Joan of Arc - Maid of Heaven

The Trial of Jeanne D'Arc by W.P. Barrett
Pages 133 - 314



Passion Sunday, March 18th. The statements are presented to the assessors

On the Sunday of the Passion of Our Lord, the following day, March 18th before Us and brother Jean Le Maistre, Vice-Inquisitor, in our episcopal dwelling at Rouen, and in the presence of the reverend brothers and masters, Gilles, abbot of Fécamp, Pierre, prior of Longueville, Jean Beaupère, Jacques de Turon, Nicolas Midi, Pierre Maurice, and Gerard Feuillet, doctors of sacred theology, and of Raoul Roussel, doctor of canon and civil law; Nicolas de Venderès and Jean de La Fontaine, licentiates in canon law, Nicolas Couppequesne and Thomas de Courcelles, bachelors of sacred theology; we, the said bishop recalled how the said Jeanne had been interrogated for many days and that many of her confessions and answers had been put down in writing, and asked the assessors to lend us their deliberation and counsel touching the manner of our further procedure in this matter. And we had read to them certain assertions extracted by different lawyers at our order from the replies which the said Jeanne had made so that they might more clearly view the matter and more certainly deliberate upon what was to be done.

These lords having heard this exposition solemnly and maturely deliberated. After having heard all their opinions we concluded and agreed that they should each one examine and

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diligently study and consult in authoritative books the opinions of doctors on these statements so that the following Thursday we might confer thereon, bringing each one his opinion; and that meanwhile certain articles should be drawn up from the examination and replies of the said Jeanne which should be preferred against her in court before us her judges.

Thursday the 22nd of March. Decision to extract a smaller number of articles from the statements

The following Thursday the twenty-second of March, in our episcopal dwelling at Rouen, before us, and before brother Jean Le Maistre, Vice-Inquisitor, there appeared the venerable lords and masters Jean de Châtillon, Erard Emengart, Guillaume Le Boucher, Pierre, prior of Longueville, Jean Beaupère, Jacques de Touraine, Nicolas Midi, Maurice du Quesnay, Pierre Houdenc, Jean de Nibat, Jean Le Fèvre, Pierre Maurice, Jacques Guesdon, and Gérard Feuillet, doctors of sacred theology; Raoul Roussel, treasurer of the church of Rouen, doctor of canon and civil law; Nicolas de Venderès, archdeacon of Eu, and Jean de La Fontaine, licentiates in canon law; William Haiton, Nicolas Couppequesne and Thomas de Courcelles, bachelors of sacred theology; Nicolas Loiseleur, canon of the church of Rouen; and brother Ysambard de La Pierre, of the order of Preaching brothers.

To those who were met before us certain reports on this matter were communicated, compiled, drawn up and put forward by learned doctors and lawyers. After having seen and heard the opinions of each one and having at length considered them, we concluded and decreed that what had been extracted from the register of the confessions of Jeanne should be drawn up in a smaller number of articles in the form of statements and propositions, the which articles should then

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be given to each of the doctors and lawyers so that they might more easily give their opinions. As for the rest, to wit whether Jeanne should be examined and interrogated further, we should proceed in such a way that by God's help the matter should be conducted to the praise of Our Lord and to the exaltation of the faith, so that our trial might be without flaw.

Saturday the twenty-fourth of March. The interrogations are read in Jeanne's presence

The following Saturday the twenty-fourth day of March in Jeanne's prison, before master lean de La Fontaine, the commissary appointed by ourselves, the said bishop and brother Jean Le Maistre, vicar of the lord Inquisitor, and in the presence of the venerable lords and masters Jean Beaupère, Nicolas Midi, Pierre Maurice, Gerard Feuillet, doctors; of master Thomas de Courcelles, bachelor of sacred theology, and master Enguerrand de Champrond, official of Coutances; the register containing the interrogations and replies of the said Jeanne was read before her in French by Guillaume Manchon the undersigned notary. But before the reading was begun the Promoter appointed by us and named above, who was present, undertook to prove (in the event that the said Jeanne should deny having made certain of the replies collected in the register) that everything it contained, the questions as well as the replies, had been truly said and done. After this Jeanne took oath to add nothing but the truth to her replies.

