Joan of Arc - Maid of Heaven

The Trial of Joan of Arc
By W.P. Barrett

Chapter 17: This Wednesday after Palm Sunday, 1431

This Wednesday after Palm Sunday, 1431, March 28th. The reading of the articles is continued.

[And first, required to take oath, she answered she would willingly swear to speak the truth on that which touched her case, and so she swore.

To the article touching her dress, she answered that she wore her habit and arms at God's bidding; this was true both of the male costume and the arms.

When asked to abandon this dress, she answered she would not give it up without Our Lord's permission, not even to save her head, but, please God, it would soon be put off. She added, that if she had not Our Lord's permission, she would not wear woman's dress.]

"The said Jeanne, in and since the time of her youth, has boasted and daily boasts of having had many revelations and visions, and concerning these, in spite of being charitably admonished and lawfully and properly required upon legal oath, she would not and will not swear; further, she refuses to declare them sufficiently by word or sign; but did and still does put off, contradict, and refuse. And when formally refusing to swear, on many and several occasions, she said and affirmed, in her examination and elsewhere, that she would

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not discover her visions and revelations, even if her head were cut off or her body were dismembered; that we should not drag from her lips the sign which God showed her, by which she knew she came from God."

To this thirty-first article, Jeanne answers that concerning the sign or other things contained in this article she may well have said she would not reveal it, and adds that her earlier confession should contain that without God's leave she would not reveal the sign.

On February 22nd she said there was no day when she did not hear this voice, or when she did not need it.

On Saturday, February 23rd [24th], she said that on that night her voice told her many things for the good of her king which she wished her king might know that day, if she had to go without wine till Easter, for he would cat the more happily for it.

On Tuesday, February 27th, she said she had told her king at one time all that had been revealed to her, for it concerned him nearly. On this Tuesday, she said that she addressed letters to her king to find out if she should enter the town where he was; that she had journeyed a good 150 leagues to come to his aid, and she knew many things to his advantage. She thought the letters told how she would be able to recognize him among all the others.

On Thursday, March 1st asked in what form St. Michael appeared, she answered that she did not see his crown, and knew nothing of his apparel. Asked if St. Michael was naked, she answered: "Do you think God has not wherewithal to clothe him?"

On Tuesday, March 15th required to tell how she hoped to escape from the castle of Beaulieu, between two pieces of wood, she answered that she was never imprisoned in any place but she would gladly escape; and being in this castle,

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she would have shut her guards up in the tower, had it not been for the porter, who had seen and encountered her. It seemed, she said, that it did not please God to have her escape on that occasion, and she must see the English king, as her voices had told her, and as it is written above. On this same day, asked about the size and stature of the angel who appeared to her, she said that she would answer on Saturday with the other matters, namely, what should please God. The same day, asked if she had said that one is sometimes hanged for telling the truth, and if she knew of any fault or crime of hers for which she should fear death, if she did not confess, she answered no.

On Saturday, March 17th, asked about the age and apparel of St. Catherine and St. Margaret, she answered: "You have my reply in this matter, and will get none other from me. I have answered you as best I can."

XXXII

"Consequently you can and must conclude that these revelations and visions, if Jeanne ever had them, proceed rather from evil and lying spirits than from good; and so they must be presumed by you, in view especially of the cruelty, pride, bearing, actions, lies and contradictions indicated in the several articles, which may well be said and held to be lawful and entirely legitimate presumptions."

To this thirty-second article Jeanne answered, on the Wednesday after Palm Sunday, March 28th, that she denies it, and declares she has acted from the revelations of St. Catherine and St. Margaret, and will so maintain till her death. This same day she said that she was advised by certain of her party to put Jhesus Maria on her letters; which she did on some, and not on others. Where it is written "All that

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she has done is at God's bidding," should read "All the good I have done."

Asked, on this same day, whether her expedition to La Charité was well or ill done, she answered: "If I have done wrong, I will confess."

Asked if it was right for her to go to Paris, she answered that the French noblemen wished to, and by so doing, she believes, they performed their duty of attacking their enemies.

XXXIII

"The said Jeanne presumptuously and rashly boasted and boasts of knowing the future and having known the past, of discovering things secret or hidden; and this attribute of God she attributes to herself, a simple and unlearned creature."

To this thirty-third article, this Wednesday, March 28th, Jeanne answers: "It is for God to make revelations to whom He pleases," and of the sword and other things to come which she told, she knew them by revelation.

On Saturday, February 24th, she said the Burgundians will have war, if they do not as they should; she knows it by her voice.

On Tuesday, February 27th, asked whether when the assault was to be made at Orleans, she did not tell her men that she would receive the arrows, crossbolts and stones, she answered no; and there were a hundred or more wounded. But she did tell them to have no fear, and they would raise the siege. Asked, on the same day, to which fortress she ordered her men to retire, she says she does not remember. She added that she was confident of raising the siege of Orleans, because it had been revealed to her; this she told her king before going there. She said also that at the assault upon the fortress of the Bridge she was wounded in the neck by a crossbolt; but received great comfort from St. Michael, and was better in a

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fortnight. Asked if she knew beforehand that she would be wounded, she answered that she did indeed, and had told her king so; but that notwithstanding, she would not give up her work. It was revealed to her by the voices of St. Catherine and St. Margaret. She added that she herself was the first to plant the ladder up against the fortress of the Bridge, and as she was raising it, she was wounded in the neck with a crossbolt.

On Thursday, March 1st she said that within seven years the English would lose a greater stake than they did at Orleans; that the English will suffer a greater loss than ever they did in France, which will be by the victory God will send the French. This she knows by revelation, it will happen within seven years, and she is very vexed that it should be so long postponed. She says, as above, that she knows it by revelation, as well as she knows that we were before her. She said: "I know it as well as I know you are here." Asked in what year it will happen, she answered: "You will not learn that; nevertheless I heartily wish it might be before St. John's Day." This same day, asked if she said it would happen before Martinmas, she answered that she had said that many things would be seen before then; and it might well be that the English would be overthrown and stricken to the ground. Asked what she told John Grey, her guard, in prison, about Martinmas, she answered: "I have told you!" Asked through whom she knew it would happen before Martinmas, she answered that she knew it from St. Catherine and St. Margaret.

This same Thursday, March 1st asked what promises St. Catherine and St. Margaret made her, she answered: "That is not in your case," and, amongst other things, they told her that her king should be reëstablished in his kingdom, whether his enemies wished it or not. The same day she said she knew

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well that her king would regain the kingdom of France, as well as she knew we were there.

On Saturday, March 3rd, asked if the voices told her anything in a general way, she answered: "Yes, indeed, they told me I shall be delivered; but I do not know the day or the hour; and that I must boldly show a cheerful countenance before you."

On Saturday, March 10th asked if the sally at Compiègne was made at the instruction of her voices, she answered that in Easter week last, when she was in the trenches at Melun, she was told by the voices of St. Catherine and St. Margaret that she would be captured before St. John's Day; it had to be so; and she should not be distressed, but take everything in good part, and God would aid her. This same day, asked if since Melun she had been told by her voices that she would be captured, she answered yes, several times, nearly every day. She asked of her voices that when she was taken she might die quickly without long suffering in prison; and her voices told her to be resigned, that it must so happen, but they did not tell her when. If she had known when she was to be captured, she would not have gone. She had often asked them, but they did not tell her. The same day she said that when she had to leave for her king, she was told by her voices: "Go boldly; when thou art in the king's presence, he shall have a good sign to receive thee and believe in thee."

On Monday, March 12th, asked how she would have delivered the Duke of Orleans, she answered she would have taken enough English prisoners in this district to ransom him; and if she had not taken enough, she would have crossed the sea to fetch him by force from England. Asked if St. Catherine and St. Margaret had told her absolutely and unconditionally that she would take enough prisoners to ransom the Duke, who was in England, or else she should cross the sea

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to fetch him and bring him back within three years, she answered yes, and she told the king to let her have her way with the prisoners. She added that if she had gone on for three years unhindered she would have delivered him. She said that she needed less than three years and more than one, but does not now remember.

On Wednesday, March 14th, asked to what peril and danger we, bishop and clerics, expose ourselves by trying her, she answered that St. Catherine told her she should have help; she does not know whether this will be her deliverance from prison, or if, whilst she is being tried, some tumult may arise through which she can be delivered. She thinks it will be one or the other; and most often her voices tell her she will be delivered by a great victory. And then they say: "Take everything peacefully; have no care for thy martyrdom."

XXXIV

"The said Jeanne, persisting in her rash and presumptuous ways, has declared, spread abroad and published that she is able to recognize and distinguish the voices of God's archangels, angels, and saints, affirming that she can distinguish them from human voices."

To this thirty-fourth article on Wednesday, March 28th, Jeanne replies that she abides by her former answers in this connection and in respect of her rashness and the end of the article, she refers herself to the judgment of Our Lord.

On Tuesday, February 27th, asked if it was the voice of an angel, or of a saint, or of God Himself, which spoke to her, she answered that it was the voice of St. Catherine or St. Margaret. Their heads were crowned in rich and precious fashion with beautiful crowns. "And to tell this, she said, "I have God's permission. If you doubt it, send to Poitiers where I was examined before." The same day, asked how she knew

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one saint from the other, she answered that she knew them by the greeting they gave her, and because they tell her their names.

