145o he spoke against the founding of a university at Caen. He was at that time in possession of an accumulation of benefices.

The rôle that he enjoyed in the Trial, where he gave a judgment favorable to torturing Jeanne, is well known. This young prelate with a significant, promised future, this cleric "very solemn and excellent," enjoyed the full confidence of Pierre Cauchon, who later put him in charge of translating the minutes of the Trial into Latin. Questioned in 1456 at the Rehabilitation proceedings, this remarkable doctor, whose eloquence was boasted about by his contemporaries and remarked on his tombstone, lost his memory! Thomas de Courcelles was doubtless embarrassed by the Trial, and afterwards, during the definitive editing of that document, he suppressed his name wherever it had figured in the French minutes. He tried to give the impression that he had taken little part in the Trial, which was false. But he was considerably less of a fanatic than Pierre Cauchon and Guillaume Erart.

MARTIN LAVENU

Martin Lavenu, or Ladvenu, Dominican, from the Jacobin monastery at Rouen, who sought to enlighten Jeanne, was her confessor, and her spiritual adviser in prison. Very little is known about Martin Ladvenu. He was in Paris at the time of the trial of Gilles Deschamps, one of Jeanne's judges. The following year at Neufchatel he lectured a sorceress, Jeanne Vaneril, suspect in matters of faith. He was described, in 1452, at the time of the preliminary process of the Rehabilitation, as a friar of the monastery of the Jacobins at Rouen, "especial confessor and adviser of the maid Jeanne in her last days."

JEAN DE CHATILLON

Jean de Châtillon, de Castellione, de Castilliono, de Chasteillon, and better, Jean Hulot de Châtillon, (he is so designated in his opinion concerning

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Jeanne), was archdeacon of Evreux, and later canon. He is not to be confused with the Italian Jean de Castiglione who became Bishop of Coutances in 1444

He had long been at the University; in 1403, he was said to be master of arts and bachelor of theology, and he must have been the comrade of Pierre Cauchon and Jean Beaupère at Paris. In 1418 he took part in the council which ended the charter of liberties of the French church. He was teaching at the University of Paris on the Faculty of Theology in 1428, at the same time as Pierre de Dyerée, Guillaume Erart, and Guillaume. Adelie. He was already living at Rouen and was a doctor of theology before the Trial, and enjoyed some influence with members of the English government. In 1433 he received a canonicate at the cathedral, vacant upon the death of Couppequesne, by virtue of letters of the King. In 1437 he became as well archdeacon of Vexin-Normand. It is not known what relationship he was to Guillaume, Lord of Châtillon, who is said to have conquered Château Thierry for the English king in August, 1426.

It is not very probable that he was threatened by Pierre Cauchon and evicted from sessions of the Trial as Jean Massieu reported at the Rehabilitation proceedings. Very zealous in the Trial, he seems to have contented himself with disapproving of certain captious questions put to the accused. It was he who was in charge of admonishing the Maid on May 2nd.

JEAN DE NIBAT

Jean de Nibat, Friar Minor, licentiate in theology in 1424, was maître regent at Paris from 1426 on. He was a zealous judge at the Trial, and accepted, with the doctors of Paris, the soundness of the Twelve Articles.

JACQUES GUESDON

Jacques Guesdon, Friar Minor, was the brother guardian of the monastery at Rouen in 1427. He explained to the Pope that after having been excommunicated by Jean Guesdon, provincial of the order in France, he had studied theology at Paris for eight years, and that the provincial chapter had designated him to "read the Bible." It is, therefore, not very likely that he could have been master of theology by 1431, at least at the University of Paris. This Cordelier was very active at the Trial. It is not known what relationship he bore to Laurent Guesdon, lieutenant-general to Raoul Bouteiller, Bailly of Rouen at that time, and later lieutenant-general to the Bailly of Gisors.

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JEAN LE FEVRE

Jean Le Fèvre, Fabri, was a hermit of Saint Augustin. On January 23, 1414, he was commissioned, with Jean Fouquerel, to correct the psalters. He was present at the reception of Pierre Cauchon as Bishop of Beauvais. Licentiate in theology on March 13, 1426, and master on October 15, he was teaching at Paris at the same time as Erard Emengart, Jean Beaupère Nicolas Midi, and Jacques de Touraine. He was pénitencier of the church of Rouen under Monsignor de Luxembourg and he was authorized, as a notable person, to have a key to the library of the Chapter and to work there. He was named Bishop of Demetriade on January 13, 1451, and died at Rouen in 1463

He appears to have enjoyed a rather considerable reputation as a preacher, and he preached notably against the French on the occasion of the sieges of Meaux and Pontoise. It was he who performed the mass in the choir of Nôtre Dame at the time of the death of Cardinal de Luxembourg.

Le Fèvre was one of the most diligent judges at the Trial; he testified in a somewhat embarrassed fashion at the inquiry relative to the Rehabilitation; but it is proved that he showed some zeal in her favor, and that he sat very regularly as a subdelegated judge at the Rehabilitation proceedings.

DU QUESNAY

Du Quesnay, de Quesneio, given as Maurice Duchesne, de Quercu, in the French Minutes of the Trial.

We find a Jean de Quesneio, cursor in theology in 1426, at the same time as Guillaume Erard, licentiate in theology in 1429. He is said to be master of theology on March 30, 1430, and sat at the trial of Friar Minor Jean Sarrasin beside Jean Beaupère Martin Billorin, Guillaume Erard, all judges of the Maid, and he is often mentioned in the petitions of the Vatican. In the month of September, 143o, he figures among the master regents of the University of Paris. We find him later as abbot of Bec-Hellouin, and canon of La Saussaye in the diocese of Evreux, and then, in 1434, among the members of the Council of Bâle. But, if this is the Du Quesnay in question, it does not explain the name Maurice which is given him in the French minutes, or the form de Quercu, for his surname.

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GUILLAUME LE BOUCHER

Guillaume Le Boucher, Boucherii, Carmelite, was made a licentiate in theology at the University of Paris in December, 1413; he is referred to as doctor at the time of the Trial. He was then living in his house at Rouen, and had lived there since 1422. Guillaume Le Boucher was very diligent at the Trial and he judged Jeanne to be an apostate and guilty of heresy. He pretended to depend on the authority of Gilles de Duremort, Abbot of Fécamp.

PIERRE HOUDENC

Pierre Houdenc, or as frequently written de Houdenc, Carmelite, became a licentiate in theology at the University of Paris in March, 1424, and received his master's degree on the 21st of November. He was thus a comrade of Jean de Nibat and Nicolas Midi, who obtained their licentiates at the same time as he. In 1431 he was prior of the Carmelite order at Rouen, and was very closely linked to the Duke of Bedford who passed for the founder of the Carmelite house and was at all events its benefactor. Pierre de Houdenc could not refuse anything to one from whom he accepted donations.

It is certain that Pierre de Houdenc was one of the most diligent judges at the Trial, and was very zealous in pursuing the destruction of the Maid.

RICHARD PRATY

Richard Praty, an Englishman, was mentioned as among the religious who tried between the months of July and November, 1430, at Rouen the case of Jean Seguent in matters of faith. He was dean of the royal chapel and chancellor of the church at Salisbury, and was named Bishop of Chichester by Eugene IV, on April 21, 1438. He died sometime before September 12, 1445 (Calendar of Patent Rolls . Henry VI, IF).

GUILLAUME DE CONTI

Guillaume de Conti, Benedictine, was provost of Cérisy, and abbot of Saint Pierre de Lagny in 1423, and abbot of Sainte Catherine du Mont at Rouen in 1429. Licentiate in law in 1422, he was a University delegate to the Council in 1423; master of arts in 1424, he taught at Paris after that time. He was dean of the Faculty of Law from November, 1431, until May, 1432, when he left to attend the Council of

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Bâle. In 1434, the University delegated him, with Thomas de Courcelles, to go to Arras to treat for peace. In 1436, in April, he was designated as ambassador of the University to congratulate Charles VII on the occasion of the taking of Paris. Guillaume de Conti died in 145:z, after swearing allegiance to Charles VII.

GUILLAUME BONNEL

Guillaume Bonnel, Benedictine, of the diocese of Lisieux, was abbot of Cormeilles after 1408. He studied law in Paris under Jean, abbot of Saint Taurin, from 1426 to 1428, when he received his doctorate. On and after November 6, 1432, he was dean of the Faculty of Law. He swore allegiance to Henry V in 1418, and died in 1437,

JEAN GARIN

Jean Garin, Guarin, and also spelled Guerin, in Latin written both Garini and Guerini, was a descendant of an ancient law family. Doctor of law in 1415, dean of the Faculty of Law from January, 1419, to November 1422, named by Henry VI to a canonial prebend in the church at Rouen, he was, in 1423 and 1430, a deputy to the Estates of Normandy. He was in charge of installing the library of the Chapter at Rouen. Jean Garin exercised the functions of treasurer of the archbishopric from 1429, and he is described also as archdeacon of Veulguessin le François. He died at Bâle in 1433

Naturally the opinion of this lawyer conformed to the opinion of the Faculty of Law. In the final sentence Jean Garin followed the opinion of the Abbot of Fécamp, Gilles de Duremort.

RICHARD DE GROUCHET

Richard de Grouchet, master of arts, is referred to in a register of the University in 1403. He taught grammar at Rouen. Bachelor of theology, he preached in the cathedral in 1439 and obtained by favor of the Chapter one of the keys to the library. He was one of those designated by the Chapter to make up the embassy to Bâle.

Very diligent in the Trial, Richard de Grouchet was cited as a witness at the time of the Rehabilitation. He retracted his opinion, and insisted emphatically upon the constraint that Pierre Cauchon put upon the judges. He must have been about seventy at that time.

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PIERRE MINIER

Pierre Minier, or Le Minier, Minerii, was master of arts, in his fifth year in theological studies in 1403. He is not to be confused with the Carmelite Pierre Meinier, bachelor of theology at Paris in 1432. He must have died in 1432 or 1433. In 1432 we find an approval of the will of Pierre Minier, cure of Boos.

A very diligent witness at the Trial, upon the testimony of Houppeville, his opinion concerning Jeanne was not pleasing to Cauchon, who would not admit him to the editing of the Trial record. His opinion was, however, included.

RAOUL LE SAUVAGE

Raoul Le Sauvage, Silvestris, Dominican, was licentiate in theology in 1429 and master in November, 1431. He appears to have had a great reputation as a preacher at Rouen where he preached many sermons between 1427 and 1447

Jean Marcel, in the Procès de Réhabilitation, refers to him as Jean but in the Trial Record he is named Raoul in every instance (except in the session of April 12) with the title of bachelor of theology and once as master. A Radulphus Silvestris, priest of the diocese of Rouen, was described in 1403 as having been a master of arts for fifteen years, a bachelor of law, and student in theology at the same time as Erard Emengart, Guillaume de Baudribosc, André Marguerie, Jean Garin and Guillaume Desjardins.

DENIS GASTINEL

Denis Gastinel, licentiate in canon law at Paris in 1418, had studied under another of Jeanne's judges, Nicolas Le Roux, Abbot of La Croix Saint Leufroy. He was present in 1419 at the oath of allegiance made by the abbot of Jumièges to King Henry VI. He was provided with numerous benefices by the conquering king; he became curé of Troismonts in 1420, canon of Nôtre Dame de la Ronde in 1421, and canon of the cathedral of Rouen in 1422. He was dean of Andely in 1423, curé of Neville by favor of an English knight, Walter Hungerford, in 1427, and was vicar-general during the vacancy of the archiepiscopal see. He took part in the Estates convoked by Bedford at Lisieux in 1436. He died on December 13, 1440, leaving among the executors of his will his friend Jean Caval.