Then whilst this was being read to her she said that her surname was d'Arc or Rommée and that in her part girls bore their mother's surname. She asked also that the questions and answers should be read consecutively to her and that which was read without contradiction on her part she allowed to be true and confessed.

She added these words to the article touching her taking

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woman's dress: "Give me a woman's dress to go to my mother's house, and I will take it." This she would do to escape from prison, and when she was outside she would take counsel concerning what she should do.

Finally, after the contents of the register had been read to her the said Jeanne confessed that she believed she had spoken well according to what had been written in the register and read to her, and she did not contradict any other saying from the register.

Palm Sunday, March the twenty-fifth. Jeanne asks permission to hear Mass

On the following Sunday morning, Palm Sunday, the twenty-fifth day of March, in Jeanne's prison in the castle of Rouen, we the abovenamed bishop spoke with her in the presence of Jean Beaupère, Nicolas Midi, Pierre Maurice, doctors, and Thomas de Courcelles, bachelor of sacred theology. And we said to Jeanne that many times, particularly the day before, she had asked that by reason of the solemnity of these present days and this time she should be permitted to hear Mass on this Palm Sunday; therefore we asked her whether if we allowed her she would abandon male costume and put on a woman's dress, as she had been wont in the country of her birth and as women of her country were wont to do.

To which Jeanne replied by requesting us to permit her to hear Mass in the male costume which she wore and to receive the sacrament of the Eucharist on Easter Day. Then we told her to answer our question, whether she would abandon man's dress if she were given that permission. But she answered that she had not had counsel thereon and could not yet wear woman's dress.

And we asked her if she would take counsel of her saints to wear woman's dress, to which she replied that it might

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well be permitted her to hear Mass as she was, which she sovereignly desired, but as for changing her dress she could not and it was not in her.

After the said lawyers had exhorted her by all the goodness and piety which she seemed to have, to wear a dress fitting to her sex, the said Jeanne answered that it was not in her to do it; and if it were it would soon be done.

Then she was told to speak with her voices to discover if she could once more wear woman's dress to receive the Eucharist at Easter. To which Jeanne replied that as far as in her lay she would not receive the Eucharist by changing her costume for a woman's; she asked to be permitted to hear Mass in her male attire, adding that this attire did not burden her soul and that the wearing of it was not against the Church.

Of all this Jean d'Estivet, the Promoter, asked an account be drawn up, in the presence of Adam Milet, king's secretary, William Brolbster and Pierre Orient of the dioceses of Rouen, of London, and Châlons.

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ORDINARY TRIAL

Monday, March 26th

Here Begins the Ordinary Trial Following the Preparatory Trial

The following Monday, after Palm Sunday, the 26th day of March, in our dwelling at Rouen, before us and brother Jean Le Maistre, vicar of the lord Inquisitor, there appeared the venerable Jean de Châtillon Jean Beaupère, Jacques de Touraine, Nicolas Midi, Pierre Maurice, Gerard Feuillet, doctors of sacred theology; Raoul Roussel, treasurer of the church of Rouen, doctor in both canon and civil law; André Marguerie, archdeacon of Petit-Caux, Nicolas de Venderès, archdeacon of Eu, and Jean de La Fontaine, licentiates in law; Thomas de Courcelles and Nicolas Loiseleur, canon of Rouen. In their presence we had read certain final articles which the Promoter intended to prefer against the said Jeanne.