On Thursday, March 1st asked how she knew whether her apparition was man or woman, she answered: "I know well, and I recognize the saints by their voices," and because they revealed themselves to her. The same day, asked what part of them she saw, she answered the face. Asked if they had hair, she answered: "It is well to know they have." Asked if there were anything between their crowns and their hair, she answered no. Asked if their hair were long and hung down, she answered: "I do not know." She added that she did not know whether they appeared to have arms or other members. She said they spoke very well and beautifully, and she understood them well. Asked how they spoke if they had no other members, she answered: "I refer me to God." On March 15th, asked if she had no other sign than these apparitions were good spirits, she answered: "St. Michael certified it before the voices came to me." Asked how she knew it was St. Michael, she answered: "By the angels' speech and tongue," and she firmly believed they were angels. Asked how she knew it was the speech of angels, she answered that she believed it very soon and had the desire to believe it. She added that St. Michael, when he came to her, told her that St. Catherine and St. Margaret would come to her, that she should follow their counsel, and that they were instructed to lead her and advise her what she had to do; and that she should believe what they said, for it was at Our Lord's command.

Asked how she would tell if he were a good or evil spirit if the Enemy put himself in the form and guise of an angel, she answered that she would certainly know whether it was St. Michael or a counterfeit in his likeness. She answered that at first she had grave doubts whether it was St. Michael, and

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the first time she was afraid; and she saw him many times before she knew it was St. Michael. Asked how she knew then rather than on the first occasion that it was St. Michael who had appeared to her, she replied that the first time she was a young girl and was afraid; since then St. Michael taught her and showed her so many things that she firmly believed it was he. Asked what doctrine he taught her, she answered that in all things he told her to be a good child and God would help her; and amongst other things he told her she should go to the aid of the king of France. A great part of what the angel taught her is in this book, and the angel told her of the great pity that was in the kingdom of France.

XXXV

"The said Jeanne hath boasted and affirmed that she is able to tell whom God loves and whom He hates."

To this thirty-fifth article, this Wednesday, March 28th, she answers: "I abide by what I have already answered, with regard to the king and the Duke of Orleans"; of other folk, she knows nothing. She says she knows very well that God loves her king and the Duke of Orleans more than her, for their bodily ease; and she knows this by revelation.

On Thursday, February 22nd, she said that she knows God loves greatly the Duke of Orleans, and also that she had had more revelations about him than any man alive, save her king.

On Saturday, February 24th, asked if she could so influence the voice that it would obey her and take news to her king, she answered that she did not know whether the voice would obey her unless it were God's will, and God consented thereto. "And if it please God He will be able to send revelations to the king, and with this I shall be well pleased." Asked why

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this voice no longer speaks with the king as it did when Jeanne was in his presence, she answered that she does not know if it be not God's will.

On Saturday, March 17th, asked how she knows that St. Margaret and St. Catherine hate the English, she answered: "They love those whom God loves, and hate whom He hates." Asked if God hates the English, she answers that she knows nothing of God's love or hatred, or what God will do to their souls, but she is certain that with the exception of those who shall die there, they will be driven out of France, and that God will send victory to the French and against the English. Asked if God was for the English when they were prospering in France, she answered that she knew not whether God hated the French, but she believed it was His will to suffer them to be beaten for their sins, if they were in a state of sin.

XXXVI

"The said Jeanne hath declared, affirmed, and boasted, and still doth, from day to day, that she knows and hath truly known, and not she alone, but also other men at her request have truly known and recognized a certain voice, which she calls her voice, which came to her; although, by its nature, the said voice which she describes and hath described, must have been and is invisible to every human creature."

To this thirty-sixth article the said Jeanne answers that she abides by her earlier answers.

On Thursday, February 22nd she said that those of her party knew well that the voice was sent from God, and that they saw and knew it, this she knew well. Moreover, she said that her king and several others heard and saw the voice which came to her, and there were present Charles de Bourbon and two or three others.

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XXXVII

"The said Jeanne confesses that she has often done the opposite of what the revelations she boasts to receive from God enjoined and commanded her; for example, when she left Saint-Denis, after the assault at Paris; when she jumped from the tower at Beaurevoir, and on other occasions. Wherein it is manifest, either that she has not had revelations from God or she has scorned the instructions and express revelations by which she proclaims she is wholly influenced and governed. Moreover she said, when she was ordered not to jump from the tower, and was tempted to do the opposite, that she could not do otherwise. Wherein she appears to hold erroneous opinions of men's free will and to fall into the error of those who advance that it is conditioned by fatal prescriptions, or something of similar import."

To this thirty-seventh article, this Wednesday, March 28th, she answers: "I refer to my earlier answers," yet she added that she had received permission for her departure from Saint-Denis. Asked whether by acting against the instruction of her voices she did not believe herself in mortal sin, she answered: "I have already answered this, and I refer to that answer." And, in respect of the conclusion of the article, she commits herself to God.

On Thursday, February 22nd she said that her voice told her to remain at Saint-Denis in France (and she wished to remain), but against her will the lords took her away. Nevertheless, if she had not been wounded she would not have gone. She was wounded in the trenches before Paris, and said that she recovered in five days.

On Saturday, March 10th asked whether, if her voices had ordered her to make the attack from Compiègne and had told her she would be captured, she would have gone, she answered

[191] that if she had known when she was to be captured she would not have gone willingly; nevertheless, she would have done their bidding in the end, whatever it cost her.

On Thursday, March 15th asked if she ever did anything against the instruction and will of her voices, she answered that she did and performed with all her might that which she could and was able to do. As for her leap from the tower at Beaurevoir, which she did against their bidding, she could not help herself; and when her voices saw her need, and that she could in no way hold herself back, they lent aid to her life and prevented her from being killed. Moreover, she said that whatever she did in her great ventures, they succored her, and this is a sign that they are good spirits.

The same day, asked if she did not believe it to be a great sin to anger St. Catherine and St. Margaret who appear to her, and to do contrary to their bidding, she answers yes, but she knows how to atone for it; what angered them most of all in her opinion was the leap at Beaurevoir, wherein she asked their 4forgiveness, and for other offenses she had committed against them.

XXXVIII

"The said Jeanne, although from her youth up she has uttered, committed, and perpetrated many sins, crimes, errors and faults, shameful, cruel, scandalous, dishonorable and unfitting to her sex, nevertheless proclaims and affirms that everything she has done is at God's bidding and according to His will, that she has never done anything which does not proceed from Him, through the revelations of His holy saints and blessed virgins Catherine and Margaret."

To this thirty-eighth article, Jeanne answers that she refers to her earlier replies in this connection. On Saturday, February 24th, she said that but for God's

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grace she could do nothing. The same day, asked if the people of Domrémy were on the side of the Burgundians or the others, she answered that she only knew one Burgundian in the village and she would have been quite willing for him to have his head cut off, if it had pleased God. Asked if in her youth her voice told her to hate the Burgundians, she answered that since she knew the voices were for the king of France, she did not like the Burgundians.

On Thursday, March 15th, asked if in battle she had done anything without the counsel of her voices, she answered: "You have my answer to this; read your book carefully, and you will find it." Nevertheless she said that at the request of men-at-arms she made an attack before Paris, and also before La Charité at her king's request. It was neither against nor according to the commands of her voices. Asked if she ever did anything contrary to their command and will, she answered as is contained in the preceding article.

XXXIX

"Although the just man falleth seven times in a day, nevertheless the said Jeanne utters and publishes that she has never committed, or at least never has to her knowledge committed, acts of mortal sin, notwithstanding that she has in reality performed all the acts (and others worse still) customary to fighting men; as it is declared in the preceding and following articles."

To this thirty-ninth article this Wednesday, March 28th, she answers: "I have answered this. I abide by my earlier answers."

On Saturday, February 24th, asked if she knows if she is in God's grace, she answered: "If I am not, may God put me there, and if I am, may God so keep me." She said she would be the saddest creature in the world if she were not

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in God's grace, and added that if she were in a state of sin, she did not think the voice would come to her, and wished every one could hear it as well as she did.

On Thursday, March 1st she said she is very glad when she sees her voice, and thinks when she sees it she cannot be in mortal sin. She says St. Catherine and St. Margaret in turn gladly hear her in confession, and if she is in mortal sin, she is not aware of it. Asked if, when she confesses, she feels as if in mortal sin, she answered that she did not know whether she is in a state of mortal sin, but does not think she has committed such deeds. "Please God," she said, "I never was, and if it please Him, I never shall commit or have committed such deeds as burden my soul."

On Wednesday, March 14th, asked whether it was not mortal sin to take a man at ransom and put him to death, a prisoner, she answered that she had not done that. And as mention was made of a certain Franquet d'Arras, who was sent to Lagny to be put to death, she answered that she was consenting to his death if he had deserved it, since he had confessed himself a murderer, a thief, and a traitor. His trial lasted, she said, for a fortnight, and he was tried by the Bailly of Senlis and a jury of the people of Lagny. She said she had asked to have Franquet exchanged for a man from Paris, the landlord of the Bear Inn; and when she heard of the death of the landlord, and the Bailly told her she would be doing great wrong to justice by delivering this Franquet, she said to the Bailly: "Since the man I wanted is dead, do with this fellow as justice demands." And when she was reminded that she had attacked Paris on a Feast Day, and that she had had the lord Bishop of Senlis's horse, and that she had thrown herself from the tower at Beaurevoir, and that she wore man's dress, she was asked if she did not believe she had committed mortal sin. She answered firstly, concerning

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the attack on Paris she did not think she was in mortal sin, and if she were, it was for God, and the priest in confession, to know it. Secondly, concerning the bishop's horse, she answered that she firmly believes that she did not therein commit mortal sin, for the lord Bishop of Senlis received a warrant for :zoo gold saluts for the horse. Thirdly, concerning the tower of Beaurevoir, she answered that she did not leap out of despair, but in hope of saving her body and of going to the aid of many good people in need, and after the leap she confessed herself and asked forgiveness of God, which she received, and she thinks it was wrong to make that leap. She knows she received pardon after her confession from a revelation of St. Catherine's, at whose counsel she confessed herself. Fourthly, concerning the man's dress, she answered: "Since I do it by God's command, and in His service, I do not think I do wrong; and as soon as it shall please God to command, I will put it off."