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He was a man entirely devoted to the English in the Chapter of Rouen, which he remembered in his will. Bedford recompensed him for his zeal by naming him, in 1424, a member of the royal council, with a salary of a hundred livres a year. His judgment in the matter of the Maid was very vigorous; at the time of the definitive sentence, he displayed the same spirit and screened himself behind the opinion of the Abbot of Fécamp, Gilles de Duremort.

JEAN LE DOULX

Jean Le Doulx, Weis, is referred to as master of arts in 14T2; he was a canon of Rouen. In a petition of 1427 he is described as a licentiate in both civil and canon law, and rector of the parish church of Saint Martin du Pont of Rouen, and intimate friend of Cardinal de la Rochetaillée Promoter from 1422 on, and judge of Saint Cande le Vieux in 1423. He was named, in 1432, the lawyer pensionné of the Chapter.

JEAN BASSET

Jean Basset, Basseti, was born in 1381 in the diocese of Coutances, was master of arts in 1403, and licentiate in law at Paris in 1418. He early allied himself with the English government. Presented by Henry V with the benefice of Tirepié in the diocese of Avranches in 142o, and canon of the church of Mantes in 142T, he obtained in that year after his oath of allegiance, the restitution of the revenues of his benefice of Gambernon. He was a man of considerable importance at that time, for he was then conservator of the privileges of the University of Paris (he carried the register of examinations to the court of Rome in 141q) and he obtained in 1423 the confirmation of the privileges of that illustrious body from Bedford (in 1420 he had been sent to appeal to the King of England and the Duke of Burgundy on the same mission). On March 8, 1420, Jean Basset obtained a canonical prebend in the church of Rouen; he was ecclesiastical judge during the vacancy of the archbishopric, and then treasurer of the diocese, (1436) precentor of, the cathedral in 1445, vicar-general in 1451, and provided with a great many benefices, among them a canonicate at Avranches in 1429. Jean Basset died at Rouen on March 3, 1454. He had asked to be buried at the entrance of the choir in Nôtre Dame.

Basset's judgment concerning Jeanne was at the same time prudent and submissive. But he was not, as Quicherat says, imprisoned for it. It was fine of him, however, to have freed from the prison at Rouen, as

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ecclesiastical judge, clerics who had been imprisoned by the English government for the crime of high treason. A Nicolas Basset is referred to as constable of the castle of Rouen in 1431. 1 do not know what connection he may have had with this Jean Basset.

JEAN BROUILLOT

Jean Brouillot, or Bruillot, Brulloti, was a priest of the diocese of Bayeux, master of arts and licentiate in law in 1403; he is referred to in 1408 as procureur of the University of Paris. In 14io Brouillot was sent, with Pierre Cauchon, in an embassy to the duc de Berry to seek for peace; in May, 1411, to the Duke of Burgundy to get his support of Jean Richard, the abbot of Saint Ouen whom Jean XXIII disappointed. In 1418 Bruillot is described as councilor of Parlement in the Chambre des Enquêtes, and cure of Saint Nicolas de Tailles in the diocese of Rouen. He received the chantry of Rouen in 1422, vacant during the absence of Jean de Noris, who remained loyal to the French. He was sent as a deputy at various times to the Estates of Normandy, was vicar-general of the archbishopric, and was certainly very agreeable to the Duke of Bedford, since he was among those named by the Chapter to explain to the regent the reasons for not sacrificing the interests of the church of Rouen to those of the Carmelites. Bruillot died about the 20th of December, 1435, leaving Nicolas de Venderès for executor of his will. Jean Bruillot's opinion concerning Jeanne tallied completely with that of the masters of theology.

AUBERT MOREL

Aubert Morel, Morelli, became licentiate in law at Paris in 1428, where he had studied under Guillaume de Conti, another of Jeanne's judges. He enjoyed, after 1419, various chaplaincies of the cathedral of Rouen, and he was early allied with the English government, since he obtained from Henry V, in 1420, the benefice of Theuville aux Maillots, and, contrary to the pretentions of Richard de Saulx, the vicarship of Pontoise from 1423 to 1425. He was a hard man, and gave it as his opinion that Jeanne should be subjected to torture.

JEAN COLOMBEL

Jean Colombel, Columbelli, a cleric of Lisieux, was bachelor of arts in 1403, Of law in 1415, and figured in 1420 among the licentiates at

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Paris where he had for teacher another of Jeanne's judges, Jean Garin, dean of the Faculty of Law.

Promoter of the diocese at Rouen in 1423 and 1424, he denounced those who had seized the revenues of the archbishopric during the vacancy of the See, proclaiming loudly words that wounded various canons; and he was imprisoned for this. Jean Colombel was promoter for the ecclesiastical court of Rouen from 1423 to 1429. He was curé of Valliquierville in 1429 and he exchanged this benefice for that of Saint Vivien of Rouen which was held at that time by Jean Secart, licentiate in law, one of those present at the Trial. Colombel must have died intestate on November 12, 1437. He was then described as canon and scholastic of Lisieux, a title which he obtained, presumably, from Pierre Cauchon.

In his final judgment concerning Jeanne, Jean Colombel decided as did the Abbot of Fécamp, Gilles de Duremort.

LAURENT Du BOSC

Laurent Du Busc, a cleric of Rouen, was bachelor of law in 1403 at Paris, and licentiate in 1420. He is referred to at Rouen as lawyer of the church court in 1423, 1439 and 1440. We find, in 1423 a Pierre Dubust, keeper of the seal of the vicomte de Rouen; a Jean de Busco, student at the Faculty of Theology at Paris in 1432; in 1447 a Guillaume du Busc was executor of high justice of Lisieux. I do not know what relationship, if any, there was among these people.

RAOUL ANGUY

Raoul Anguy, lawyer of the church court, was master of arts, licentiate in law on March 14, 143o, and was received as canon of Rouen in 1435. He died before July 4, 1442. On May 15, 1433, Raoul Anguy was named by Edmund Beaufort, comte de Mortain, as auditor of his accounts. On October 26, 1436, he is cited as master of arts, having power of purveyor of the offices of the comte de Mortain.

ANDRÉ MARGUERIE

André Marguerie, master of arts in 1403 at Paris, bachelor of law, was vicar-general and counselor of Archbishop Louis d'Harcourt in 1409, and was confirmed as archdeacon of Petit Caux by Henry V in 1421. He returned at that time from the Council of Constance, and affirmed that he had never adhered to the Armagnac party or that of

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the Dauphin. A member of the council of the King during the English domination, he is cited as counselor of the King in 1422 and received 30 livres "to make a certain trip from Rouen to Vernon, on behalf of the said lord," (Bedford). He went as a deputy to the Estates of Normandy in 1423, to the provincial council at Rouen in 1445, was holder of the benefice of Drosay, and at the same time was treasurer of the Chapter of Rouen, and undertook the pilgrimage to Jerusalem between 1442 and 1443, and asked, to this end, testimonial letters de vita et moribus. André Marguerie died at Rouen February 12, 1465. His will shows that he was rich and beneficent. André Marguerie's conduct at the Trial was prudent and he even at times let himself appear kindly disposed. He testified in a rather vague way at the Rehabilitation.

JEAN ALESPÉE

Jean Alespée, Ad Ensem, born in 1357, the son of Pierre Alespée, was licentiate in civil law, and bachelor of canon law at Paris, and canon of Rouen from 1412. He was treasurer of the diocese under Archbishop Louis d'Harcourt (1412-1413), vicar-general of that prelate, with his intimate friend Nicolas de Venderès (1415-1422), and was allied with the English party. By letter of nomination of Henry V he was concurrently canon of Evreux, Bayeux, of the collegiate church of Andely, and curé of Hautot le Vatois. He died at Rouen, at the home of Jean Marcel, on August 16, 1434, in his seventy-seventh year, after having been ill for some time at the home of Pierre Miget, prior of Longueville. Jean Alespée was a rich man and a lover of fine books. His confrères put him in charge, in 1424, Of supervising the construction of the library of the cathedral. Jean Alespée was related to the Estouteville and Mallet de Graville families. He was also a friend of Nicolas de Venderès who made an inventory of his possessions.

Jean Alespée, appears especially to have been a timid man; he always took refuge behind the opinions of his teachers and lords, the theologians. Jean Riquier, witness at the Rehabilitation, reported that Alespée wept freely at the burning of Jeanne and that he said publicly: "I wish that my soul were where I believe the soul of this girt is."

GEOFFROY Du CROTAY

Geoffroy Du Crotay is not to be found among the members of the University of Paris. He is first to be met at the reinstatement of a prisoner taken from the prisons of the cathedral of Rouen. He is cited

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as lawyer pensionné of the Chapter in 1435, and he was still living in 1462.

Geoffroy du Crotay and his colleague, Le Doulx, gave it as their opinion in the session of March 27, 1431, that Jeanne ought to have at least three days' delay before being excommunicated, but when they deliberated with the other lawyers of the court on her assertions, they fell back upon the judgment of the Parisian theologians.

GILLES DESCHAMPS

Gilles Deschamps, licentiate in civil law, came from an old and rich family of Rouen. His uncle was Gilles Deschamps, doctor of theology, Bishop of Coutances and Cardinal, who died on March 15, 1413, a personage highly praised for his "very eminent knowledge," and who is cited as almoner of Charles VI in the Chronique du Religieux de Saint Denys.

The younger Gilles was born at Rouen, and had studied at Paris in 1414; he was very young when provided with a benefice as canon of Coutances, certainly thanks to the patronage of his uncle, bishop of that city. Almoner of King Charles VI in 1415, he exchanged the benefice of the chapel of Saint Thomas of the Louvre for the chancellery of the church of Rouen where he was received in 1420. The same year he exchanged the benefice of Pirou in the diocese of Coutances for a canonicate in the cathedral of Rouen. He was in turn chancellor of Nôtre Dame of Rouen, treasurer of the archbishopric, vicar-general, and deputy to the royal council of the states, which was held at Paris. He was named dean in 1435 and in 1437 we see him with Guillaume Erart, Nicolas de Venderès and André Marguerie entrusted by the Fathers of the Council to publish the indulgences accorded on the occasion of the reunion of the Greeks with the Catholic Church. Gilles Deschamps was prosecuted in matters of faith, in 1438, on the complaint of the promoter; he died in prison before the end of his trial.

We do not know the motive for this prosecution, which was vigorous; his brothers, Robert and Jean Deschamps, requested the Archbishop of Rouen for permission to bury him in holy ground and the permission was granted. He had for judges Pasquier de Vaux, Bishop of Meaux, with whom he had lively quarrels at the time of his promotion to dean, in 1435, and Brother Martin Lavenu. In the long decision which he wrote concerning Jeanne, Gilles Deschamps insisted especially upon the fact of her insubmission; for the rest, he entrenched himself in the

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opinions of the faculties of Law and Theology. Deschamps was very fond of the Chapter of Nôtre Dame of Rouen, and he presented the boys of the choir, whom he directed for many years, with caps of vermilion wool, "to escape the coldness of winter." In 1423 he directed the classifying of the archives of the Chapter, and on November 2, 1438, although he had been accused in matters of faith, the Chapter authorized his burial in the chapel of Nôtre Dame.

JOHN GREY

John Grey (?) most often written Jean Gris. Is this the same person as "John Grey, Knight, capitaine of Yomins" that one finds in 1435 in the retinue of the Duke of Bedford? or Sir John Gray? A Jehan Grey is remitted his possessions by the King of England in 1419, October 3 (Bibl. Nat. ms. fr. 26043); one finds a Jean de Grey, captain of Argentan for King Henry in 1420 (Bibl. Nat. ms. fr. 26043)

A Jean Gray, Knight, captain of Exmes (1430?) gave a receipt for wages to P. Baille, receiver-general of Normandy.