Then it was decided that in addition to the preparatory trial conducted up to this time through our office, following our decree and conclusion, the said Jeanne should be proceeded against by an ordinary trial; that the aforesaid articles were well drawn up; that the said Jeanne should be questioned and heard before us; that the articles should be put on behalf of the said Promoter by some solemn lawyer or by himself;

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and that if Jeanne refused to answer them, after she had been canonically admonished, they should be held to be confessed. And after other things it was decided that on the next day the articles should be preferred by the Promoter, and that the said Jeanne should be examined and heard in respect of them.

Tuesday, March 27th. The Promoter's request. The articles he has prepared against Jeanne are read

The following Tuesday after Palm Sunday, the 27th day of March, in the room near 'the great hall of the castle of Rouen, in our episcopal presence, and of brother Jean Le Maistre, vicar of the lord Inquisitor, assisted by the reverend fathers, lords and masters, Gilles, abbot of Fécamp, Pierre, prior of Longueville; Jean Beaupère, Jacques de Touraine, Nicolas Midi, Pierre Maurice, Gérard Feuillet, Erard Emengart, Guillaume Le Boucher, Maurice du Quesnay, Jean de Nibat, Jean Le Fèvre, Jacques Guesdon, Jean de Châtillon, doctors of sacred theology; Raoul Roussel and Jean Garin, doctors of both canon and civil law respectively; Robert Le Barbier, Denis Gastinel, Jean Le Doulx, Nicolas de Venderès, Jean Pinchon, Jean Basset, Jean de La Fontaine, Jean Colombel, Aubert Morel, Jean Duchemin, licentiates in canon law; André Marguerie, archdeacon of Petit-Caux, Jean Alespée, Nicolas Caval, Geoffroy de Crotay, licentiates in civil law; Guillaume Desjardins and Jean Tiphaine, doctors of medicine; William Haiton, bachelor of theology; Guillaume de La Chambre, licentiate in medicine; brother Jean Duval and brother Ysambard de La Pierre, of the order of Preaching brothers; William Brolbster and John Hampton: the said master Jean d'Estivet, canon of the churches of Bayeux and Beauvais, our Promoter, appointed by us in this trial, appearing in judgment before us, in presence of the said Jeanne, who was led into our presence, put to her certain

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supplications and requests in French, of which the tenor, literally translated, was:

"My Lords, reverend father in Christ, and you, Vicar, especially charged to this office by the lord Inquisitor of the wanderers from the Catholic faith, established and appointed throughout the whole kingdom of France, I, Promoter, appointed, charged, and ordained by you in this trial, according to certain information and examinations made on your behalf, I say, declare and propose that Jeanne here present should be brought to answer that which I shall ask, declare and put to her touching and concerning the faith. And I undertake to prove, if need be, by and under protestations, and to the ends and conclusions declared more fully in the requisition which I show and present to you as judges in this trial, the facts, rights and reasons declared and contained in the articles written and specified in the schedule. And I beseech and request you that Jeanne shall be made to affirm and swear that she will answer the said articles, each one severally, according as she believes or does not believe. And in the event of her refusal to swear, or declining or postponing it unduly, after you shall have enjoined her and she shall have been so summoned by you, she shall be accounted deficient and contumacious in her presence; and if her obstinacy requires it, she shall be declared excommunicated for manifest offense. Moreover, you shall determine a certain day as soon as possible for her to answer these articles, intimating to her that if she does not reply to them or to certain of them before the appointed day, you will hold these articles on which she has not given answer, as confessed, according as law, style, use, and custom wish and require of you."

When this petition was pronounced the Promoter presented

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the accusation against Jeanne, in the form of final articles transcribed below.

After which we the aforementioned judges asked the counsel of the assessors. When the request and supplication of the Promoter had been seen, and the opinions of each assessor heard, we concluded that the articles exhibited by the Promoter should be read and explained in French to the said Jeanne, and that she should answer what she knew to each; and if there were points for which she asked a delay to answer, a reasonable delay should be granted her.