XL

"The said Jeanne, forgetful of her salvation and at the instigation of the Devil, is not and has not been ashamed from time to time and in many divers places to receive the Body of Christ in dissolute male attire, a costume forbidden and prohibited her by the command of God and the Church."

To this fortieth article, Jeanne answers: "l have answered this and I refer to my earlier answer," and in conclusion, submits to God.

On Saturday, March 3rd, asked whether when she was journeying through the country she often received the sacraments of the Eucharist and of Confession when she came to the good towns, she answered yes, from time to time. Asked if she received the sacraments in man's dress, she answered yes, but does not remember receiving them in armor.

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XLI

"The said Jeanne, like a madwoman, out of hatred and scorn for the English, and also from fear of the destruction of Compiègne which she had heard of, tried to cast herself from the top of a high tower, and at the instigation of the devil, decided to do so, attempting and performing all she could to accomplish this end; in this manner she cast herself, incited or induced by a diabolical instinct, more anxious for the safety of her body than the salvation of her soul, and of other souls; boasting often that she would rather die than let herself be delivered into the hands of the English."

To this forty-first article, Jeanne answers: "I refer to the answers I have already made."

On Saturday, March 3rd, asked if she was long in the town of Beaurevoir, she answered that she was there for about four months; and when she heard that the English were to come, she was very angry, and though her voices forbade her to jump from the tower, at last, from fear of the English, she leaped and commended herself to God and Our Lady. Asked if she had said that she would rather die than fall into the hands of the English, she answered that she would rather surrender her soul to God than fall in their hands.

On Wednesday, March 14th, asked why she jumped from the tower of Beaurevoir, she answered that she had heard that the people of Compiègne all of them to the age of seven years, were to be put to fire and to the sword; and she would rather die than live after such a destruction of good people. That was one reason why she jumped; the other was that she knew she had been sold to the English, and she would have died rather than fall into their hands. Asked if her leap was made at the counsel of her voices, she answered that St. Catherine told her almost every day not to jump, and

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God would aid her and the people of Compiègne too. But Jeanne told St. Catherine that since God was going to help the people of Compiègne she wanted to be there; and St. Catherine said: "You must be resigned and not falter; you will not be delivered until you have seen the King of the English." Jeanne answered: "Truly I do not want to see him, and I would rather die than fall into the hands of the English." She said that after her fall from the tower she was two or three days without desire to eat, yet she was comforted by St. Catherine who told her to confess and ask God's forgiveness for having cast herself down; and the people of Compiègne would have aid without fail before Martinmas in winter; and then she began to eat and drink, and soon after was well. Asked if when she regained her speech after her fall she denied God and His Saints, she answered that she did not remember that she had ever denied God or His Saints. Asked if she was willing to abide by the evidence collected or to be collected, she answered that she would leave it to God, and none other.

XLII

"The said Jeanne has said and publicly declared that St. Catherine, St. Margaret, and St. Michael have corporal members such as head, eyes, face, etc.; and added that she has touched these saints with her hands and has embraced and kissed them."

To this forty-second article, Jeanne answers: "I have answered this and refer to my earlier statements in respect of this."

Now on Saturday, March 17th, asked whether she ever kissed or embraced St. Catherine and St. Margaret, she answered that she had embraced them both, and they had a fine odor. Asked if, when she embraced them, she felt heat

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or anything else, she answered that she could not embrace them without feeling or touching them. Asked what part of them she embraced, their head or their feet, she answer that it is more fitting to embrace their feet.

XLIII

"The said Jeanne has said and publicly declared that the saints, angels, and archangels speak French and not English and that the saints, angels and archangels are not on the side of the English but of the French, affirming to their scorn that the saints in glory look with hatred on a Catholic realm and a country given to the veneration of all the saints according to the instruction of the Church."

To this forty-third article, which was explained to her word by word, Jeanne answered nothing beyond: "I refer me to Our Lord and to my earlier answers."

On Thursday, March 1st she said that the voice is fair soft and meek, and speaks French. Asked if this voice, that is St. Margaret, spoke English, she answered: "Why should she speak English? She is not on the English side."

XLIV

"The said Jeanne boasted and proclaimed, and still does that St. Catherine and St. Margaret promised to lead her to Paradise and assured her of salvation if she kept her virginity and that she is assured of salvation."

To this forty-fourth article, Jeanne answers: "I refer me to our Lord and my earlier answers."

On Thursday, February 22nd she said that she never asked of the voice any other final reward than the salvation of her soul.

[On Wednesday, March 14th] asked whether since her voices told her she will go in the end to the kingdom of Paradise,

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she feels assured of her salvation, and safe from damnation in hell, she answered that she firmly believes what her voices told her, namely, that she will be saved, as firmly as if she were already in Paradise. And when she was told that this was an answer of great weight, she replied that she held it for a great treasure; and meant, in respect of this article, provided she kept her oath and promise to Our Lord, that is, to keep safe her virginity of body and of soul. Asked whether after this revelation she believes it possible for her to commit mortal sin, she answered: "I do not know, but commit myself to God in all things." Asked if she need confess, since she believes from the revelation of her voices that she will be saved, she answered that she does not know of having committed mortal sin; but if she were in mortal sin, she thinks St. Catherine and St. Margaret would at once abandon her, and believes one cannot too much cleanse one's conscience. She said on Thursday, March 1st that her saints promised to lead her to Paradise, and so she had asked them to do.

XLV

"Although the judgments of God are altogether inscrutable to us, nevertheless the said Jeanne has said, uttered, declared, and proclaimed that she has known and knows who are the saints, angels, and archangels, the elect of God; and that she can distinguish them from one another."

To this forty-fifth article, Jeanne answers: "I refer to my earlier answers."

On Tuesday, February 27th, asked how and why she knew it was St. Catherine and St. Margaret who appeared to her, and how she told one from the other, she answered that she knew well who they were and easily recognized one from the other.

On Thursday, March 1st asked if the saints always appeared

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to her in the same dress, she answered that she always saw them in one and the same form, and their heads were richly crowned, and of their other clothing she does not speak, nor know anything of their robes. On Saturday, March 3rd, she said that she saw clearly St. Catherine and St. Margaret and her other apparitions, and knows they are saints of Paradise.

XLVI

"She says that she very affectionately interceded with St. Catherine and St. Margaret for the people of Compiègne before taking her leap, saying to them, among other things, by way of reproach: 'And how shall God suffer the people of Compiègne to die so wretchedly, who are so faithful to Him!' Wherein appear her impatience and irreverence towards God and His Saints."

To this forty-sixth article, Jeanne answers: I refer to my earlier answers."

On Saturday, March 3rd, she said that after she was wounded by leaping from the tower of Beaurevoir, the voice of St. Catherine told her to be of good cheer and she would recover, and the people of Compiègne would have aid; she said that she often prayed with her counsel for the Compiègne folk.

XLVII

"The said Jeanne, displeased with wounds she received from her fall or leap from the tower of Beaurevoir, and vexed that she had not realized her plan, blasphemed God and His Saints, shamefully denied them, and terribly scorned them to the horror of all who were present; and further, since she has been in the castle of Rouen, on many different days she has blasphemed and denied God, the Blessed Virgin, and the Saints, bearing with impatience and protesting against the fact that

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she is brought to trial before and is to be judged by the clergy."

To this forty-seventh article, Jeanne answers: "I refer me to Our Lord and to my answers in this connection."

On Saturday, March 3rd, asked whether she was not vexed and angry after jumping from the tower, and whether she did not blaspheme the Name of God, she answered that she never cursed the Saints, and it was not her custom to swear. Asked about Soissons, where her captain had surrendered the town, and whether she denied God, and said that if she captured the captain she would have him drawn and quartered, she answered that she never denied the Saints, and those who reported so were mistaken. On Wednesday, March 14th, asked whether since she had been in this prison she had not denied or blasphemed God, she answered no; sometimes when she said bon gré Dieu or saint Jehan or Nostre Dame, those who reported the words may have misunderstood.

XLVIII

"The said Jeanne declared that she believed and believes that the spirits which appeared to her were angels, archangels and saints of God, as firmly as she believes in the Christian faith, and in the articles of this faith, although she reports no sign sufficient to know them by; moreover, in this she consulted no bishop, priest or other prelate of the Church, or any other cleric to discover whether she should give credence to such spirits; and declares that she was forbidden by her voices to reveal these communications to any one except a captain of soldiers, to the said Charles, and to other purely secular persons. Wherein she confesses that her credulity is rash, her opinions on the articles of the faith and their foundations erroneous; and in addition that she had suspicious revelations

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which she hid from prelates and the clergy and made known by preference to secular persons."

To this forty-eighth article, Jeanne answers: I have given you my reply and refer to what is written down." As for the signs, if those who ask for them are not worthy, she cannot help that. Many times she has prayed to God that it please Him to reveal them to some of her party, and she added that for believing in her revelations she did not ask the advice of bishop or priest or any other. She said that she believes it was St. Michael, from the good doctrine he taught her.

Asked whether St. Michael said to her I am St. Michael," she answers "I have already answered," and in respect of the end of the article, says: "I refer me to Our Lord." She says she believes, as firmly as she believes Our Lord suffered death to redeem us from the pains of hell, that it is St. Michael , St. Gabriel, St. Catherine and St. Margaret, that Our Lord sends to comfort and advise her.

On Saturday, February 24th, she said that she firmly believes, as firmly as she believes in the Christian faith and that Our Lord redeemed us from the pains of hell, that this voice comes from God and at His command.