JOHN BERWOIT

John Berwoit, or Barow, was Jeanne's guard. Perhaps this is the same person referred to later on in the definitive edition as Johannes Baroust, commissioned with John Grey to guard Jeanne's cell (session of March 13). William Talbot was also one of her guards.

JEAN PINCHON

Jean Pinchon was licentiate in canon law at Paris before 1414, archdeacon of Josas in 1418, and at Melun; he took possession in 142, of a canonicate at Rouen that he had obtained about 144; on this occasion he made his submission to Henry V. We note that he took the title of scribe and abréviateur of apostolic letters. On November 9, 1422, he challenged letters of appeal to the Pontiff concerning a dispute in which he felt himself to be wronged, and he fought for the nomination of Jean de la Rochetaillée as Archbishop of Rouen; when a majority was obtained by Nicolas de Venderès, he demanded the nomination of new officers for the archbishopric during the vacancy of the See, those who had been named seeming suspect to him. He was a deputy to the Council in 1424, and was named, December 3, 1429, vicar-general during the vacancy of the See. This battling cleric, who had to reconcile himself with his confrère, Jean de Besançon, against whom he had spoken injuriously,

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enjoyed the full confidence of the English. Bedford entrusted him with presenting to the Chapter the charter by which the English duke made himself the second founder of the Carmelites at Rouen (January 9, 1431). Jean Pinchon coveted also the canonicates of Tournai and Evreux; he must have died at Paris before June 25, 1438. He was an assiduous judge at the Trial, and judged in accordance with the theologians of Paris and referred himself to the authority of Guillaume Le Boucher.

JEAN MORET

Jean Moret, Benedictine, was a licentiate in both laws, and prior of the small abbey of Préaux in the diocese of Lisieux, and abbot from November 27, 1420. Early identified with the English cause, Jean Moret made oath and a census of his possessions to King Henry V in 1420. Halle, captain of "brigands," directed an expedition against the abbey of Préaux in 1426. Jean Moret was dead by September 11, 1432.

GUILLAUME DESJARDINS

Guillaume Desjardins or Desgardins, de Gardinis, or Jardinis, doctor of medicine, was born about 1370 at Caudebec in Caux. He appears in 1403 as priest of the diocese of Rouen, master of arts, and student in medicine. In 1408 he had first ranking as licentiate in medicine, and the following month was numbered among the master regents of that faculty. From November, 1412, to November, 1413, Desjardins did not teach at Paris, but he took up his courses again at the reopening of the school year in 1414. On December 6, 1418, the Faculty considered him as a regent, although he was ill in Rouen, which was then besieged, and had not been able to return to his post. Desjardins was never to return to Paris. He was personat of Mireville in 1415, and was provided by authority of Henry V with the benefice as curé of Saint Laurent de Bacquepits in the diocese of Evreux, which he exchanged for the benefice of Saint Pierre de Neufmarche. He was undoubtedly allied from that time with the English party, for he was named, in succession, to two canonicates in 1421, one at Bayeaux, and the other in the church at Rouen where his brother, Robert Desjardins, died in the early part of August, 1438.

He was a rich man, having at Sahurs a rather important fief, and possessing beautiful books. Guillaume Desjardins practiced medicine at Rouen and passed for a liberal. He protected at Paris the students of

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his Nation, contributing towards the acquisition of a building in which they could pursue their studies. He was at Rouen one of the benefactors of the Hôtel Dieu de la Madeleine.

We know that he visited Jeanne in prison, on the orders of the Earl of Warwick, when the English were afraid she would die a natural death. Guillaume Desjardins found that she had a fever; with his colleague and confrère, Guillaume de la Chambre, he prescribed that she be bled. His opinion at the Trial followed that of the Abbot of Fécamp, Gilles de Duremort.

ROBERT MORELLET

Robert Morellet, Moreleti, Morelli, was a master of arts at Paris. In a petition of 1442 he is described as canon and chancellor of the church at Rouen. We learn from a decree in council of Henry VI that the archbishop was allowed to proceed against him through his deputy judge. He was at that time said to be the contractor of the prebend of Saint Éloi, and that to the great scandal of his parishioners he had thrown to the ground a tablet on which the treasurers of the parish had exposed wax candles for sale. We find later that on November 14, 1441, he was tried in matters of faith for having blasphemed the name of God. But Jean Le Maistre, vicar-general of the Inquisitor, intervened on his behalf and he was reëstablished in reputation. On October 31, 1442, the formula of excommunication which attainted him was affixed to the cathedral door "with an epitaph in great letters." A Robert Morelet, priest, is mentioned as patron of the church of Canouville.

JEAN LE Roy

Jean Le Roy, Regis, was a master of arts at Paris in 1403, a student in his fourth year under the Faculty of Law in 1416, and priest in the diocese of Meaux. An account of "Johannes Regis," canon of the church of Rouen, called also master of wills, was made for 1433-1434, and 1434-1435. A Jean Le Roy, canon, promoter of Rouen, curé of Londinières and later of Bourdainville, 1429-1430, is described as promoter during the vacancy of the See on December 13, 1429. He died January 25, 1460.

ERARD EMENGART

Erard Emengart, originally from the diocese of Rouen, was master of arts and bachelor of theology in 1403; licentiate in 1410, he figured for many years among the regents of the Faculty of Theology. In February,

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1414, he was among the doctors who demanded that the affair of Jean Petit be referred to the Pope. In September, 1431, he was still teaching at Paris.

JOHN CARPENTER

John Carpenter, Carpentarii, a clerk of the King, is described as a master of theology. In 1429 he was rector of the parish church of Beaconsfield in the diocese of Lincoln; in 1435 he was the guardian of Saint Anthony's hospital in London.

DENIS DE SABREVOIS

Denis de Sabrevois, sometimes written Sabrevays and Sabreuvras, studied at Paris. He received his bachelor's degree in theology in 1422, at the same time as Guillaume Adelie. He was a licentiate in theology in 1426 and Jean Le Fèvre and Jean Gravestain were classmates. He is referred to as master, on March 30, 1430, and he taught theology with Jean Beaupère, Erard Emengart, Jacques de Touraine, Nicolas Midi, and Guillaume Adelie. On December 23, 1451, at Bâle, Denis de Sabrevois was entrusted with receiving the papal nuncio. In October, 1437, the Faculty named him their ambassador to the Council and charged him to obtain from the Council a ruling that no one could obtain the office of chancellor of Nôtre Dame unless he were master of theology. In 1438, when arrested near Bâle upon orders of Eugene IV, Denis de Sabrevois was freed thanks to the intervention of Albert, Duke of Austria, the son-in-law of Emperor Sigismund. That same year he wrote to the Fathers of the Council that King Charles VII would fight to the death for the defence of the authority of the Council - which was certainly an exaggeration. With Thomas de Courcelles, Denis de Sabrevois remained at Bâle, in spite of the plague. He was there again in November, 1439. The following year in the general assembly of the University, he played an important rôle; and the French government, represented by the chancellor and provost, had to resign itself to seeing the University take the part of Felix V. In 1444, Denis de Sabrevois argued again in favor of the Council. He figured among the master regents of the University of the year 1452, and he is described as dean of the Faculty from 1456 to 1472.

GUILLAUME DE BAUDRIBOSC

Guillaume de Baudribosc, originally of Rouen, was master of arts and bachelor of theology in 1403, and canon of the cathedral of Rouen

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in 1431. He was keeper of the seal of the church court in 1422, and was in charge of the archives of the Chapter. He was pénitencier of the Chapter in 1424, and took the inventory of goods of the church houses, with the chancellor, Gilles Deschamps, in 1425. He was exempted by his confrères from coming to church, in 1439, because of his age and infirmities. He died about the fifteenth of January, 1447, in his house in the rue aux Oues. We may assume that Baudribosc was educated, for he willed three books to the library of the cathedral; he was eloquent, for he was appointed by the Chapter to felicitate the Duke of Bedford upon the occasion of his joyous entry into Rouen in 1424, and to ask justice from him-in very generous terms. But he was certainly very strongly attached to the English party. His niece, who was his heiress, was married to an Englishman.

Guillaume de Baudribosc, a very diligent judge at the Trial, hid behind the authority of the Abbot of Fécamp, when he had to make his decision.

NICOLAS LEMIRE

Nicolas Lemire, Medici, is referred to in the Trial Record both as bachelor of theology, and as master.

Denifle and Chatelain have proposed the correction from Nicolaus to Petrus. We find at the University of Paris a Petrus Medici, cleric of Evreux, master of arts in 1403, licentiate in theology in 1428, master in the same year. This priest of the diocese of Evreux was desirous of obtaining a vicariate, in 1425, in the Evreux church. But it is wise to be prudent in such corrections, and we must admit that Thomas de Courcelles must have known his colleagues rather well.

RICHARD LE GAGNEUX

Richard Le Gagneux, Lucratoris, originally of Coutances, is referred to in the Trial Record as bachelor of theology. He is only to be found as master of arts and bachelor of law at Paris, and licentiate in canon law on December 3, 1436.

JEAN DUVAL

Jean Duval, de Valle, priest of the diocese of Rouen, was a master of arts at Paris in 1403. Later he was a student of theology under the Abbot of Fécamp; he asked for a canonicate at Meaux in 1422, and in 1425 at the church of Estrain in the diocese of Rouen. In 1439 he is

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referred to as a master of theology and took part in the election of the antipope at Bâle.

GUILLAUME LE MESLE

Guillaume Le Mesle, Benedictine, taught canon law at Paris in 1418, He was abbot of Saint Catherine at Rouen, and in 1428 was abbot of Saint Ouen. He took the oath of loyalty at the church of Rouen in November of that year. A Guillaume Le Mesle, in 1434, is described as special lieutenant of the Bailly of Evreux.

JEAN LABBÉ

Jean Labbé, Benedictine, was abbot of Saint Georges de Boscherville from November 11, 1417, according to Gallia Christina, volume XI. His temporal possessions having been seized by the English, he sought for restitution at the court of Rome. He abdicated in 1444 without having obtained justice. He died the following year and was interred in the Chapel of the Virgin.

GUILLAUME LE BOURG

Guillaume Le Bourg, canon régulier, was prior of Saint Lô at Rouen after the death of Guillaume Le Couette (1411). In 1442 the judge of the ecclesiastical court of Rouen made him an apology for having, in the suit over the abbey of Saint Ouen, brought in a secular judge. He died in February, 1456. Pierre Cauchon, delegated by Martin V to preside over the raising of the tithes accorded to Henry VI, had recourse to this prelate as a commissioner.

THE PRIOR OF SIGY

The prior of Sigy (Sagy, it is written in the Trial Record), near Neufchatel, was, according to Quicherat, Friar Pierre de la Crique, a Benedictine who was a licentiate in law at Paris in 1424. If Sagy is the monastery in question, the prior was probably Georges Martel, who is to be encountered in a trial of 1432.

JEAN DUCHEMIN

Jean Duchemin or Du Quemin, de Quemenio, was a licentiate in law at Paris in March, 1428. He studied under Thomas Fiesvet, one of Jeanne's judges, and was a friend of Jean Jolivet. He was a lawyer at the court of Rouen, and in 1432 figures as lawyer in the church court

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at Rouen at a trial. Jean Duchemin was designated by the Chapter to assist at the election of an archbishop in 1436. We find, in 1428, a Jacques Duchemin commissioned by the vicomte du Pont de Larche to examine Pierre Le Bigordoys, "traitor, thief and enemy of the King."

RICHARD DES SAULX

Richard Des Saulx, de Salicibus, is described in a list of 1403 as a priest of Rouen, master of arts and bachelor of law. In 1414 he is described at Rouen as jurisperitus, advocatus curie officialis. In 1423 the canons sentenced him to do penance for a filthy word spoken while he was pleading against Canon Jean de La Porte. We note that in 1435 he was dismissed by decision of the church court of Rouen from his pretensions to the benefice of Theuville aux Maillots, which Henry VI had given to Aubert Morel in 1419,

NICOLAS MAULIN

Nicolas or Nicole Maulin was a licentiate in law and is said to be canon of Nôtre Dame de la Ronde at Rouen in 1432. He was chaplain of the chapel of Saint Honoré in the Église des Filles Dieu in 1438. Parisian documents tell us nothing concerning him.