[First (1), Master Nicolas de Venderès said that, on the first article, it was necessary to force her to take oath. On the second, the Promoter had charged well, and it was proper to find her contumacious if she refused to swear. And on the third, it seemed to him, she ought to be excommunicated. And if she incurred the sentence of excommunication, they must proceed against her according to law. In the same way, if she refused, she should incur the sentence of excommunication.

Master Jean Pinchon asked that the articles be read to her first before any deliberation.

Master Jean Basset asked that the articles be read to her before pronouncing the sentence of excommunication.

Master Jean Garin asked that the articles be read.

Master Jean de La Fontaine concurred with the opinion of Nicolas de Venderès.

Master Geoffroy du Crotay said that it seemed to him that it was necessary to give Jeanne a delay of at least three days before excommunicating her, and that we ought to hold her guilty if she refused to swear. This ought to be done because, in civil law, a three days' grace is given in which to take oath before the law acts. -----------------------------------

(1) The matter in brackets appears only in the French minutes of the Trial, not in the official Latin version.

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Master Jean Le Doulx agreed with him.

Master Gilles Deschamps asked that the articles be read to counsel her, and a day assigned for her to appear, and that she be advised to reply.

Master Robert Le Barbier agreed with him.

The lord Abbot of Fécamp said that it seemed to him that she was required to swear to tell the truth in all things concerning the trial, and if she had not been advised she ought to have an adequate delay. A day ought to be assigned for her to appear, and she should be advised to attend.

Master Jean de Châtillon said that she was required to reply truthfully, especially in all that pertained to her actions.

Master Erard Emengart agreed with the lord Abbot of Fécamp.

And Master Guillaume Le Boucher said that he did, likewise.

The lord Prior of Longueville said that in the matters that she did not know how to answer, it seemed to him that she should not be constrained to answer by believe or do not believe.

Master Jean Beaupère said that in the matters of which she was certain and which were of her own doing, she was required to reply truthfully. But in those matters in which she did not know how to reply, or which were legalistic, a delay ought to be given to her if she asked it.

Master Jacques de Touraine agreed with him.

Master Nicolas Midi agreed likewise, adding that if it was necessary to compel her to swear precisely, he wished to refer her to the lawyers.

Master Maurice du Quesnay agreed with the lord Abbot of Fécamp.

Master Jean de Nibat said that in all that concerned the articles he relied upon the lawyers; and as for the oath, she ought to take oath to tell the truth, in all things touching the

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trial and the faith. If, on other points, she had difficulty in answering truthfully, and she asked for delay it was necessary to give it to her.

Master Jean Le Fèvre said that he relied upon the lawyers.

Master Pierre Maurice said that she should answer what she knew.

Master Gerard Feuillet said that she was required to reply under oath.

Master Jacques Guesdon agreed with him.

Master Thomas de Courcelles said that she was required to answer; that the articles should be read to her and that she should answer at the time of reading them; and as for the matter of a delay, if she asked it, then it must be granted.

Master André Marguerie was of the opinion that she ought to swear to all that touched the trial. In the matter of the doubtful points, it seemed to him that time should be given her.

Master Denis Gastinel said that she ought to take oath, and that the Promoter was right in all that related to the oath. As for the later procedure, if she refused to take oath, he would ask to examine the documents first.

Masters Aubert Morel and Jean Duchemin declared that she was required to take oath.]

Then the Promoter took oath before us touching the accusation. When this was done we told Jeanne that all the assessors were ecclesiastical and learned men, experienced in canon and civil law, who wished and intended to proceed with her in all piety and meekness, as they had always been disposed, seeking not vengeance or corporal punishment, but her instruction and her return to the ways of truth and salvation. And, since she was not learned and literate enough in such arduous matters, we suggested that she should choose one or many of those present, and if she would not choose, we would give her

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some to counsel her touching what she should do and reply, provided that in herself she wished to answer truthfully. And we required her to swear to speak the truth.

To which Jeanne answered: "First, for admonishing me of my salvation and our faith, I thank you and also all the company. As for the counsel you offer me, I thank you for that too; but I have no intention of departing from the counsel of Our Lord. And the oath you wish me to take I will willingly swear, to answer truthfully on everything which concerns your trial." And she took oath so, with her hands on the holy scriptures.