On Saturday, March 3rd, asked if she believes that St. Michael and St. Gabriel have natural heads, she answered she had seen them with her own eyes and believes they are St. Michael and St. Gabriel as firmly as she believes in the existence of God. Asked whether she believes God created them with the heads she saw, she answered: "I have seen them with my own eyes, and will not tell you any more!"

Asked whether she believes God created them in the shape and form she saw, she answered yes. On Monday, March 13th, asked whether she has not spoken of her visions to her priest or any other cleric, she answered no, only to Robert de Baudicourt and to her king. She added

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that she was not constrained by the voices to conceal them, but was afraid to speak of them for fear of the Burgundians, lest they should prevent her journey. The same day, asked if she thought it right to leave without the permission of her father and mother, since one should honor one's father and mother, she answered that she obeyed them in all things except this departure; and since then she had written to them, and they have forgiven her.

XLIX

"The said Jeanne with no reason beyond her imagination, venerated spirits of this sort, kissing the earth where she saw they passed, kneeling before them, embracing and kissing them, and doing them other reverence, giving them thanks, putting her hands together and entering into familiarity with them; yet she did not know whether they were good spirits, and moreover considering the circumstances they must be judged by her to be and manifestly are more evil than good. Which cult and veneration seem to partake of idolatry and to proceed from a pact made with devils." To this forty-ninth article on this Wednesday, March 28th, Jeanne answers, in respect of the beginning, "I have answered this," and of the end, I refer me to Our Lord."

On Saturday, February 24th, asked whether she did not thank the voice which appeared to her, and kneel down before it, she answered that she thanked it, but was sitting on the bed, and she put her hands together; and this was after she had asked counsel of it.

On Saturday, March 10th, asked what reverence she showed the sign when it came to her king, and whether it came from God, she answered that she thanked Our Lord for her deliverance from the trouble arising from the opposition of the clergy of her party; and she knelt down many times. The same day,

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asked whether her king and she did reverence to the angel when he brought the sign, she answered that for her part she did, she knelt down and uncovered her head.

On Monday, March 12th, asked whether she spoke to Our Lord when she promised Him to keep her virginity, she answered that it ought to be quite enough to promise it to those who were sent from Him, namely St. Catherine and St. Margaret. She said that the first time she heard her voice she vowed to keep her virginity as long as it should please God, and was then about thirteen years old. The same day, asked whether she did reverence to St. Michael and the angels when she saw them, she answered that she did, and- kissed the ground where they had passed after they were gone.

On Thursday, March Keith, asked whether when her voices come to her she bows down altogether, as to a saint, she answers yes; and if sometimes she has failed to do so, she afterwards asked forgiveness, nor could she do them the reverence proper to them, for she fully believes them to be St. Catherine and St. Margaret. She said the same in respect of St. Michael. This same day, asked whether she had not made offerings to the saints, who come to her, of burning candles or other things, in church, or elsewhere, or had Masses said, she answered no, except at Mass, in the priest's hands, and in honor of St. Catherine. She believes that St. Catherine is one of them that appear to her; nor has she lit as many candles to St. Catherine and St. Margaret who are in Paradise as she gladly would, for she fully believes it is they who come to her.

Asked the same day whether when she puts these candles before the images of St. Catherine she does it in honor of the saint who appears to her, she answered: "I do it in honor of God, of Our Lady, of St. Catherine, who is in heaven, and I make no difference between St. Catherine who is in heaven and her who appears to me." Asked this same day whether

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she always did or accomplished the bidding of her voices, she answered that with all her might she accomplished the behest which Our Lord spake through her voices, as far as she could understand; and they bade her nothing without the good pleasure of Our Lord.

On Saturday, March 17th, asked if she did not give chaplets of flowers to the saints who appeared to her, she answered that in honor of these saints she gave many chaplets to their images or representations in churches, but as far as she remembers she has not presented any to those who appear to her. Asked whether when she hung chaplets on the aforementioned tree she did it in honor of the saints who appeared to her, she answered no. The same day, asked whether when the saints came to her she did not do them reverence, as by kneeling or bowing, she answered yes; the more she could do them reverence the more she did, for she knows well they are saints of Paradise.

L

"The said Jeanne frequently and daily invokes these spirits, consulting them in her private actions, for example in the answers she should make in her trial, and in other subjects, which appears and constitutes an invocation of demons."

To this fiftieth article on Wednesday, March 28th, the said Jeanne answers: I have answered this," and she will call them to her aid as long as she shall live.

Asked in what manner she approaches them, she answers: "I beg Our Lord and Our Lady to send me their counsel and comfort and then they send it to me."

Asked with what words she beseeches them, she answers that she beseeches them in this manner: "Very sweet Lord, in honor of Thy holy passion, I beseech Thee, if Thou lovest me, to reveal to me how I am to answer these churchfolk. I

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know well, in the matter of the dress, the command by which I took it, but I do not know how I am to leave it off. In this, may it please Thee to instruct me." And then they come immediately. Often, she said, she has news through her voices of the bishop of Beauvais. Asked what they say of Us, she answered: "I will tell you apart," and on that very day they had come thrice to her.

Asked if they were in her room, she answered: "I have answered you in this; nevertheless I hear them well." She says St. Catherine and St. Margaret told her in what way she should reply in respect of the dress.

On Saturday, February 24th, she said the voice told her to answer boldly; and that when she awakened from sleep, she asked counsel of the voice in what she should reply, telling the voice to ask counsel of Our Lord; the voice told her to answer boldly and God would comfort her. The same day, asked whether before she questioned it the voice did not address certain words to her, she said the voice did, but she did not understand them all. However, when she awoke, she understood the voice to tell her to answer boldly. She said that night she had heard the voice say "Answer boldly."

On Tuesday, February 27th, asked what the voice had told her, she said that since last Saturday she had asked advice on certain points of our examinations in the trial. Asked if the voice had given her counsel on certain points, she answered yes, upon certain, and that on others she might be asked questions which she would not answer without leave. If she replied without leave perhaps she would not have the voices for warrant, but when she had leave from Our Lord she would not be afraid to speak, for then she would have a good warrant. The same day, asked how she could distinguish such points as she would answer, and such as she would not, she answered

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that on some points she had asked permission, and on some she had received it.

On Monday, March 12th, asked whether the angel did not deceive her in respect of the good things of fortune, when she was taken, she answered that she thought that since it pleased God, it was better for her to be taken prisoner. Asked whether the angel did not fail her in respect of the good things of grace, she answered: "How should he fail me when he comforts me every day?" And she believes the comfort is St. Catherine and St. Margaret. Asked if she calls them or if they come without being called, she answered that they often come without being called, and sometimes, if they did not come, she would pray to God to send them. Asked if she sometimes had called them without them coming, she answered that she never needed them, however little, but they came to her.

On Wednesday, March 13th, asked whether she had spoken to St. Catherine since the day before, she answered that she has heard her since then, and notwithstanding was told many times to answer the judges boldly what they should ask her touching the case.

On Wednesday, March 14th, asked whether her voices required a delay for answering, she says St. Catherine answers her sometimes but sometimes Jeanne falls to understand her, because of the tumult of the prison and the din from her guards; when she makes a request to St. Catherine, St. Catherine and St. Margaret immediately take it to Our Lord; and then, at Our Lord's bidding, give answer to Jeanne. Asked whether there is a light with the saints when they come to her, and whether she does not see a light, when she hears the voice in the castle, and whether she did not know if the voice was in her room, she answered that no day passes but they come to her in the castle of Rouen, and they do not come without light; and on this occasion when she heard the voice she does

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not remember if she saw the light, nor if she saw St. Catherine. She said she asked three things of her voices, namely first, her deliverance; second, that God should help the French and keep the towns in their control; and third, the salvation of her soul.

Ll

"The said Jeanne has not feared to boast that St. Michael, God's archangel, came to her with a great multitude of angels in the castle of Chinon, and in the house of a certain woman; that he walked with her, holding her by the hand, climbing together with her the castle steps and entering the king's chamber; that this archangel did reverence to the king, bowed before him, accompanied by other angels, as is declared above; some of them were crowned, others had wings. To say this of archangels and of holy angels must be held presumptuous, rash, deceitful; especially seeing that it is not written that any man, however upright, nor even Our Lady, Mother of God, received such reverence or greetings. Often she said that there came to her the archangel Gabriel, St. Michael, and sometimes a million angels. Moreover, the said Jeanne boasts that at her prayer the said angel brought with him, in this company of angels, a most precious crown for her king, to put upon his head, and that it is now put into the king's treasury; with it, according to Jeanne, the king would have been crowned at Reims if he had waited a few days, but owing to the haste with which his coronation was carried out he took another. These are less divine revelations than lies invented by Jeanne, suggested or shown to her by the demon in illusive apparitions, in order to mock at her imagination whilst she meddled with things which are beyond her and superior to the faculty of her condition."

To this fifty-first article on Wednesday, March 28th, Jeanne I

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answers that she has already replied in respect of the angel who brought the sign. As for the Promoter's statement about millions of angels, she answers that she has no recollection of having spoken thus of the number. She did say that she was never wounded, but she had great comfort and aid from Our Lord and St. Catherine and St. Margaret.

In respect of the crown, she says she has answered, and of the end of the article, and likewise of where the crown was made, she refers to God.

On Tuesday, February Keith, asked if there was an angel above the king's head when she saw him for the first time, she answered: "By Our Lady, if there was I do not know of it, and did not see it." Asked if there was a light, she answered that there were more than 300 knights and more than fifty torches, not counting the spiritual light; and she seldom had revelations without a light. Asked why her king put faith in her sayings, she answered that he had good instructions concerning them from the clerks. She said that the clerks of her party were of the opinion that nothing but good would come of her mission.