PIERRE CAREL

Pierre Carel, sometimes written Carré, Carelli, is styled in a petition as "master of arts from Paris, cleric of Lisieux." He is referred to in 1432 in a deed of the Saint Cande le Vieux at Rouen. A person named Pierre Quarré, a lawyer in the church court, is mentioned in a trial of 1432. A Guillaume Carrel was a canon of Rouen.

BUREAU DE CORMEILLES

Bureau de Cormeilles, Burellus de Cormeliis, licentiate in civil law, seems very likely to have been the scholar of the University of Orléans who is described in 1394 as "Burellus de Cormeilles, clericus Rothomagensis, licenciatus in legibus, Franciae regine secretarius," and who coveted a canonicate in the church of Avranches. Between 1404 and 1420 Bureau held the benefice of Touffreville La Corbeline. In 1426 he gave a receipt to the vicomte de Rouen for 20 s.t. for rent owed to the church of Saint Michel.

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NICOLAS DE FOVILLE

Nicolas de Foville, de Fovilla, must have been the one who is referred to as master of arts in 1435- We find a Nicolas de Foville, cure of Ecrainville, being tried before the church court of Rouen in 1451 in a dispute about the tithes of his parish.

GIOVANNI DA FANO

Giovanni da Fano (not de Favo) was an Italian of La Marche, a Friar Minor, described inexactly as master of theology. In 1428-29 this personage was only sententiarius and did not become a licentiate until 1433. He was regent that same year; one finds him in the same office in Paris in September, 1435.

JEAN LE VAUTIER Jean, (not Nicolas) Le Vautier was a bachelor of theology and hermit of Saint Augustine, and a sententiarius at Paris in 1431.

NICOLAS CAVAL

Nicolas Caval, born about 1390, was master of arts and bachelor of law in 1403, and licentiate in 1428. He obtained from Henry V on January 16, 1421, a canonicate in the church at Mortain; he was received the following year as canon of the cathedral of Rouen in the place of Robert de Faubusson, who had remained faithful to France. He was living in Rouen before this date, and was a deputy to the Estates at Paris in 1424- In 1428 he was described as Dean of Nôtre Dame of Andely. He was named keeper of the seal of the church court in 1443, was curé of Critot and chaplain of the chapel of Nôtre Dame aux Béguines at Rouen. Nicolas Caval died a few days before August 27,1457

He was, it would seem, a learned man, and a lover of books. He was devoted to Pierre Cauchon, and was the executor of his will. It was he who settled the expenses for the procession that followed the body of Pierre Cauchon from the church of Saint Cande to the Seine, in prayer, and he accompanied until the end the body of his friend. He was also a friend of Zano de Castiglione, the bishop of Lisieux who was so harsh in his judgment of Jeanne. Caval's opinion was in accordance with that of the theologians and the authority of the Abbot of Fécamp, Gilles de Duremort. When called to the Rehabilitation proceedings, in 1452,

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Nicolas Caval pretended, which was not true, that he had only heard Jeanne a single time. He was a lamentable witness, who remembered nothing, saying for example "that he certainly believed that the English didn't bear any love towards Jeanne," that he "knew very well that she had been burnt, but whether it was justly or unjustly he would have to refer to the law and the trial."

PHILIPPE LE MARÉCHAL

Philippe Le Maréchal or Marechal, Marescalli, was a licentiate in canon law at Paris in 1424. In 1420, as procureur of the French "nation" at the University, with JEAN Basset, procureur of the University, he was sent in an embassy to the King of England and the Duke of Burgundy for the conservation of the privileges of the University. The ambassadors also recommended Pierre Cauchon to their attention.

PIERRE CAVÉ

Pierre Cave is described as licentiate in civil law. This name is not to be found in the documents of the University of Paris. But there was a family of this name possessing a house in Rouen.

JOHN, DUKE OF BEDFORD

John, Duke of Bedford (1389-1435), third son of Henry TV, was regent of the kingdom on the death of Henry V. He married Anne, sister of Philippe of Burgundy. The best artisan in the Anglo-Burgundian alliance, this great politician, firm and patient at the same time, worked in France to repair the evils of the war and to repress also and prevent all awakening of the national spirit. Bedford came to understandings with the local nobility, in the Beauvais section, for example, through families attached to the Burgundian party. But he did not count for enough among the French people, the poor people of the countryside. It is not due to Bedford that France did not become English. He displayed an extraordinary activity in equipping the defenses of Paris in July, 1429; he turned from their destination the English troops that had been levied to send against the Hussites, denounced Charles VII for making use of a "woman of dissolute life in order to abuse his people." After Jeanne's fruitless assault on Paris, Bedford appeared before Saint Denis to punish its inhabitants. His military and diplomatic initiative was certainly the cause of Jeanne's destruction. He was able to attach the Duke of Burgundy to his cause, -- the Duke was then tacking about

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in a system of truces-by ceding to him the investiture of Champagne and in offering him a sort of regency over France. For his own part, he devoted himself to affairs in Normandy and made of Rouen an English citadel and the seat of the English government. It was Bedford's English council that designated Cauchon to claim the Maid as a sorceress, and furnished him the 10,000 livres for her purchase. Although Bedford appeared but once at her trial and then in a singular guise for a noble duke, and although he seemed to have given his hand to Cardinal Beaufort, that violent and orthodox prelate, it is not at all doubtful that Bedford conducted the whole business personally. His spirit is everywhere manifest in it. Percival de Cagny affirms this.

For it is evident that Bedford held the Chapter of Rouen in the hollow of his hand, and Jeanne found there enemies rather than judges. On April 5, 1430, they discussed in chapter meeting the two gold pieces offered by the Duke of Bedford and his wife Anne of Burgundy, at the mass celebrated in the choir of the cathedral. On the 25th he announced to the Chapter the good news that Henry VI had disembarked at Calais. On October 20 the Duke put on canonical dress and was admitted to the distribution of bread and wine. On January 13, 1431, processions were held in the church for the prosperity of the Duke and the Duchess. Bedford was buried in the choir of the cathedral, not far from the body of King Henry, among his brothers. We know that Bedford also favored the Carmelites of Rouen very greatly.

NICOLAS LAMI

Nicolas Lami, Amici, was cursor in theology in 1422, bachelor in 1423, licentiate at Paris in 1428, rector in 1426 and 1429. By virtue of letters royal from Henry, he took possession of the canonicate of Jean Chuffard at Beauvais in Cauchon's time. He was present only one day at the Trial and departed immediately for the Council of Bâle where he arrived about the ninth or twelfth of April, 1431. Nicolas Lami played an important part in the Council. On October 18, 1431, he wrote to Chancellor Rolin, to have him intervene in the matter of the Burgundian captains who were operating between Belfort and Altkirsch, threatening the security of the environs of Bâle. On March 18, 1432, at Paris, he delivered before Parlement a chronicle of events of the Council and protested with utmost violence against its dissolution "to the great shame and infamy of the Pope." We find Nicolas Lami in charge of missions for the Council at Cologne, in France and in England.

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On March 10, 1436, the Council decided to confer upon him a canonicate at Tournai. On November 10, 1439, he was summoned to Bourges by Charles VII at the time of his consultation with the clergy of France. We find him again, in 1447, at the conference at Lyons, which was to settle the question of the abdication of Felix V.

We know that at Bâle Nicolas Lami met the celebrated Alsatian doctor, Jean Nider, prior of the Dominicans and author of the Formicmium, which he had written to direct the religious of his order in research in heresy. This "very zealous discoverer of witches" to use Trithème's phrase, received from Lami his information on Jeanne d'Arc and on the two women who said they came from God who were condemned at Paris.

In the words of Nicolas Lami, Jeanne "had avowed familiarity with an angel of God, who, in the opinion of a great number of very lettered persons, was only an evil spirit, and likewise this was the result of many proofs and conjecture."

GUILLAUME EVRARD

Guillaume Evrard, Evrandi, Eurardi, Eurart, Euerard, whom we must not confuse with Erart, received first rank for the license in theology on December 31, 1429, and does not appear as master until March A, 1437. From March 24 to June 23, 1430, he was rector of the University. We find him as "teacher of the nephew of Monsignor," the archbishop of Rouen. The Chapter gave him 10 livres when he won over the grammarians of Navarre. Guillaume Evrard is referred to as master of the arts students and he accompanied the archbishop's nephew and books to Rouen. In 1434, he is to be found as curé of the church of Saint Pierre des Arcis in la Cité, and in 1441 he attempted to become curé of Saint Gervais de Paris. From 1440 he was principal of the Collège of Navarre, the old house of learning that had been pillaged by the Burgundians in 1418, and which inspired the great university reform. He became canon of Nôtre Dame on April 12, 1458, and he continued his teaching by virtue of a decree of Bâle and of the Pragmatic. He died on November 6, 1470.

Gérard Machet, confessor of Charles VII and an examiner of Jeanne at Poitiers, presents him in his correspondence as a man "of a very illustrious virtue and a wisdom almost celestial." He declared to him the pleasure he had had in receiving him at Castres and denied having

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heard calumnies concerning him. His rôle in the Trial is limited to his having been present at the session of March 3, when he did not say a word. Guillaume Evrard left shortly afterward, with other University masters, for the Council of Bâle, where he arrived between the ninth and twelfth of April.

GILLES CANIVET

Gilles Canivet, Aegidius Caniveti, or Quenivet, was a member of the Picard "Nation" at the University, and became a licentiate in medicine on March 20, 142-2. He was a teacher on the faculty from November 9, 1423. On May 20, 1437 he is described as master of arts and medicine. By apostolic favor Gilles Canivet was received as canon of Nôtre Dame de Paris in the place of Jean Hubert.

ROLAND L'ESCRIVAIN

Roland L'Escrivain, Scriptoris, received his license in medicine in March, 1424, and figures among the master regents of the faculty beginning in December of that year. He was dean from November, 1427, to November, 1430.

He is mentioned, for the last time, as master regent in November, 1443.

GUILLAUME DE LA CHAMBRE

Guillaume de la Chambre the younger, de Camera, was born about 1403, and became licentiate in medicine on March 6, 1430, and immediately became a teacher on the faculty. He was still a regent in November, 1452.

He was the son of Guillaume, physician to the Queen, and sold, in 1430, to the Norman "Nation" a house that he owned in the rue Galande in common with his brother Jean, Esquire.

An assiduous judge at the Trial, Guillaume de la Chambre visited Jeanne as physician and he was present at her execution. He testified at the time of the Rehabilitation that his decision was torn from him by the Bishop of Beauvais. His testimony, entirely favorable to the Maid, is that of a clear-sighted and intelligent mind.

CATHERINE DE LA ROCHELLE

Catherine de la Rochelle, was a "woman of devotion" as she is called in a receipt from the city of Tours. We know that on July 4, 1431, at the procession of St. Martin, Jean Graverent, the Inquisitor, delivered

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a violent discourse against Jeanne. He recalled also that Brother Richard had had in his train four women, three of whom had been taken, namely, the Maid, Pierrone the Breton woman, and her companion, and Catherine de la Rochelle "who said, that when the sacrament of Our Lord's body was celebrated, that she saw marvels of the high secrets of Our Lord God." We find that, on September 10, 1430, the city of Tours paid the Augustinian Jean Bourget who had been at Sens, in the month of August, on business with the King and the council, to carry letters to defend itself from the calumnies that this said Catherine had spread about the city and its inhabitants. Catherine appeared at Paris before the church court and she declared that "Jeanne would have left her prison by the aid of the Devil if she had not been well guarded."