Afterwards, at our invitation and command the articles which the Promoter had shown us were read to her (by Thomas de Courcelles), and the contents of the articles of accusation were explained to Jeanne in French on the Tuesday and Wednesday following.

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I Wednesday, March 28th

On this Wednesday there were present the reverend fathers, lords and lawyers: Gilles, abbot of Fécamp; Pierre, prior of Longueville; Jean Beaupère, Jacques de Touraine, Erard Emengart, Maurice du Quesnay, Nicolas Midi, Pierre Maurice, Guillaume Le Boucher, Jean de Nibat, Jean Le Fèvre, Jean de Châtillon, Jacques Guesdon, and Gérard Feuillet, doctors of sacred theology; Raoul Roussel, doctor of canon and civil law; Robert Le Barbier, licentiate in canon law; William Haiton, Nicolas Couppequesne, bachelors of sacred theology; Jean Guerin, Denis Gastinel, Jean Le Doulx, bachelors of canon and civil law; Jean Pinchon, Jean Basset, Jean de La Fontaine, Jean Colombel, Jean Duchemin, bachelors of canon law; André Marguerie, archdeacon of Petit-Caux; Jean Alespée, Nicolas Caval, Geoffroy du Crotay, licentiates in civil law; Guillaume Desjardins, Jean Tiphaine, doctors, and Guillaume de La Chambre, licentiate of medicine, William Brolbster and John Hampton, priests.

Here follows word for word the tenor of the articles of the accusation, and of the answers made by Jeanne, with the other answers which she made elsewhere, to which she refers

"In your presence, venerable father in Christ and in Our Lord, Pierre, by divine mercy bishop of Beauvais, now Ordinary

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Judge and possessing territory in the city and diocese of Rouen; and of the religious brother Jean Le Maistre, of the order of Preaching brothers, bachelor of sacred theology, vicar in this town and diocese and in this trial especially appointed by master Jean Graverent, distinguished doctor of sacred theology, of the same order, Inquisitor of Heretical Error in the kingdom of France by the Holy See; before you, competent judges, to the end that the woman commonly called Jeanne the Maid, found, taken, and detained in the limits of your territory, venerable father, and the boundaries of your diocese of Beauvais, surrendered, entrusted, delivered, and restored to you, her ecclesiastical and ordinary judge by Our Lord Christian King of France and England, to be dealt with by the law and corrected, as one vehemently suspected, denounced, and defamed by honest and sober people; to the end that she should be denounced and declared by you her said judges as a witch, enchantress, false prophet, a caller-up of evil spirits, as superstitious, implicated in and given to magic arts, thinking evil in our Catholic faith, schismatic in the article Unam Sanctam, etc., and in many other articles of our faith skeptic and devious, sacrilegious, idolatrous, apostate of the faith, accursed and working evil, blasphemous towards God and His saints, scandalous, seditious, perturbing and obstructing the peace, inciting to war, cruelly thirsting for human blood, encouraging it to be shed, having utterly and shamelessly abandoned the modesty befitting her sex, and indecently put on the ill-fitting dress and state of men-at-arms; and for that and other things abominable to God and man, contrary to laws both divine and natural, and to ecclesiastical discipline, misleading princes and people; having to the scorn of God permitted and allowed herself to be adored and venerated, giving her hands to be kissed; heretical or at the least vehemently suspected of heresy; that according to the divine and canonical

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sanctions she should be punished and corrected canonically and lawfully, as befitted these and all other proper ends: Jean d'Estivet, canon of the churches of Bayeux and Beauvais, Promoter or Procurator of your office, appointed therein by you and specially deputed agent and prosecutor in the name of that office, says, proposes, and intends to prove and duly inform your minds against the said Jeanne, accused or denounced; nevertheless the said Promoter protests that it is not his intention to endeavor to prove what is superfluous, but only what will and must suffice to this end, wholly or in part, with all other protestations customary in such matters, and reservations of the right to add, correct, alter, interpret, in law and in fact."