On Thursday, March 1st asked whether her king had a crown at Reims, she answered that she believes he gladly took one which he found at Reims, but a much richer one had been since brought; he did so to hasten his coronation at the request of the townsfolk and to avoid the burden of the soldiers; and if he had waited he would have been crowned with a crown a thousand times richer. Asked whether she saw this richer crown, she answered that she cannot tell without committing perjury, and that if she did not see it, she heard that it is of such wealth.

On Saturday, March 10th asked what the sign was which came to her king, she answered that it was fair, honorable, and most credible; rich and good, the richest in the world. Asked

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why she will not tell or show the sign, as she wanted to have Catherine de La Rochelle's sign, she answered that she would not have asked to know Catherine's sign if it had been as well shown as her own sign was before notable ecclesiastics, and other;, archbishops and bishops, whose names she does not know; Charles de Bourbon, the Sire de la Trémouille, the Duke d'Alençon and many other knights saw and heard it as plainly as she saw those speaking to her then. Moreover, she knew well through St. Catherine and St. Margaret that the affairs of this Catherine were as nothing at all. Asked whether the sign still exists she answered: "It is good to know that it does; it will last a thousand years, and more." She said the sign is with the king's treasure. Asked whether it was gold, silver, or precious stone, or a crown, she answered: "I will tell you no more. No man could describe a thing so rich as this sign," and added: "The sign you need is for God to deliver me out of your hands, the most certain sign He could show you." The same day she said that an angel from God and from none other gave the sign to her king; and for this she thanked Our Lord many times. She said the clergy of her party ceased opposing her when they had this sign. Asked whether the clergy of her party saw the sign, she answered that when her king and those who were with him saw the sign, and also the angel who bore it, she asked the king if he were content, and he replied yes. Then she left, and went to a little chapel hard by, and heard that after her departure more than 300 people saw the sign. She added that for her sake and to stop men from catechizing her, God willed that those of her party who were there should see the sign.

On Monday, March 12th, asked whether the angel that brought the sign did not speak, she answered yes, he told her king to set her to work, and the country would straightway be relieved. Asked whether the angel who brought the sign

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was the same that first appeared to her, or whether it was another, she answered that it was always the same one, and he never failed her. The same day, asked about the sign she gave the king, she said she would take counsel from St. Catherine concerning it.

On Tuesday, March 13th, when examined upon the sign she gave her king, and what it was, she answered: "Would you be content if I perjured myself?" Asked if she had vowed and promised St. Catherine not to tell this sign, she answered: "I swore and promised not to tell this sign, of my own accord, because I was too much pressed to tell it." Then she said she would not speak of it to any man. The same day she told that the sign was that an angel assured her king by bringing him the crown and saying he should possess the whole and entire kingdom of France, by God's help and the labors of Jeanne; and he was to put her to work, that is to say, to give her soldiers, else he would not so soon be crowned and consecrated.

The same day, asked how the angel brought the crown, and whether he placed it on the king's head, she answered that the crown was given to an archbishop, namely the archbishop of Reims, in the king's presence, so it seemed to her; and the archbishop received it and gave it to the king, and Jeanne was present, and it was put in the king's treasure. Asked where the crown was brought, she answered that it was in the king's chamber, in the castle of Chinon. Asked on what day and at what hour, she answered: "Of the day, I know nothing; of the hour, it was late," beyond that she did not remember the hour. Of the month, it was in April or March, she thought, and in next April or the present month it will be two years ago and it was after Easter. Asked whether the first day she saw the sign the king also saw it, she answered yes, he himself received it. Asked what the crown was made of, she answered: "It is good to know that it was of pure gold," and was so rich that

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she could not count its richness, and it signified that her king would gain the kingdom of France. Asked whether there were precious stones in it, she answered: "I have told you what I know." Asked if she held it or kissed it, she said no. Asked whether the angel who brought it came from on high or from the earth, she answered that he came from on high, meaning that he came at Our Lord's command and entered the room by the door. Asked whether the angel walked on the ground from the door, she answered that when he came before her king he did the king reverence by bowing before him, and pronouncing the words of the sign which Jeanne said above, and with this the angel recalled to the king the sweet patience he had shown in the great tribulation which had befallen him, walked and came forward from the door on the ground, moving towards the king. Asked how far it was from the door to the king, she answered that she thought it was a good lance-length; and the angel went out by the way he came. She said that when the angel came she accompanied him, and went with him by the stairs to the king's chamber, and the angel went in first, and then she said to the king: "Sire, here is your sign, take it." Asked where it was the angel appeared to her, she answered that she was nearly always praying God to send the king a sign; she was in her lodging in the house of a good woman near the castle of Chinon when the angel came. Then they went together to the king, and the angel was well accompanied by other angels whom no one saw, and but for her sake and to release her from the trouble of opposition she thought that many who saw the angel would not have seen him.

Asked whether all who were with the king saw the angel, she answered that she thinks the Archbishop of Reims, de la Trémouille, and Charles de Bourbon saw him, and many churchmen and others who did not see the angel saw the crown.

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Asked of what appearance and size the angel was, she answered that she has not leave to tell that, and will answer to-morrow. Asked if all who were in the company of the angel were of the same appearance, she answered that some were fairly similar, and some as far as she could see, were not; some had wings and some crowns, and others had not; and in their company were St. Catherine and St. Margaret, who were with the said angel and the other angels up to the very chamber of the king. Asked how the angel left her, she said he left her in the little chapel, and she was much vexed at his leaving, and wept; and would have gladly gone with him, that is her soul would. Asked whether at the angel's departure she remained happy or afraid and in great terror, she answered that he did not leave her in fear, but she was vexed at his leaving. Asked whether it was for any merit of hers that God sent His angel, she answered that he came with a great purpose, and in hope that the king would believe the sign, and she would be left without opposition, to help the good people of Orleans, and also for the merit of her king and the good Duke of Orleans.

Asked why he had come to her rather than to another, she answered: "It pleased God to do so by a simple maid to drive back the king's enemies." Asked whether she had been told whence the angel had first taken the crown, she answered that it was brought from God, and no goldsmith on earth could make one so rich and fair; but where it came from, in respect of this she refers herself to God, and knows nothing more of it. Asked if the crown had a good odor and whether it glittered, she answered that she does not remember and will think it over; afterwards she said it had and would always have a good odor, but must be well and duly guarded; and it was in the form of a crown. Asked whether the angel had not written her letters, she answered no. Asked what sign the king received, and the people who were with him and her, to convince

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them that it was an angel who appeared to them, she answered that the king believed it by the teaching of the churchmen who were there, and by the sign of the crown. Asked how the churchmen knew it was an angel, she answered that they knew by their learning and because they were clerks.

LII

"The said Jeanne has so misled the Catholic people by her inventions that many adored her as a saint in her presence and even adore her in her absence, ordering Masses and collects in church in reverence of her; nay, they declare her to be greater than all God's saints, after Our Lady; they set up her images on the altars of Saints, wear medals of lead or other metal in her likeness, like those made for the anniversaries of saints canonized by the Church; and they preach in public that she is sent from God, an angel rather than a woman. These are most scandalous actions, hurtful to the Christian religion and dangerous to the salvation of souls."

To this fifty-second article, this Wednesday, March 28th, Jeanne answers that, in respect of the beginning she has already given answer, and of the end, that she refers to Our Lord.

On Saturday, March 3rd, asked whether she ever knew brother Richard, she answered: "I had never seen him when I came before Troyes." Asked what manner of greeting he gave her, she answered that the people of Troyes, she thought, sent him to her, saying that they were afraid she was not a thing sent from God; and when he drew near her, he made the sign of the cross and sprinkled holy water; and she said to him: "Come boldly; I shall not fly away." Asked whether she has not seen or made any images or pictures in her likeness, she answered that at Arras she saw a painting in the hands of a Scot; she was shown in full armor, presenting letters to her king, with one knee on the ground. Asked about a certain

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painting, at her host's house in Orleans, showing three women, Justice, Peace, Union, she answered that she knew nothing of that. Asked whether she knows that certain of her party had service, Mass, and prayers said for her, she answered that she knows nothing of it; and if any service was held, it was not at her instruction; though if they prayed for her, she feels they did not ill. On this Saturday, March 3rd, she was asked what honor the people of Troyes did her when she entered the town, and she answered: "They did me none," and added that she thought brother Richard entered Troyes with her, but she does not remember seeing him enter. Asked whether he preached a sermon when she arrived, she answered that when she came she scarcely stopped at Troyes and did not sleep there; and as for the sermon, she knew nothing of it.

LIII

"The said Jeanne, against the bidding of God and His Saints, proudly and presumptuously assumed domination over men; she appointed herself leader and captain of an army which rose at times to the number of 16,000 men, in which there were princes, barons, and other nobles, all of whom she made fight under herself as principal captain."

To this fifty-third article, this Wednesday, March 28th, Jeanne answers that in the matter of being leader in war she has already given her reply, and if she was leader, it was to conquer the English. In respect of the end of the article she refers to Our Lord.

On Tuesday, February 27th, asked what forces her king gave her, when he set her to work, she answered that he gave her ten or twelve thousand men, and that she went first to Orleans to the fortress of St. Loup and then to the fortress of the Bridge.

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LIV

"The said Jeanne unashamedly walked with men, refusing to have the company or care of womenfolk, and wished to employ only men whom she made serve in the private offices of her room and in her secret affairs, a thing unseen and unheard of in a modest or devout woman."

To this fifty-fourth article, Jeanne answers that her government was through men; as for where she lodged or slept at night, she usually had a woman with her; when she was fighting, she would lie fully dressed and armed, if there was no woman to be found. In respect of the end of the article, she refers herself to God.