JEAN SECARD

Jean Secard (not Fecard), Secardi, a lawyer, became licentiate in law before 1416. He was curé of Saint Vivien from 1411 on, while he was only a scholar and sub-deacon at Paris, we find that he was employed in the "agreement" the city of Rouen made with Henry V. In 1421 he is mentioned as a master of arts at Paris and canon of Rouen, a nomination obtained solely at the court of Rome; also the Chapter forbade him to wear the habit of the Church. We find that in 1421 Jean Secard figured along with Robert Le Barbier as one of the members of the Norman clergy that assembled in the archbishop's chapel who declared their confrères who lived in territories submissive to the Dauphin to be deprived of their benefices. He was, therefore, a person very devoted to the English. He exchanged, about 1429, the benefice of Saint Vivien for that of Valliquierville, which he possessed until his death in November, 1449

THOMAS FIESVET

Thomas Fiesvet or Fievé, described as of Penenche, was a cleric of the diocese of Cambrai, master of arts and bachelor of law in 1403. He was a doctor of law in 1426, master regent in the same year, became rector of the University on March 24, 1427, and ecclesiastical judge of Nôtre Dame at Paris in 1429. He was present only one day at the Trial (March 12), having been nominated, with Guillaume Evrard, and others, to represent the University at Bâle, where he arrived between the ninth and twenty-first of April, 1431

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PASQUIER DE VAUX

Pasquier de Vaux, Pasquerius de Vallibus, originally from the environs of Evreux, was received as a canon at Nôtre Dame by letters of the King of England on February 3, 1426. He was, much later (December 7, 1425), procureur of the Chapter of Nôtre Dame for its lands of Tourny near Rouen. A licentiate in law in 1426, under Guillaume de Conti, another of the Maid's judges, then getting his doctorate at the same time as Thomas Fiesvet, he became a master regent of that faculty in 1427. In 1433 Pasquier de Vaux went to Caen to protest against the creation of that University. He was received as a canon at Rouen, was Bedford's secretary and chaplain, and was commissioned by Henry VI to go to Rome to obtain the promotion of Louis de Luxembourg to the archbishopric.

Pasquier represented him at the time of his reception at Rouen, a ceremony of a character more political than religious, at which Pierre Cauchon and the Abbots of Fécamp and Mont Saint Michel were present. On September 23, 1435, Pasquier de Vaux was called to the See of Meaux as bishop, and in 1439 we find him as Bishop of Evreux, where he had been transferred by Eugene IV, the French having just captured Meaux. When the French entered Evreux he had himself made Bishop of Lisieux, vacant then (1443) by the death of Pierre Cauchon. He was in effect so determined a partisan of the English that after the capture of Evreux by Robert Floques in 1441, be did not want to recognize Charles VII as lord and master. Eugene IV, who had already been of service to him, allowed him to exchange it for Lisieux, the choicest English see, with Coutances. But Charles VII then lost patience and took possession of all his property. At Lisieux we find Pasquier de Vaux taking the title of councilor to the King of England and president of the Chamber of Accounts. On July 20, 1443, the Parlement of Paris put his confiscated possessions up for sale. He was present at the installation of Raoul Roussel as Archbishop of Rouen. Pasquier de Vaux died on July 11, 1447, at the very moment of the entry of Charles VII into the city of Lisieux.

This rich and important man, strongly attached to the English government, lived at Rouen in a mansion near the Mint. He was vicar-general in spiritualibus et in temporalibus of Cardinal Louis de Luxembourg, as well as Henry's councilor, and played a considerable rôle in

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Normandy during the English domination. Very diligent in attending the Trial, Pasquier de Vaux declared himself especially in agreement with the deliberations of the University of Paris.

NICOLAS DE HUBENT

Nicolas de Hubent, de Henbento or Hubanto, was apostolic secretary. Described as scriptor et abreviator litterarum apostolicarum, he was given by grace of apostolic expectations a prebend and vacant canonicate at Nôtre Dame in Paris on the death of Jean Gerson, September 12, 1429. As all Gerson's charges were distributed among those notably Anglo-Burgundian in sympathy, we can be sure of the sentiments of this individual. On July 3, 1430, Nicolas de Hubent received in addition the office of sub-precentor and the prebend of the late R. Liejart.

NICOLAS TAQUEL

Nicolas Taquel, or better, Nicole Taquet, a recorder of the Trial, was a notary of the church court at Rouen, and curé of Bacqueville le Martel. In 1432 he is cited as notary in the ecclesiastical court of Mesnil-Durescu. In 1436 he was provost of the brotherhood of notaries. We have his signature on a letter of the ecclesiastical judge in 1438. 1431 he is described as dean of the spiritual court, and he had published the adjudication of reparations of Saint Martin de I'Oisel. He was dean of la Chrétienté in 1445.

JEAN MANCHON

Jules Quicherat identifies Jean Manchon, who figured but once in the Trial (Wednesday, March 14), as a canon of the collegiate church of Mantes (Rymer, x, p. 41). This does not appear to be the same person as Jean Manchon, originally of the diocese of Bayeaux, who was a licentiate in theology in 1397, master regent of Paris in 1403, and confessor of the King in 1413, whom one encounters with Pierre Cauchon among the University men who worked in the Cabochien reform. As canon of Chartres we find him that same year at the Council of Paris among the masters who deliberated on the urgency for stamping out heresy in the kingdom of France. In 1414 they neglected to ask him his opinion on the condemnation of Jean Petit (it had been favorable). In 1420 this Jean Manchon was sent to Troyes as ambassador of the University with Pierre Cauchon and Jean Beaupère The University recommended him to the Pope, and then to the dean and chapter of

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Bayeaux to have him made bishop. There seems to have been an error in the transcription.

FRANQUET D'ARRAS

Franquet d'Arras, was a captain of guerrillas, "valiant man-at-arms of the Duke of Burgundy's party" who had adventured into the marches of his enemies, towards Laigni on the Marne with three hundred warriors. They were defeated by the Maid and her company in May, 1430, and put to the sword.

JEAN TIPHAINE

Jean Tiphaine won second place among twelve candidates for the licentiate in medicine on February 27, 1418, and became a member of the Faculty of Medicine in November. He was chaplain of Saint Aignan in the château of Caen, canon of the Sainte Chapelle in Paris, and was received as canon of the cathedral of Rouen in 1432- Jean Tiphaine never resided in Rouen, but at Paris, where he filled the commissions of his colleagues. His death was announced to the Chapter in February, 1469.

Tiphaine testified at Paris for the Rehabilitation and denied having formulated the sentence which, however, we possess. He had attended her in prison, and his memory was in other ways faithful, for he described with exactness Jeanne's prison in the tower of Rouen castle and reported the Maid's words.

WILLIAM POLE, EARL OF SUFFOLK

William Pole, Earl of Suffolk, born in 1396, entered the campaigns of Henry V as a very young man. He was employed in 1417-1418 in the recovery of Cotentin; he was made admiral of Normandy in the following year, then captain of Pontorson, Mantes and Avranches. In 1420 Pole took part in the siege of Melun. He was made prisoner at Baugé April 3, 1421, and received the order of the Garter on May 3. He was governor of Cotentin in 1422, waged a campaign in Champagne the following year, was commissioned captain-general of Vendômois, Chartrain, Beauce and Gâtinais, and was captain-general of Saint Lô in September, 1428. When the Maid appeared at Orléans, Pole was serving under Salisbury, and when this latter was decapitated by a cannon ball, Pole replaced him as commander of the English troops in France

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(November 13, 1428). He was not lucky. He had to give up the siege of Orleans, and was taken prisoner by the French at Jargeau, May, 1429: a fatal day for his family, for his brother John Pole was likewise taken prisoner and Alexander, another brother, was killed. To obtain his release, William had to pay 20,000 livres and leave his brother Thomas as hostage. John Pole was released generously on parole by the Bastard of Orléans. William Pole was captain of Avranches in 1432, and in 1436 was named captain of Tombelaine for two years. On November 10, 1436, he is cited as captain of Renneville.

Pole was a cultivated man and good who wrote verse in French for his own pleasure. He proved himself especially as a friend to Duke Charles of Orleans in his captivity, worked hard for Anglo-French peace, and was obliging to Jean d'Angoulême. Suffolk conducted the English embassy which came to France in 1444 to seek the bride of Henry VI, Margaret of Anjou. We know that he was murdered in 1450, suspected of treason. He was in reality a victim of his pacific sentiments and his French sympathies.

JOHN TALBOT, EARL OF SHREWSBURY

John Talbot, first Earl of Shewsbury (1388?-1453), was considered one of the most audacious of the English generals of his time. He went to France about 1419, was present at the sieges of Melun and Meaux. He fought at Verneuil, and was made a Knight of the Garter in 1424In 1425 he became the King's lieutenant in Ireland. In March, 1427, Talbot accompanied Bedford to France. He was made captain of Pontorson, and we find him at the siege of Montargis which was raised by La Hire and Dunois. In March, 1428, John Talbot took Laval. He recovered Le Mans for the English. In December Bedford made him governor of Anjou and Maine and captain of release. At the siege of Orléans. he occupied the bastille of Saint Loup. After the siege was raised, Talbot drew back to Meting; then to Beaugency. He was captured at Patay by the archers of Poton de Saintrailles and did not regain his liberty until 1433, Captain and governor of Rouen, he is to be found, in 1441, the King's lieutenant of lands between the Seine and the Somme; Marshal in France, and lieutenant of Aquitaine after the loss of Normandy, he perished heroically at Castillon in 1453. This model of chivalry and honor, Talbot, "watchdog of England," is portrayed in a miniature in the Shrewsbury Book.

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THOMAS, LORD SCALES

Thomas, Lord Scales, was born about 1399. In 1422 Thomas crossed to Normandy with a company of men-at-arms and served under John, Duke of Bedford. In 1423 he was captain of Verneuil with a salary of 2,461 livres. In 1424-1425 Thomas campaigned with Fastolf in Maine and was made Knight of the Garter. In 1427 he took part in the siege of Pontorson. He was captain of Saint Jacques de Beuvron and was defeated on April 17, 1427, at Bas-Courtils, between Pontorson and Avranches. He is still cited as captain of Pontorson. On December 16, 1428, we find him as lieutenant of the King in Orléanais and he received 3,000 livres to lead an army against Orleans. Jeanne, in her letter of March 22, 1429, designates him as one of Bedford's lieutenants.

He was taken prisoner and put at ransom while he was trying to aid Orléans, and was again defeated at Beaugency and taken prisoner at Patay (June 18, 1429). He was a captain with men-at-arms at Louviers (order of September 28, 1430). In 1431 we see him among the English chiefs sent by Bedford to Jean V, Duke of Brittany, to fight the duc d'Alençon. He was captain of Domfort in 1433 and was named guard and captain of Saint Lô in 1435. He is described as seneschal of Normandy before 1436, and was in that year captain of Rouen. On August 14, 1437, as seneschal of Normandy he had under his orders 260 men-at-arms and 780 archers. On September 26, 1441, we find a payment to Thomas, Lord of Scales, the wages of the garrison of Granville. Numerous delays were granted to him to pay homage for the lands that he held by royal grant. He devoted all his life to the war in France and to the dynasty of Lancaster for which he died in 1460.

GUILLAUME MOUTON

Guillaume Mouton, Guillelmus Mutonis, a person unknown to us, was present at the supplementary questioning of March 31st. He is named along with John Grey, not among the theologians. A Guillaume Mouton is referred to as cure of Butot in 1432. He figured as a witness in a trial before the church court where Pierre Caere, Jean Duchemin and Nicolas Taquel are likewise mentioned.

THE ABBOT OF MORTEMER

The Abbot of Mortemer has been identified as Guillaume Theroude, who took part in the Council of Constance and undertook various

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missions for Jean, Duke of Burgundy, and was recommended to Henry V by Philip the Good in 1421 as a "bon preudomme, solempnel maistre en theologie." We encounter him at Rouen in 1423 where he celebrated mass at Saint Cande le Vieux; in 1424 he went to Vernon to seek out Bedford on the behalf of Cardinal de la RochetaiIIé.

According to Denifle and Chatelain, however, the Abbot of Mortemer concerned in the Trial was Nicolas, a monk of Rosières near Salins, de Roseriis, otherwise called Haumont, of the Cistercian order. He was bachelor of theology in 1426 at the same time as Guillaume Evrard and Jean du Quesnay, and prepared for his licentiate with Thomas de Courcelles and Jean Le Fèvre. He became a licentiate in December 31, 1429, along with Evrard, du Quesnay and Jean Le Sauvage. Proclaimed master at Paris on February 20, 1431, he taught there with so many others of Jeanne's judges (September 1431-1434). A register of Martin V tells us that he was named Abbot of Mortemer on November 26, 1428. This theologian first took refuge in the opinion of the masters of Paris, and then he judged as did Gilles de Duremort. He was present at the abjuration.

JEAN DE BOUESGUE

Jean de Bouesgue, or Le Boesgue, or Bouège, was a Benedictine, bachelor and licentiate in 1403, master of theology and prior of the cloister and almoner of the abbey of the Holy Trinity at Fécamp from 1406. He was very much in favor with the University, which sent him as ambassador to Jean XXIII in order to obtain the revocation of the Bull of Alexander V in favor of the Mendicants in 1411- Jean de Bouesgue was attacked by brigands on the outskirts of Rome. He preached before the Pope and Cardinals. He became a friend of the Pope, who granted him in 1412 the priory of Gournay, and he is described as honorary chaplain of the Pontiff in 1416. But we know that in 1408 he was prosecuted before the church court of Paris by Estoud d'Estouteville for the maladministration of his abbey and negligence in caring for the poor and the lepers. On March 18, 1422, we see Jean de Bouesgue entrusted by his colleagues with treating with the Bishop of Chester, Chancellor of Normandy, in the matter of the property of the abbey of Fécamp in England. He was designated by the University of Paris to go to the King of England and the Duke of Burgundy to obtain confirmation of its privileges. He was enjoined, beforehand, to communicate the instructions he had received to Pierre

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Cauchon. In 1423 Jean de Bouesgue is referred to as master regent of theology at Paris, a charge that he gave up the following year. He was imprisoned over a dispute he had with the English council over a trial of clerics of Fécamp, but the University intervened on his behalf with the Duke of Bedford and the Abbot of Fécamp. We find him again master regent at Paris in 1433.

It is not astonishing to see a doctor of theology of Paris for twenty-five years, and an almoner of the abbey of Fécamp judging as did his teachers and his lord abbot. He agreed energetically.

GUILLAUME DE LIVET

Guillaume de Livet, master of arts and bachelor of law, canon of Lisieux, was received as canon of the church of Rouen by virtue of letters patent of the King of England in 1431. He was at various times promoter of the archiepiscopal See, for a while around 1414, and from 1436 to 1443- We note that in 1444 Guillaume de Livet was named commissioner of the canons for a treaty to be concluded between them and the archbishop; and we find him as a deputy at the Estates of Normandy in 1449. He died at Rouen, very old doubtless, on January 22, 1465, bearing in addition the title of curé of Saint Maclou.

This man of the law decided in accordance with the deliberations of the Faculty of Law at Paris; in the final sentence he took refuge in the authority of the Abbot of Fécamp Guillaume de Livet was not among the witnesses called at the time of the Rehabilitation.

GUÉROULD POUSTEL

Guérould Poustel, Postelli, was only a bachelor of arts in both canon and civil law at the University of Paris in 1434. But he is referred to as a lawyer in the church court at Rouen from 1424 on. We find that he lived at the Hotel de Saint Antoine at Rouen, adjoining the cloister, where he received Abbot Richard en garde.

JEAN LE TAVERNIER

Jean Le Tavernier, Tabernarii, of Rouen was a bachelor of canon law at Paris in 1428. He is referred to as priest and friar of the King's hospital at Rouen in 1433

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PIERRE COCHON

Pierre Cochon was a notary of Rouen. He was clerk of wills in 1426, and describes himself in his chronicles in 1425 as priest and notary. He was already in Rouen in 1406 and was still living in that city on July 29, 1430; he was present at the entry of little King Henry VI.

Pierre Cochon was born at Fontaine le Dun in the viscounty of Arques. But his father, Jean Cochon, was a burgess of Rouen. In 1433, still at Rouen, Pierre took part, in company with Guillaume Manchon, in a riot caused by clerics arrested by the King's sergeant, and he was arrested as the ringleader. In 1435, with Manchon, he authenticated Bedford's will. In 1437 we see that he was present at the blessing of the chapel of the Close Saint Marc, founded by his colleague Guillaume Le Cars, and that he acquired from the brotherhood of notaries in 1438 sixty sous as income on a house in the rue Fils-Guy. The following year he took his income to the provost and brother notaries. On April 1, 1437, he is cited as curé of Vitefleur and founded his memorial masses at the Confrèrie. Jacques Cochon, his brother and heir, priest and curé of Granville la Teinturière, approved this foundation on September 21, 1440. In 1446 Pierre Cochon is still clerk of wills "under Maistre Guillaume de Désert," one of Jeanne's judges who is cited as being master of intestates; and in 1448 Pierre is named as his secretary. Pierre Cochon died on February 22, 1449, and was buried in the cemetery of Saint Étienne le Grand, a church appertaining to the cathedral.

SIMON DAVY

Simon Davy, Simo Davus, was a notary of Rouen, provost and governor of the fellowship of notaries of Rouen in 1433.

GUILLAUME LECRAS

Guillaume Lecras, a Rouen priest, was notary public of the archiepiscopal court and auditeur of witnesses.

PHILIBERT DE MONTJEU

Philibert de Montjeu, a Burgundian noble, was canon of Amiens and later Bishop of Coutances by the protection of the dukes of Burgundy and Bedford. On June 4, 1427, we find a petition of Philibert's to the treasury to deliver to him the income rendered to the See by the barony

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of Saint Sauveur Lendelin. At the end of 1431 Philibert went to the Council of Bâle where he played a very important role. In 1433 he was called to Bohemia where he stayed for three years, working toward the reunion of that country with the Church. He presided at the sixth session which proclaimed the Pope contumacious.

He was a very zealous Burgundian. On June 29, 1428, Henry VI ordered that his , expenses be paid on a trip from the country of Cotentin to Paris to the Duke of Bedford and the Council "for the good and profit and usefulness to the country in the expulsion of the brigands and enemies of the said lord who were in it." On' July 14 Philibert de Montjeu and Enguerrand de Champrond gave a receipt to Pierre Surreau, receiver-general of Normandy, for the sum Of 225 livres on account Of 450 livres which was owed them for this mission of forty-seven days. The opinion that he gave at Constance concerning the Maid was expressed in the harshest terms.

We know also that Philibert de Montjeu was procédurier and that he proved himself to be very rigorous, with Jean Graverent, in the prosecution of Jean Le Couvreur, a burgess of Saint Lô suspected of heresy, who demanded appeals to take his case before the Pope. In 1440, forbidden by illness to conduct a trial, he commissioned Pierre Cauchon, Bishop of Lisieux, to take his place, and André Marguerie, archdeacon of Petit Caux, and Robert Le Barbier, canon of Rouen, all of them judges of the Maid and his good friends.

It is interesting to note that the See of Coutances was the last religious rampart of the Anglo-Burgundian fanatics, more so than even the See of Lisieux. Philibert de Montjeu was succeeded as bishop by the harsh Gilles de Duremort (1439-1453), and by the lettered, scornful Zanon de Castiglione (11444-1453). Richard de Longueil succeeded all these enemies of Jeanne and the King of France and worked toward her rehabilitation.

ZANON DE CASTIGLIONE

Zanon de Castiglione, of Milan, succeeded in 1424, as Bishop of Lisieux, his uncle, Branda de Castiglione. He was a celebrated jurist and professor at Paris, whom one finds frequently entrusted with embassies in France and Bohemia and who received his elevation as bishop at the hands of Martin V. In that year Zanon took the oath of loyalty to the church of Rouen.

On January 2.8, 1430, Zanon obtained expectations of being Bishop of

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Bayeux, to which he was transferred in 1432. In 1434 he was sent as a deputy of Henry VI to the Council of Bile; he departed with a commission from the Duke of Gloucester to buy for him all the books he could, especially those of Guarino of Ferrara and Leonardo Bruni. He spent a year in Florence, singing the praises of his master to the Italians, who henceforth entered into relationships with his English patron. On July 1, 1441, Zanon was present with Pierre Cauchon upon the entry of the Duke of York into the cathedral of Rouen. He replaced Cauchon on the King's Council in 1443 and he celebrated the requiem mass for Cardinal de Luxembourg. The following year he traveled about Lower Normandy with many other members of the Council to Provide the necessities of the country "for the good and honor of the King and his justice." In 1445 Zanon came to Charles VII to treat of the marriage project between Edward of York and Jeanne of France, and that same year as dean of suffragans he was in charge of transmitting to the other bishops the orders for the convocation of the Council. The next year he was sent by Henry VI to the Sovereign Pontiff on the matter of the dispensing of commands, and he journeyed to Normandy with the commissioners of the King of England to assemble the members of the Estates "to have their advice upon the actions, maintenance and conduct of affairs of the seigneurie of the King." In 1448 he inspected the situations and fortresses in the territories of Cotentin and Alençon, and he obtained from the English king delays for the inventory of the property of his See. When the English cause was lost, Zanon allied himself without difficulty with Charles VII, to whom he swore allegiance in November 3, 1449. He was nominated Bishop of Pavia in 1453 and sent by Pope Calixtus III to the Council of Ratisbon to treat with the Emperor. Zanon was created Cardinal in 1456 and then created Papal Legate to the March of Ancona by Pius 11. He died suddenly of a fever at Macerta in 1459.

Italian in nationality, English at heart, and a man of the Renaissance, the opinion that he delivered concerning Jeanne, dated at Bayeux, is full of contempt. This political bishop was not a Christian. But he was very well educated, and he must have been very greatly respected by all the Norman clerics as the nephew of Branda, who founded at Pavia in memory of all the benefits he had received in France, a college for the students of Lisieux, Bayeux and Evreux. Zanon was himself the first conservator of the privileges of the University of Caen.

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GUILLAUME ADELIE

Guillaume Adelie, Dominican, became a bachelor of theology in 1421, and licentiate on January 12, 1428, master on June 8, and master regent at Paris in the month of September. He was still teaching there in 1438. He is not to be confused with Guillaume Adeline, the master of theology who was condemned for sorcery.

JEAN FOUCHIER

Jean Fouchier, Friar Minor, studied theology at Paris but without taking degrees. In 1439, at the time of publication of the privileges of the University of Caen he was preaching and was described as follows: "famosus sacrae paginae professor, mag. Joh. Foucherii, Ord. Frat. Minorum, ipsiusque ordinis in provincia Rothomagensi custos."

JEAN MAUGIER

Jean Maugier, Maugerii, of the diocese of Rouen, was master of arts in 1403 and bachelor of canon law, and licentiate in law but not in theology. He was born about 1370 and was received as canon of Rouen in 1421 in place of Jean Porcher, who remained faithful to France. He held, from 1423 on, a general commission to prosecute all trials relative to the Church. He was a deputy to the Estates of Paris in 1424, pénitencier of the church of Rouen in 143-2, vicar of Pontoise in 1436. He must have died before June 11, 1440

In his consultation on the subject of the Twelve Articles, Jean Maugier asserted always his readiness to accomplish the good pleasure of Pierre Cauchon. We find that he gave two houses to the Chapter of Rouen.