LV

"The said Jeanne misused the revelations and prophecies she claims to have from God, turning them into worldly profit and advantage; for, by means of them she acquired a great number of riches, great state and apparel, many officers, horses, ornaments; wherein she imitated the false prophets who for love of worldly goods and to gain the favor of the great of this world, are wont to pretend that they have revelations concerning them, and hope to please the temporal princes: then they abuse the divine oracles and attribute their false lies to God."

To this fifty-fifth article, Jeanne answers that she has already replied to this; and in respect of the gifts made to her brothers, the king gave them from his grace, without her seeking. In respect of the charge the Promoter makes and the end of the article she refers herself to God.

On Saturday, March 10th asked if she ever had any other riches from her king than her horses, she answered that she never asked anything of her king save good arms, good horses,

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and money to pay the people of her household. Asked whether she had no treasure, she answered that the ten or twelve thousand worth she had was not much to carry on a war with, very little indeed, and that, she thinks, her brothers have. What she has is her king's own money. She said she was captured when she was riding a demi-charger; asked who gave her it, she answered that her king or his people with the king s money gave her it; she had five chargers from the king's money, not counting the hacks, which were more than seven.

LVI

"The said Jeanne has often boasted of having two counselors whom she calls her counselors of the fountain, who came to her after she was captured, as has been proved by the confession of Catherine de La Rochelle before the official at Paris, which Catherine said that Jeanne would escape from her prison with the devil's aid if she were not well guarded."

To this fifty-sixth article, the said Jeanne answers that she abides by her other answers. As for the counselors of the fountain, she does not know what that means; but she believes she once heard St. Catherine and St. Margaret there. In respect of the end of the article, which she denies, she declares on oath that she would not want the devil to drag her out of prison.

On Saturday, March 3rd, asked if she saw or knew Catherine de La Rochelle, she answered yes, at Jargeau, and at Montfaucon-en-Berry. Asked whether this Catherine did not show her a lady robed in white who, she said sometimes appeared to her, she answered no. Asked on the same day what this Catherine said to her, she answered that Catherine told her she was visited by a white lady robed in cloth of gold who told the said Catherine to go through the good towns and

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her king would give her heralds and trumpets, and she should cry out that whoever had hidden gold' or silver or treasure should forthwith bring it out; and those who did not she would immediately know, and would be able to find their treasure; and it would be to pay Jeanne's soldiers. To which Jeanne answered Catherine that she should go home to her husband, do her work, and look after her children. To make sure, she spoke to St. Catherine and St. Margaret who told her that the mission of this Catherine was all madness and nonsense. Jeanne wrote to her king about Catherine, and told him what he should do with her; and when she came into his presence, she told him it was all madness and nonsense.

Nevertheless, brother Richard wanted to put her to work, and he and Catherine were ill-pleased with Jeanne. Asked whether she spoke to Catherine de La Rochelle of going to La Charité, she answered that Catherine did not advise her to go there, for the weather was too cold, and she would not go. This March 3rd Jeanne confessed that she told Catherine, who wished to go to the Duke of Burgundy and make peace, that no peace would be found save at the lance's point. The said Jeanne confessed to having asked Catherine if the white lady came to her every night, and would sleep with her to see her, which she did, watched till midnight and saw nothing, and then fell asleep. In the morning she asked Catherine if the lady had come and Catherine answered that she had, when Jeanne was sleeping, and she had not been able to awaken her. Then Jeanne asked if the lady would come the following night, and Catherine said she would, so Jeanne slept during the day so that she could watch at night, and the next night she lay with Catherine and watched all night long, but saw nothing, although she asked Catherine if the lady would come, and Catherine answered "Yes, soon."

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LVII

"The said Jeanne, on the day of the Festival of the Nativity of Our Lady, called together all the soldiers of Charles's army to march to the attack upon Paris, led them against the city, promised them they should enter that day, for she knew it by revelation, and had every measure taken by which she could attack the city: this nevertheless she was not afraid to deny in judgment before us. Likewise, in many other places, at La Charité-sur-Loire, at Pont l'Évêque, at Compiègne, when she attacked my Lord Duke of Burgundy's army, she made many promises and uttered many prophecies which she claimed to know by revelation, which in no way came true, and were altogether contradicted. Now before you she denied having made such promises and prophecies, because they did not turn out as she had said; yet many trustworthy persons have reported that these promises were uttered and published by her. Also, at the attack on Paris, she said that thousands of angels accompanied her, ready to bear her to Paradise should she die. Yet when she was asked why her entry into Paris according to her promise had not taken place, and many of her company, and she too, had instead been hurt with grievous wounds, some even killed, she is said to have answered: 'Jesus has failed in His promise."'

To this article on Wednesday, March 28th Jeanne answers in respect of its beginning that she has already answered it, and "If I am advised further, I will gladly answer more." In respect of the end, that Jesus had failed her, she denies it.

On Saturday, March 3rd, asked what she did in the trenches of La Charité, she answered that she had an assault made there, but she did not throw or sprinkle holy water. Asked why she did not enter the town, since she had God's bidding, she answered: "Who told you I was commanded to enter?"

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Asked if she had not counsel of her voice, she answered that she wished to come to France, but the soldiers told her it was better to go first before La Charité.

On Tuesday, March 13th, asked whether when she went to Paris it was revealed by her voices that she should go there, she answered no, but it was at the request of noblemen who wanted to make a skirmish or assault, but she really intended to go beyond and cross the trenches. Asked whether she had any revelation concerning her going before La Charité, she said no, but went there at the request of soldiers as she formerly said. The same Tuesday, asked if it was not revealed to her that she should go to Pont l'Évêque, she answered that after it was revealed to her at Melun that she would be captured, she generally deferred to the will of the captains in questions of war, yet she did not tell them that it had been revealed that she should be captured. Asked if it was right to attack Paris on the day of Our Lady's Nativity, she answered that in her opinion and conscience "It is good to keep the Festival of Our Lady" from beginning to end.

LVIII

"The said Jeanne had painted on her standard two angels and God holding the world in His hand, with the words Jhesus MARIA, and other designs; and this she says she did at God's command, who revealed it to her through His angels and saints. This standard she placed in the cathedral of Reims near the altar when the said Charles was crowned, desiring out of overweening vainglory that others should honor this standard in particular. She also had her coat-of-arms painted with two lilies or in a field azure, and in the midst of the lilies a sword argent, a hilt and guard or, with the point surmounted by a crown or: which appears to partake of ostentation and vanity and not of piety or religion, and to attribute

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such vanities to God and the angels is against the reverence due to God and His Saints."

To this fifty-eighth article on this March 28th, Jeanne answers: "I have answered this," and of the contradiction indicated by the Promoter: "I refer me to Our Lord."

On Tuesday, February 27th, asked whether when she went to Orleans she had a standard, and what color it was, she answered yes, and its field was sown with lilies, and the world was pictured on it, and two angels at the sides. It was white, of white linen or boucassin. The names Jhesus MARIA were written on it, and it was fringed with silk. Asked whether these names were written above or at the side or beneath, she said they were at the side. Asked if she liked her sword better than her standard, she answered that she liked her standard forty times better. Asked who made her paint it in this fashion, she answered: "I have told you often enough that I have done nothing except at God's command." She said she herself bore the standard when going among her enemies, to avoid killing any one; she said she had never killed a man.

On Saturday, March 3rd, she said her standard was in the church of Reims, she thought, fairly near the altar; she bore it for a short time., but did not know whether brother Richard did.

On Saturday, March 10th, asked whether the world with two angels was painted on her standard, she answered yes, she had but one. Asked what this signified to take God holding the world, and two angels, she answered that St. Catherine and St. Margaret had told her to take this standard and bear it boldly; and to paint thereon the King of Heaven. She told her king this, much against her will, in French, "très envis"; that was all she knew of its significance. Asked whether she had not a shield and arms, she answered that she never had, but the king granted arms to her brothers, namely a

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shield azure, with two fleurs-de-lis or, and a sword between; which she described to a painter in this town of Reims because he asked what arms she bore. She said the king gave them to her brothers to their joy without her request and without revelation.

On Saturday, March 17th, asked what decided her to have painted on her standard angels with arms, feet, legs, and robes, she answered: "You have my reply to that." Asked if she had the angels painted as they came to her, she answered that they were painted in the fashion that they are represented in churches. Asked if she ever saw them in the manner in which they were painted, she answered: "I will not tell you more." Asked why the light which came with the angels and her voices was not painted, she answered that she was not commanded to paint it. The same day she was asked if the two angels painted on her standard were St. Michael and St. Gabriel, she answered that the representations of two angels was solely for the honor of Our Lord, who was painted holding the world. Asked if the two angels on her standard were the two angels who guard the world, and why there were not more, seeing that she was bidden in Our Lord's name to take the standard, she answered that the whole standard was commanded for Our Lord, by the voices of St. Catherine and St. Margaret who said to her: "Take the standard in the name of the King of Heaven." And because the saints told her "Take the standard in the name of the King of Heaven," she had this figure of Our Lord and the angels painted in color on it. All this, and the color, she did at God's command.

Asked if she questioned her saints whether in virtue of this standard she would win all battles in which she fought, she answered that the saints told her to bear it boldly and God would aid her. Asked which was of more help, she to the standard or the standard to her, she answered that whether

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the victory was hers or the standard's, it all must be attributed to God. Asked whether the hope of victory was founded in the standard or in herself, she answered that it was founded in Our Lord, and nothing else. Asked whether if any one else had carried the standard he would have been as fortunate as she had been, she answered: I do not know, and I leave it to God." Asked whether if one of her party had sent her his standard to carry, and particularly if she had been given the king's standard, and had borne it, she would have had as firm a hope in that as in her own, which she received in God's name, she answered: "I more gladly bore that which was bidden me in God's name; yet in all things I committed myself to God." The same day, asked if she did not make her standard wave above the king's head when it was unfurled, she answered that she did not know it had been done. Asked why her standard was borne into the church at Reims rather than those of other captains at the Consecration of her king, she answered: It had been present in the perils, and that was reason enough for it to be honored."