JEAN EUDE

Jean Eude was a bachelor of theology. He does not appear to have studied at Paris.

JEAN DACIER

Jean Dacier, Benedictine, was a licentiate in civil law and prior of Besson. He was Abbot of Belfont in 1418 and Abbot of Saint Corneille in Compiègne after June 23, 1424. He was completely acquired by the Burgundian party, as the notes of Dom Gilesson prove, which are preserved in a few copies of the ancient archives of Compiègne. A former almoner of Pope Martin V, Jean Dacier died on May 4, 1437, after

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having been present at the Council of Bâle as representative of the abbeys of the province of Reims. The abbey of Saint Corneille was in the heart of the city near the great market.

GUILLAUME ERART

Guillaume Erart, a native of the diocese of Langres, was a doctor of theology; be is not to be confused with Guillaume Evrard. He was a master of arts, a bachelor of theology, and became rector of the University on February 26, 1421. He was procureur of the "nation" of France in 1426 and was en rapport with Jean Graverent, the Inquisitor, on the subject of heretics who had appealed to the Pope. He received his degree as licentiate and then as master of theology in 1428. He taught at Paris from September, 1428, at the same time as Pierre de Dyerée, Pierre Le Mire, Jean Gravestain, and Guillaume Adelie. In December, 1430, he pleaded before the Parlement against Geoffroy le Normant, declaring that he had been ordained "master of grammarians of the College de Navarre." In 1429 Guillaume Erart had been sent to Champagne by the King of England, along with Pierre Cauchon; Geoffroy protested that it was not his duty to teach children "and he ought to employ himself in preaching"; he declared besides that he had more than thirty livres income, was cure in Normandy with eighty francs income, and that he was a canon of Laon and canon and sacristan of Langres. Erart made allusion to a journey that he had made in Germany, to Bâle. We find him at Paris in September, 1431, among the master regents, and on January 25, 1432, he presided at Paris over the examination for the licentiate, when Thomas de Courcelles received first rank. Nicolas Loiseleur was his first pupil at Paris in 14311432. And Guillaume Bonnel, Abbot of Cormeilles, dean of the Faculty of Law, took action against him for "at the last licentiate examination (1432) he opened the list of licentiates which the masters had given him." In 1433 he is called the vice-chancellor of Nôtre Dame. In August in the name of the University he made before Parlement at Paris a "grief compliante" on the subject of the royal ordinance on the repurchase of rentes of the churches and colleges of Paris. Guillaume Erart is mentioned for the last time among the master regents in September, 1433. Henceforth he was in Normandy. He entered the Chapter of Rouen on July 17, 1432. Later he is to be found in Paris where he went to "further the liberties of the Church." Named archdeacon of

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Grand Caux in 1433, he fulfilled in turn the trusts of chancellor, precentor and vicar-general. On February 7, 1434, he was named professor of theology and received a canonicate at Nôtre Dame in Paris by recommendation of the Bishop of Paris, Jacques du Châtelier, a worldly prelate who was elevated to the rank of bishop by the favor of Bedford and Philippe le Bon of Burgundy. He was the executor of the will of Hugues des Orges, Archbishop of Rouen in 1434, and he disputed with the canons of Nôtre Dame the subject of the succession to office by the wealthy Alespée and the latter alienated him from the Chapter. He appealed to the Pope.

A friend of Louis de Luxembourg, Guillaume Erart went to England to swear fealty in his name to Henry VI for the perpetual administration of the church of Ely. The King of England charged him to go to Arras in company with Raoul Roussel and Jean de Rinel in 1435 to treat for peace, and he responded very dryly to the fine and pacific discourse of Thomas de Courcelles. On November 12, 1436, Guillaume Erart presided at an assembly of prelates "for a certain need touching public affairs and the coming of certain English lords" to Normandy. In 1437 he was named chaplain to the King and received an annual income of twenty pounds sterling for services rendered to the Crown. Guillaume Erart from that time on lived in England, and we note that the canons of Rouen charged him to reclaim the legacies made to their church by Henry V and Bedford. Named dean of the cathedral in place of the late Gilles Deschamps, Guillaume Erart did not take possession of this dignity, which, however, he accepted, and which shows all the hope the canons placed in his influence at the English court. He died in England in 1439, leaving great sums to the cathedral of Rouen and to the college of the community, and an enameled silver chalice to the Chapter. He bequeathed likewise a legacy Of 40 livres to the University of Paris. The executor of his will was the rigorous Pasquier de Vaux, Bishop of Evreux.

English at heart, like his patron Louis de Luxembourg, very active and unscrupulous, he appears to us as one of the most impassioned judges of Jeanne d'Arc, whom he condemned violently on the day of her abjuration.

JEAN DE TROYES

Jean de Troyes, called Halbould, of the Mathurin order, was vice-dean of the Faculty of Theology in 1431. Licentiate in theology in 1403,

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master in 1416, he gave his adherence to the condemnation of the propositions of Jean Petit. He was minister-general of the Order (Gallia, viii). In 1418 he went to the Duke of Bedford at Rouen. He was regent of the Faculty of Theology from 1421 on; he took part in the condemnation of the doctrines of Brother Jean Sarrasin (March 30, 1430). October, 1432, he is described as vice-dean of the Faculty when the University addressed an embassy to the Duke of Burgundy. The last mention of him that we can find is in 1438.

PIERRE DE GOUDA

Pierre de Gouda, born at Leyden, studied at Paris from 1426 on, became a licentiate in 1427, was procureur of the English "nation," in 1428, and was elected rector of the University on March 24, 1431- He became a canon of Utrecht in 1433, and addressed a petition to obtain a parish church at Rotterdam in 1439

GUÉROULD BOISSEL

Guérould Boissel, also written as G. Boissely and Géraud Boissel, was a doctor of law and was designated by the Chapter of Rouen on February 12, 1431, to represent it at the Council of Bâle, with Jean Beaupère, Thomas Fiesvet and Thomas de Courcelles.

Regent doctor of the Faculty of Law from 1423, he was elected dean on March 2, 1430. In October, 1431, he was delegated by the Faculty of Law to take the rolls to Rome with Henri Thiboust, Thomas de Courcelles and Pierre de Gouda. The last mention of him is made in 1433

PIERRE DE DYERÉE

Pierre de Dyerée, Petrus de Dierreyo, was the old dean of the Faculty and professor of theology. In 1403 he is described as a prebendary canon of the church of Troyes, master of arts and theology, and had been regent in theology for ten years. The last mention of him is made in September, 1433. On November 4, 1433, a service was celebrated for his soul at Saint Mathurin's and the Bishop of Meaux officiated en pontifical,

HENRI THIBOUST

Henri Thiboust, priest of Coutances, was in T403 master of arts and medicine, and was pénitencier of Coutances and Bayeux, and rector of the church of Saint Pierre de Hambye in the diocese of Coutances.

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He was master regent in medicine at Paris in 1414, at the same time as Guillaume de La Chambre, and was a colleague of Guillaume Desjardins in 14,8. In 1422 he was delegated by the University to go to the Council of Constance; in 1428 he obtained from Martin V the authority to teach medicine during his lifetime. He was vice-dean in 1430 and in 1431 we see him designated as ambassador to carry the rolls to Rome, with Guérould Boissel, Thomas de Courcelles and Pierre de Gouda. He took part, in 1432, in the deliberation which decided to send ambassadors to the Duke of Burgundy. He was named dean on November 6, 1433. In 1438 he was ambassador to the Council of Bourges; in 1439 he is cited as pénitencier and canon of Paris. Henri Thiboust is mentioned for the last time among the regents of the Faculty of Medicine in 1449. He died in his house in the rue du Fouarre and his body was carried in state to Nôtre Dame.

JEAN BARREY

Jean Barrey or Barret, of the diocese of Tulle, was bachelor of arts as in 1403, master of arts and received first ranking, as bachelor of law in 1415; he became a licentiate in 1416. Is he the one mentioned in the deliberations of the Faculty?

GEROLFUS DE HOLLE

Gerolfus de Holle, or Hole, master of arts, received his licentiate in law under Guérould Boissel on March 14, 1430.

RICHARD ABESSOR

Richardus Abessor was a master of arts. He studied in the Faculty of Theology as cursor in 1430.

JEAN VACHERET

Jean Vacheret was a cleric of the diocese of Autun, and beadle of the Faculty of Theology. He was under-beadle in 1403 and became beadle in 1418.

BOEMONDUS DE LUTREA

Boemondus de Lutrea, given in the deliberation of the University on the Trial as beadle of the "nation" of France, exercised for a long time the duties of beadle of the English "nation."

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JEAN SOQUET

Jean Soquet, of the diocese of Rouen, was a professor of theology. In 1403 he is cited as master of arts, having taught eight years in the rue du Fouarre and studied ten years in the Faculty of Theology. He became a licentiate in theology in 1422, and was teaching at the same time as Jean Beaupère, Pierre de Dyerée, Jean de Troyes, Erard Emengart, Martin Billorin, Pierre Miget, Denis de Sabrevois, Nicolas Midi, Pierre de Houdenc, Jean Le Fèvre, and Guillaume Adelie, all theologians hostile to the Maid. Jean Soquet is mentioned for the last time as among the master regents in 1434. We know that he returned to Rouen in 1433 to the Chapter on business relative to the Council of Bâle.

JEAN GRAVESTAIN

Jean Gravestain was a Dominican and professor of theology. He studied the Bible at Paris in 1421 at the same time as Jean Le Fèvre. He became a licentiate in 1426, master in 1427, and was a regent in the Faculty of Theology in September, 1429.

SIMON DE LA MARE

Simon de La Marc, Simo de Mara, was a Norman, a master of arts and licentiate in medicine on February 21, 1430, and a master regent in November, 1430, a Faculty colleague of Henri Thiboust and Gilles Canivet. We encounter him in Rouen in November, 1435, and learn that he could not return to Paris because of the dangers of travel.

ANDRÉ PELÉ

André Pelé became a licentiate in law in March, 1428. He was elected by the French "nation" to take the rolls to Pope Eugene IV in June, 1437.

GUILLAUME ESTOCHART

Guillaume Estochart, not Oscochart, was a master of arts. In 1426 be became a licentiate in law, and on October 10, 1431, rector of the University.

JEAN TROPHARD

Jean Trophard, of the diocese of Bayeux, was master of arts and bachelor of law in 1403. We find another Jean Trophard, likewise of

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the diocese of Bayeux, who became master of arts in 1418 and bachelor of theology after 1452 at the University of Caen.

MARTIN DE BERECH

Martin de Berech, not Bereth, was a Hungarian. He was a master of arts, and cursor in the Faculty of Law in October, 1430, and received his bachelor's degree that year and was rector of the University on October 7, 1432, when the University deliberated about sending an ambassador to the Duke of Burgundy. In January, 1429, he fought Paul Nicolas, a Hungarian or Slav, who, having been admitted in the English "nation," attacked the authority of that group, saying that "they were only a small number of people and did not have opinions and did not need to be heard like the other 'nations!

JEAN BOURILLET

Jean Bourillet was a priest of the diocese of Autun, a master of arts, licentiate in law, and a fifth year student of theology in 1403. He studied at Paris at the same time as Pierre Cauchon. In 1414 he is cited as master of the collège of Fortet, and deputy to the Council of Pisa. In 1448, at the age of seventy, he resigned as treasurer of the church at Sens.

THOMAS AMOURET

Thomas Amouret, Amoreti, was a Dominican, a bachelor of theology in 1435, and received his licentiate on January 20, 1444, and was proclaimed master on May 22. We find that he preached a sermon in Rouen in 1438.

BERTRAND DU CHESNE

This Benedictine of Cluny, Bertrand du Chesne, de Quercu, was a licentiate in law in 1416, and dean of Lihons, doctor in 1426 and master regent the year following. In 1429 he sustained a trial before Parlement against the collège de Cluny at Paris. Pope Eugene IV named him Abbot of Saint Pierre de Hanon in the diocese of Arras in 1439

LOUIS DE LUXEMBOURG

Louis de Luxembourg was Bishop of Thérouanne and chancellor of Henry VI and was the brother of the rough Burgundian captain, Jean, who sold the Maid to the Bishop of Beauvais.

He was elected dean of the church of Beauvais on May 31, 1414, and

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at times resided at Rouen before 1430, living in the archbishop's palace, He espoused the interests of the English entirely and responded to the call that Bedford issued to the nobility of Picardy. We know that he occupied himself in putting Paris in a defensive position when Bedford retired to Normandy. He was present at the coronation of Henry VI at Nôtre Dame and was the executor of the will of Isabelle of Bavaria.

On April 7, 1432 (new style), King Henry ordered his treasurer-general in Normandy, Jean Stanlawe, to pay to Louis de Luxembourg, his chancellor in France, 1,000 livres "to help him support the great expenses which in the cause of our service he had had, and has, to pay." He was very much in favor with the English government. In 1422 he * had been head of the embassy which went from France to London to felicitate the young Henry VI upon his accession to the throne. He was favorably looked upon by the Chapter of Nôtre Dame of Rouen which, on the news that the Bishop of Thérouanne had been named Archbishop by the Pope, decided, on January 13, 1430, to take steps to urge him to accept the nomination.

He was strongly allied with Bedford; he was the executor of Bedford's will, and we see that after the death of Bedford's duchess, Anne, Louis placed his niece, Jacquette de Saint Paul in his hands. She was a girl of seventeen, and Bedford married her, to the amazement of Philippe le Bon of Burgundy. This marriage contributed not a little to alienating the Duke of Burgundy from the English alliance. In 1436, during the Parisian insurrection against the English, Louis de Luxembourg took refuge in the Bastille, where Richemont besieged him. He had to abandon his property to the conquerors and was transported to Rouen down the Seine. On January 15, 1437, as he was disposed to journey to England, the Chapter of Rouen had mass said for his happy voyage and reminded him of Bedford's legacies to the churches of Rouen. He was named Archbishop of Rouen on October 24, 1436, and was later made Cardinal by Eugene IV (1440). He became Bishop of Ely when he finally went to England, but kept all his prerogatives as Archbishop of Rouen. Raoul Roussel, who replaced him, was, moreover, one of his intimates. Louis de Luxembourg did not lack, however, means of indemnifying himself for his losses. Henry VI gave him a pension of 1,000 marks from the Exchequer and 1,000 livres from the revenues of Normandy. The church of Ely was worth 2,000 livres. He resided rarely in his See, which he administered through a procureur.

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He lived splendidly in his manors, moving with a great train of baggage and horses. He was appointed ambassador by Henry VI in December, 1442, to treat for peace with Charles VII, his adversary, and died on September 18, 1443, in his castle of Hatfield. Pasquier de Vaux was the executor of his will. His heart was sent to Rouen and his body was buried in a magnificent tomb in Ely Cathedral, near the altar of holy relics.

While charged with the defense of Paris, Louis de Luxembourg, then Bishop of Thérouanne, -- who, the Journal dun Bourgeois de Paris assures us, was a "full-blooded man" -- had brought from Saint Denis the Maid's armor, negotiated her sale to the English, was present at the Trial, her abjuration and torture. Upon the testimony of André Marguerie he could even weep: singular tears on the part of him whom Percival de Cagny denounced as one of the authors of Jeanne's death.

JEAN DE MAILLY

Jean de Mailly, Bishop of Noyon, was one of the principal members of the English King's Council, and a very fanatical Burgundian.

He was a licentiate in law, councilor of Parlement (1401) master of petitions of the hôtel (1418), and president of the Chamber of Accounts in 1424. He became dean of Saint Germain l'Auxerrois at Paris and was called to Noyon as Bishop by Martin V on July 20, 1425. The following year, with Louis de Luxembourg, he was designated to pacify the dispute concerning heretic witchcraft between the Bishop of Paris and Jean Graverent, Inquisitor. From 1424 on we find him at Rouen present at the sessions of the Exchequer, and he was appointed by the English government. He accompanied the young King to Paris, as well as Pierre Cauchon, and was present at Nôtre Dame as ecclesiastical peer, at Henry VI's coronation ceremonies. He subscribed to the safeguard accorded to Jeanne's judges.

Jean de Mailly was not very old at the time of the Rehabilitation (he was born about 1396). He alleged, however, that he had been present at only one session of the Trial and declared that he remembered nothing about it. He was, nevertheless, present at the abjuration scene and at the burning of the Maid. In 1443 Jean de Mailly received in procession Charles VII in his city of Noyon. In 1435 he had taken part in the embassy which announced to Charles the happy conclusion of the Peace of Arras. He died February 14, 1472, leaving to his church

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his Bible, a manuscript on vellum. He was above all else a diplomat and financier.

HENRY BEAUFORT, BISHOP OF WINCHESTER

Henry Beaufort, Bishop of Winchester, was made Cardinal in 1426; he was the Chancellor of England, and great-uncle of the King.

This illegitimate son of John of Gaunt was Grand Chancellor of Henry V and Henry VI, banker to the State, and a candidate for the Papacy. He was the implacable enemy of the Duke of Gloucester, was a warrior and later a peacemaker, and intrigued with all the courts of Europe. He was ambitious and a miser. As Martin V's legate to Germany he preached for a crusade against the Hussites in Bohemia. Alarmed at his increasing power, Gloucester persuaded him to go to France in April, 1430. He crowned Henry VI at Paris on December 17, 1431, and was employed in all the affairs of that year. He returned to England in May, 1432, Shakespeare's tragedy of Henry VI gives us a perfect portrait of this strange prelate.

WILLIAM ALNWICK, BISHOP OF NORWICH

William Alnwick was Bishop of Norwich (1426-1436) and later (1436-1449) of Lincoln. He was a monk of St. Alban's and in the confidence of Henry V. Henry VI made him his confessor and keeper of the privy seat. He was educated and enjoyed a great reputation for sanctity and orthodoxy. He prosecuted very vigorously the heretic Lollards. Alnwick had an influence in the great scholarly foundations of Henry VI and occupied himself in restoring Lincoln Cathedral. In 1425 he was recommended by the King of England to the Holy See for the Bishopric of Ely.

THOMAS FRIQUE

Thomas Frique, Benedictine, was prior, then abbot, of Bec-Hellouin, and was confirmed by the Pope in this latter dignity on August 8, 1430. He lived at Rouen in his hôtel in the rue du Bec. We see him take his place after the Abbot of Saint Ouen in an assembly of prelates convoked in the Archbishop's chapel, a precedence he long contested. He died in 1446.

ROBERT JOLIVET

Robert Jolivet of Montpichon, Joliveti R. abbas Montis, R. abbé da Mont, was a Norman Benedictine, a bachelor of law in 1416, and be.

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came Abbot of Mont Saint Michel in 1411. He fled from his abbey which remained faithful to Charles VII and took refuge with the English about 141g. He went on various missions for Bedford, and became his chancellor and keeper of his privy seal in 1423. We see Robert Jolivet on May 27, 1428, as the representative of Bedford at the foundation of the Carmelites in Rouen.

Extremely devoted to the government of Henry VI, this religious played an important role in diplomacy and even in military matters, inspecting troops and visiting fortresses. He was a member of all the important councils. In 1425 he was commissioned by the King of England to recover the abbey which he had so admirably fortified before his departure. Between April and June, 1428, Robert Jolivet was at Paris awaiting the coming of Salisbury and the English army "to advise and conclude where he would be sent." In November he went to Mantes to see Bedford about the siege of Orleans. On September 12, 1430, Jolivet is cited as chancellor with the considerable salary of 800 livres a year. He resided at Rouen in order to serve the King. On November 16, 1431, King Henry ordered the payment of the wages of the ten lancers and thirty mounted archers who had escorted him (with the Abbot of Fécamp) to Paris where he had been summoned. On July 23, 1436, King Henry VI ordered him and the Bishop of Lisieux and the Earl of Suffolk to call together the Three Estates at Caen and to take part in the project of establishing a university there. Jolivet was buried at Rouen in the church of Saint Michel in July, 1444.

JACQUES LE CAMUS

Jacques Le Camus or Camus does not appear to have been a doctor of theology, but he must, however, have studied at Paris. He was canon of Reims from January, 1423, and titular holder of a second canonicate in the collegiate church of Saint Symphorien in 1428. He lost all his benefices, having embraced the cause of Henry VI who, when Le Camus was deprived of his property by the King of France, gave him the benefice as cure of La Trinité of Falaise, which had been abandoned by Adam Mesgret, who had fled to Reims. Jacques Le Camus died in October, 1438.

NICOLE BERTIN

Nicole Bertin was a canon of Lisieux. We encounter him on May 25, 1454, making a foundation in favor of the Collège du Saint Esprit,

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as executor of the will of the late Jean Bidault, archdeacon of Augé in the church of Lisieux, canon of Reims, Rouen, Lisieux and Mans. As executor of Pierre Cauchon's will he approved his legacy in favor of Saint Cande le Vieux in 1450, We know that Bidault, brother-in-law of Jean de Rinel, had desired "some foundation be made for his soul and that of the late Reverend Father in God, Messire Pierre Cauchon, in his lifetime Bishop of Lisieux and of Beauvais." JULIEN FLOSQUET

Julien Flosquet is cited in a petition of 1419 without his University ranking. In 1434 he became canon of Thérouanne.

GUILLAUME DU DÉSERT

Guillaume du Desert was born at Paris about 1400. He was nominated for a canonicate in the church at Rouen in 1421 by Henry V. On February 12, 1432, he took at Paris the degree of bachelor of law. He was in turn master of wills, from 1446 to 1448 master of work at the cathedral, which his family had endowed. Guillaume du Désert fulfilled various missions which allowed him to think that he was a valuable man. He went to England to claim the payment of legacies that Henry V and Bedford had made to the cathedral. He was absent from Rouen when Charles VII entered the city, and he obtained without trouble new letters of provision, and he undertook to get the King's confirmation of the Norman charter in 1452. The following year he fulfilled a mission to Rome. He was curé of Saint Nicolas le Painteur. Guillaume du Désert died on January 25, 1471, and was buried in the cathedral although he was curé of Saint Hilaire.

He was certainly an educated man, for he owned some fine books which he bequeathed to the Chapter library. His decision in Jeanne's case was propped on that of the Abbot of Fécamp. Guillaume du Désert was consulted among the first witnesses at the Rehabilitation proceedings: he had been present at Jeanne's abjuration and execution. In his testimony he declared that he recalled very little about it, saying, for example, that "if Jeanne had taken the part of the English as she had that of the French she would not have been treated like that."

ROBERT GHILLEBERT

Robert Ghillebert or Gilbert, an Englishman, was doctor of theology and was at the time of Jeanne's trial dean of the King of England's

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chapel. He became in 1433 Dean of York and he reports in a petition to Eugene IV (November 17, 1435) that in the time when he had followed the King in all the battles won in France he had seen many murders, fires, etc., and that he rejoiced from the depths of his heart when his countrymen were victorious just as he suffered profoundly when they were beaten. He was still Dean of York when he was confirmed as Bishop of London by Eugene IV on May 21, 1436.

JEAN TOUTMOUILLÉ

Jean Toutmouille, Dominican, who brought to the Trial his title as doctor of theology, could not have acquired this degree at Paris, for the University documents do not mention him. We find that he preached a sermon at Rouen in 1458.

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