LIX

"At Saint-Denis in France the said Jeanne offered and deposited in the church in a high place the armor in which she had been wounded in the assault on Paris, so that it might be honored by the people as relics. And, in the same town, she had waxen candles lit, from which she poured melted wax on the heads of little children, foretelling their fortune, and making by these enchantments many divinations about them."

To this fifty-ninth article, on Wednesday, March 28th, Jeanne replies: "I have answered this," in respect of the arms; and in respect of the lighted candles which were melted. she denies it.

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On Saturday, March 17th, asked what arms she offered to Saint-Denis, she answered that it was a whole black suit of armor for a man-at-arms, with a sword, which she had worn at Paris. Asked to what end she made an offering of these arms, she answered that it was an act of devotion, such as soldiers perform when they are wounded; and since she had been wounded before Paris, she offered them to Saint-Denis, because it was the war-cry of France. Asked if she did it so that the arms might be worshiped, she said no.

LX

"The said Jeanne, scornful of the precepts and sanctions of the Church, many times refused to take oath to speak the truth, so exposing herself to the suspicion of having said or done certain things in questions of faith or revelation which she dare not reveal to the ecclesiastical judges, being fearful of a just punishment: this it appears she sufficiently acknowledged by the proverb, 'Men are sometimes hanged for telling the truth,' and often she said, 'You will not know everything,' and 'I would rather have my head cut off than tell you everything."'

To this sixtieth article, Jeanne answers that she only asked for delay so that she could more certainly answer the questions; and as for the end of the article, she was afraid to answer, and she asked for delay to discover if she should speak. She said that since her king's counsel did not concern the case she did not wish to reveal it; she told the sign given to her king because the clergy condemned her to tell it.

On Thursday, February 22nd, asked whether there was no light when the voice showed her the king, she answered: "Continue." Asked whether she did not see an angel over the king's head, she replied: "Spare me and continue." She said that before the king set her to work he had many apparitions

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and beautiful revelations; asked what kind these were, she answered: "I will not tell you this; you will get no further answer. But send to the king, and he will tell-you."

On Saturday, February 24th, we explained to Jeanne that she must swear to speak the simple and absolute truth with no reservation to her oath, and she was thrice admonished to do this. She said: "Give me leave to speak," and added: "By my faith, you could ask such things as I would not answer." She said also: "Perhaps I shall not answer you truly in many things you ask me concerning the revelations; for perhaps you would constrain me to tell things I have sworn not to utter, and so I should be perjured, and you would not wish that." Also: "I tell you, take good heed of what you say, that you are my judge, for you assume a great responsibility, and overburden me." Asked if she would swear simply and absolutely, she answered: "You should be content. I have sworn enough, twice," adding that all the clergy of Rouen and Paris could not condemn her, but by law. She could not tell everything in a week: of her coming, she would gladly speak the truth, but not the whole truth. She was told to take the advice of the assessors whether or not she should swear, but she answered that of her coming she would willingly speak the truth, and not otherwise, and we must not speak of it to her any more. She was again warned that she lay herself open to suspicion; she answered as before. Then we Bishop of Beauvais summoned her to swear precisely; she answered: I will willingly tell what I know, but not all." She was required to swear, and admonished under penalty of being charged with what was imputed to her, and she answered: "I have sworn enough," and "Continue." Then, required and admonished to speak the truth in matters concerning the trial, and being told that she exposed herself to great danger, she answered: I am ready to swear to speak the truth of what I know concerning

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the trial, but not all I know," and in this manner took the oath.

The same day, February 24th, asked if the voice forbade her to tell everything, she answered: "I will not answer you that. I have revelations concerning, the king which I shall not tell you." Asked if the voice forbade her to tell of the revelations, she replied: "I have not been advised on that," and asked for a fortnight in which to answer. She said she asked for a delay in which to answer that. "If the voice forbade me, what would you say?" Again asked if the voices forbade her, she answered: "Believe me, it was not men who forbade me." She said she would not answer that day, and she does not know if she should answer all that was revealed to her. Asked whether she thought it displeasing to God for her to tell the truth, she answered that her voices said she was to tell certain things to the king and not to us. Asked if the counsel revealed to her that she should escape from prison, she answered: "Must I tell you that?" Asked whether that night the voice had not advised her what she should reply, she said that if the voice revealed it she did not well understand. Asked whether a light was visible on the last two days that she heard the voices, she answered that the light comes in the name of the voice. Asked whether she saw anything with this voice, she answered: "I will not tell you everything and I have not permission for that," for her oath did not touch on that. She said the voice is beautiful, good, and worthy, and she is not bound to answer what she is asked. Asked whether the voice had sight or eyes (this was asked because she desired to have in writing the points on which she did not reply), she answered: "You will not learn that yet," in French "Vous ne l'aurez pas encore." She said that little children have a proverb, "Men are sometimes hanged for telling the truth."

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On the Tuesday, February 27th, when we required the said Jeanne to take an oath and swear to speak the truth on questions concerning the trial, she answered that she would willingly swear in respect of the questions concerning her case, but not of all she knew. Then we required her to answer truthfully everything she should be asked. She replied as before, saying, "You ought to be satisfied. I have sworn enough." She said she would willingly speak the truth concerning subjects for which she had leave from Our Lord, but without the permission of her voice she will not tell the revelations concerning her king. The same day, asked whether St. Catherine and St. Margaret were dressed in the same cloth, she said: "I will not tell you any more now," for she had not permission to reveal it; and "if you don't believe me, go to Poitiers." She said certain revelations came to her king and not to those who questioned her. Asked if the saints who appeared to her were of the same age, she said she had not leave to tell. Asked whether they spoke at the same time, or one after another, she said she may not tell, but every day she had counsel of both.

Asked which first appeared to her, she answered: "I did not recognize them immediately"; once she knew well enough, but has now forgotten. If she is permitted she will willingly tell: it is written down at Poitiers. Asked in what form St. Michael appeared to her she said: "There is as yet no reply to that, for I have not leave to answer." Asked what St. Michael said to her the first time, she answered: "You will get no further reply today." She says the voices told her to answer boldly, and added that she has not yet leave to reveal what St. Michael told her; and wishes her examiner had a copy of the book at Poitiers, if it were God's will. Asked if St. Michael and the other saints told her she must not reveal them without their leave, she said: "I still may not answer,"

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and, What I have permission to, I will gladly answer," and if the voices forbade her, she did not understand them. Asked what sign she gives that this revelation comes from God, and that it is St. Catherine and St. Margaret who speak to her, she answered: "I have told you often enough that it is St. Catherine and St. Margaret," and "Believe me if you will." Asked what revelations the king had, she answered: "You will not learn from me this year."

On Thursday, March 1st asked what the saints promised her, she answered: "That is not in your case at all." Asked if they promised her anything beyond that they would lead her to Paradise, she answered that there were other promises, but she will not tell them, they do not concern the trial. Within three months she will tell the other promises. Asked if the saints said that within three months she should be delivered out of prison, she answered: "That is not in your case." Nevertheless she does not know when she will be delivered.

She says that they who want to get her out of this world may well go before her. Asked whether her counsel had not told her she would be delivered from jail, she answered: "Speak to me of it in three months' time; I will answer you." She added that we should ask the assessors on their oath 'whether it concerned the trial, and after they had deliberated and unanimously decided that it did, she said: "One day I must be delivered, and I want permission to tell you," and so asked for delay. Asked whether the saints forbade her to speak the truth, she answered: "Do you want me to tell you what is the concern of the king of France?" She said many things do not concern her case. The same day, asked what sign she gave the king that she came from God, she said: I have always told you you will not drag this from my lips. Go and ask him." Asked if she had sworn not to reveal what she

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was asked concerning the trial, she answered: "I have already told you that I will not tell you what concerns our king."

Asked if she did not know the sign, she answered: "You will not learn it from me." She was told that it concerned the trial, and answered: "What I have promised to keep secret I shall not tell you," and added: "I have already declared that I could not tell you without perjury." Asked to whom she made the promise, she answered that she promised St. Catherine and St. Margaret, and this was shown to her king. She said she promised without their asking, of her own accord, and said that too many people would have asked her about her sign, had she not made this promise to her saints. Asked whether any one else was present when she showed the sign to the king, she said: "I think there was no one but him, although many people were quite near." Asked if she saw the crown on her king's head, when she showed him the sign, she answered: "I cannot tell you without perjury."

On Saturday, March 3rd, asked whether she believes God created St. Michael and St. Gabriel from the beginning in the form and fashion in which she saw them, she answered: "You will learn no more at present from me than I have told you." Asked whether she had seen or known by revelation that she would escape, she answered: "That does not concern your case. Do you want me to speak against myself?" Asked if the voices told her anything of it, she said: "That is not in your case. I leave it to Our Lord, and if everything concerned you, I would tell you everything." She added: "By my faith, I do not know the hour." Asked whether when God told her to change her dress it was through the voice of St. Michael or St. Catherine or of St. Margaret, she answered: "You will not learn any more."

On Monday, March 12th, asked whether she had received letters from St. Michael or her voices, she answered: "I have

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not leave to tell you, but within a week I will gladly tell you what I know."

LXI

"The said Jeanne, admonished to submit all her acts and sayings to the decision of the Church Militant, and advised of the distinction between the Church Militant and the Church Triumphant, professed to submit to the Church Triumphant and refused to submit herself to the Church Militant, so declaring her erroneous opinion in respect of the article Unam Sanctam, etc., and in all this showing herself at fault. She said it was for God, without an intermediary, to judge her, and she committed herself, her acts and her sayings to Him and His Saints, and not to the judgment of the Church."

To this sixty-first article, Jeanne answers that she would desire to bring to the Church Militant all the honor and reverence in her power, but in respect of submitting her actions to the Church Militant, she says: "I must submit them to the Lord God who commands me."

Asked whether she submits her actions to the Church Militant, she answers: "Send me the clerk next Saturday and I will tell you."

On Thursday, March 15th she was told of the Church Triumphant and the Church Militant, and was required to submit her sayings and her actions both good and bad to the decision of the Church, and she answered: "I will not give you any further answer for the present." And after warnings and summons had been given her, that if she had done anything contrary to our faith she ought to refer it to the decision of the Church, she answered that her replies should be seen and examined by the clergy, and then she should be told if there were anything contrary to the Christian faith: she would certainly be able to tell what it was, and then she would say

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what she learned from her counsel. "Nevertheless if there were anything contrary to the Christian faith which Our Lord ordained she would not wish to sustain it, and would be grieved to be in opposition. The same day, asked whether she would submit her acts and sayings to the decision of the Church, she answered: "Everything I have said or done is in God's hands, and I commit myself to Him. I certify to you that I would do or say nothing contrary to the Christian faith, and if I had said or done anything, or if anything were found on me, which the clerks should declare to be against the Christian faith established by Our Lord, I would not uphold it, but would cast it out." Then asked whether she would not submit herself therein to the decision of the Church, she answered: "I will not now answer you more, but on Saturday next, send me the clerk, if you do not wish to come, and I will answer him this with God's aid, and it shall be set down in writing."

On Saturday, March 17th, asked if she thought she was bounden to answer the whole truth to Our Holy Father the Pope, God's Vicar, on everything we asked her concerning the faith and the state of her conscience, she answered that she required to be taken to him and then she would answer.

On Saturday, the last day of March, asked whether she would submit to the decision of the Church on earth everything she had done, either good or evil, especially the questions, crimes, and misdemeanors imputed to her, and all that concerns her case, she answered that in respect of what she was asked she would submit to the Church Militant provided we did not ask her to do what was impossible, meaning by impossible the revocation of her acts and sayings, put forth in the proceedings, which concern the visions and revelations she claims to have from God; she would not revoke them for anything in the world. What Our Lord has bidden her she will not for any man alive cease to do; that, she could not revoke.

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In the event of the Church wishing her to do otherwise against the bidding of Our Lord she would not obey for anything. Asked whether she would submit to the Church if the Church Militant said that her revelations were false and devilish things, superstitious and evil, she answered that she would submit to Our Lord, whose bidding she will ever perform, for she knows that the happenings described in the proceedings were done at His bidding; it would be impossible for her to do other than what she declares she has done at God's bidding. If the Church Militant told her to do otherwise, she would submit to none other than Our Lord, whose good bidding she always performed. Asked if she believes she is subject to the Church on earth, namely Our Holy Father the Pope, to the cardinals, archbishops, bishops and other prelates of the Church, she answered yes, Our Lord being first served. Asked whether her voices bade her not to submit to the Church Militant on earth, or its judgment, she said that she does not answer anything which comes to her mind, but answers according to the voices' instruction, and they do not forbid her to obey the Church, Our Lord being first served.

On Wednesday, April 18th, the said Jeanne was told that because of her sickness the more fearful she was of her life the more necessary it was for her to reform, and that she would not receive the rights of the church as a Catholic if she did not submit to the Church. She answered: "If my body dies in prison, I expect you to bury it in holy ground, and if you do not, I put my trust in Our Lord." The same day, asked since she desired the Church to grant her the sacrament of the Eucharist, whether she would submit to the Church if she were promised the Eucharist, she answered that she would not answer, in respect to this submission, other than she had done; but she loves and serves God, as a good Christian, and would aid and sustain the Church with all her might.

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LXII

"The said Jeanne endeavors to scandalize the people, to induce them to believe all her words and prophecies, assuming the authority of God and His angels, lifting herself above all ecclesiastical power to lead men unto error, as false prophets are wont when they introduce sects of error and perdition and separate from the unity of the body of the Church: which is pernicious to the Christian religion; and unless the prelates of the Church take action, a subversion of the future ecclesiastical authority may ensue; men and women pretending to have revelations from God and His angels will flock in from all sides and sow lies and errors, as has often occurred since this woman arose and began to scandalize the Christian people and propagate her inventions."

To this sixty-second article on this Wednesday, March 28th, Jeanne answers that she will answer on Saturday.

LXIII

"The said Jeanne has not been afraid to lie before the law, in violation of her oath, and affirmed successively many conflicting and contradictory things about her revelations; she has uttered curses against nobles and notable people, against a whole nation; she has without shame uttered falsehoods and contemptuous words in no way becoming to a holy woman, showing adequately that she has been directed and governed in her actions by evil spirits, and not by the counsel of God and His angels, as she boasts. Now Christ said of false prophets, 'By their fruits ye shall know them."'

To this sixty-third article, Jeanne this day answers: "I refer to what I have said," and in respect of the accusation and conclusion of the article refers herself to Our Lord.

On Tuesday, February 27th, she said that she had a sword

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at Lagny, and from Lagny to Compiègne she bore the sword of a Burgundian which was a good fighting weapon, excellent for giving hard clouts and buffets; and that where she lost the other sword is not in the case, so she will not answer.

On Thursday, March 1st she said she would have died but for the daily revelation and comfort. Asked whether St. Michael had any hair, she answered: "Why should it be shorn off?" She had not seen St. Michael since she left the castle of Crotoy and did not often see him.

LXIV

"The said Jeanne boasts of knowing that she has obtained remission of the sins she committed when from a despairing heart and at the incitement of an evil spirit she cast herself from the top of the tower of the castle of Beaurevoir, although the Scripture teaches that none knows if he is worthy of love or of hatred, and therefore if he is purged or freed from sin."

To this sixty-fourth article on Wednesday, March 28th, Jeanne answers: "I have answered you this, and I refer you to my answer," and in respect of the conclusion, refers herself to Our Lord.

LXV

"The said Jeanne many times declared that she asked God to send her special revelation, through St. Catherine and St. Margaret, for her conduct, for instance whether she should answer truthfully in this trial certain questions and matters personal to her. That is to tempt the Lord God, to ask needlessly of Him forbidden things, without having performed all inquiries and investigations possible to man. Especially in respect of her leap from the tower, it is manifest that she tempted God."

To this sixty-fifth article on this Wednesday, Jeanne says

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that she has answered it; she will not utter what has been revealed to her without permission from God; and that she did not ask needlessly; and she wishes He would send other revelations still so that it could be better seen that she comes in His name and that He has sent her.

LXVI

"Certain of her prophecies depart from divine, evangelic, canon, and civil law, contrary to the decisions approved by the Councils General; they contain spells, enchantments, superstitions; some formally, others casually, and otherwise, pertaining to heresy; many errors against the faith encourage and incite to heretical error. Some are seditious, harmful, and contrary to peace; some encourage the spilling of human blood; some too are nothing but curses and blasphemies against God and His saints; others still offend the ears of pious men. In all this the accused with daring rashness and at the instigation of the Devil offended God and His Holy Church, against which she has scandalously committed excesses and crimes, is notoriously defamed thereof and has appeared before you to be corrected and reformed."

To this sixty-sixth article, the said Jeanne answers that she is a good Christian and in respect of all the accusations contained in this article commits herself to God.

LXVII

"Each and every one of these things the accused has committed, perpetrated, uttered, produced, declared, published and accomplished both in this and other jurisdictions, in many and divers places of the realm, not once, but repeatedly, on many times, days, and hours; she has persisted in them and given her aid, counsel and favor to those who committed them."

This sixty-seventh article the said Jeanne denies.

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LXVIII

"Therefore from the time that you discovered, by the insinuating noise which struck your ears not once but many times, and by public report and evidence collected herein, that the accused was vehemently suspected and defamed, you decreed that it was meet to hold an inquiry against her, and that you or one of you must take proceedings against her and call her to answer these questions, as it has been done." To this sixty-eighth article, Jeanne answers: "This article concerns the judges."

LXIX

"The said accused in everything which precedes was and is vehemently suspected, scandalous, and to the highest degree, notoriously defamed in the eyes of honest and sober men. Yet she in no way corrected her ways or reformed; on the contrary, she put off and declined to correct and amend herself; and continued and persisted in her errors, and still does, although both you and other notable clergy and other honest folk have, charitably and otherwise, duly and sufficiently summoned and required her so to do."

To this sixty-ninth article, Jeanne says that she has not committed the errors imputed to her by the Promoter; for the rest, she commits herself to God, and in respect of the crimes of which she is accused she does not think she has done anything contrary to the Christian faith.

Asked whether if she had done anything contrary to the Christian faith she would be willing to submit to the Church and to those whose part it is to administer corrections, she answered that she would reply after dinner on Saturday.

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LXX

"That each and every one of these propositions is true, known, and manifest, and that the public voice and report has worked on them; and the accused has acknowledged and confessed them as true on many and sufficient occasions, before men trustworthy and upright, both in and out of court."

This seventieth article Jeanne denies, except that which she has confessed.

"On these points, and on others you will complete, correct and further inquire into, the said Promoter requests and demands that the accused be examined before you: and concludes against her that inasmuch as he has sufficiently proved to the proposed end the foregoing wholly or in part, you should decide on and pronounce sentence on each and every one of the foregoing ends, and make further utterance and judgment according to law and reason; and therein he duly and humbly implores your offices."

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