I

"Firstly, according to divine as well as canon and civil law it is meet and proper for you, the one as ordinary judge, the other as Inquisitor of the faith, to drive out, destroy and utterly uproot from your diocese and from the whole kingdom of France the heresies, sacrileges, superstitions, and other crimes declared above; to punish, correct and restore heretics, those who propose, speak, and utter things contrary to our Catholic faith, or act against it in any way, and all evil doers, criminals or their accomplices who shall be apprehended in the said diocese and jurisdiction, even if part or all of their misdeeds shall have been committed elsewhere, as other competent judges in their own dioceses, limits, and jurisdictions are empowered and bound to do. And therein, even in respect of a lay person of whatever estate, sex, quality, or preëminence, you must be held, esteemed and reputed competent judges."

To this first article Jeanne replies that she is well aware that Our Holy Father the Pope of Rome and the bishops and other clergy exist for the protection of the Christian faith

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and the punishment of those who fall from it; but for her part she will in respect of her acts submit only to the Church in Heaven, that is to God, to the Blessed Virgin Mary and to the Saints of Paradise. She firmly believes that she has not failed in our faith and would not fail therein.

II

"The said accused, not only in the present year, but from the time of her childhood, not only in your diocese and jurisdiction, but also in the neighboring and other parts of this kingdom, has performed, composed, mingled in and commanded many charms and superstitions; she has been deified and permitted herself to be adored and venerated; she has called up demons and evil spirits, has consulted and frequented them, has had, made, and entered into pacts and treaties with them; she has similarly given counsel, aid and favor to others doing the same things, and has induced them to do the same or like things, saying, believing, maintaining, affirming, that so to do, to believe in them, to use such charms, divinations and superstitious proceedings was neither a sin nor a forbidden thing; but she has rather assured them that it is lawful, praiseworthy and opportune, enticing into these evil ways and errors many people of different estate and of either sex, in whose heart she imprinted these and like things. And in the accomplishment and perpetration of these crimes the said Jeanne has been taken and captured in the boundaries and limits of your diocese of Beauvais."

To this second article Jeanne answers that she denies the charms, superstitions, and divinations; and as for the adoration, if certain people have kissed her hands or garments it is not because of her or at her will; she kept herself from that as far as it was within her power. The rest of the article she denies.

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And moreover on Saturday, March 3rd, of this same year, in regard to the content of this article, when she was asked if she knew what was in the thoughts of the people of her party as they kissed her hands, her feet and her garments, she answered that many people gladly saw her. And with that, she said that she told them to kiss her garments as little as possible; but the poor came to her, so she did not disappoint them, but helped them as much as she could.

Saturday, March 10th, when asked if on making the sortie at Compiègne, where she was captured, she had been told by revelation or by her voice to make the sortie, she answered that on that day it had not announced her capture, and she was not counseled to go there; but she had often been told that she must be taken. Asked if when she made this sortie she passed over the bridge of Compiègne, she answered yes, and through the boulevard; that she went with the company of her men against the men of lord Jean de Luxembourg, that she twice drove them to the camp of the Burgundians, and a third time to the middle of the highway; and then the English cut off the road from her and her company, between her and the boulevard, so her men retreated; and she, falling back to the fields, on the Picardy side, was captured; and the river was between Compiègne and the place where she was taken, and between Compiègne and where she was taken there was only the river, and the boulevard with its ditch.

III

"The accused is fallen into many divers errors of the worst kind, infected with heretical evil: she has said, uttered, voiced, affirmed, published, graven on the hearts of simple people certain false and lying propositions, infected with heresy and actually heretical, without and contrary to our Catholic faith, against the statutes made and approved by the General Councils,

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as well as divine, canon and civil laws: propositions scandalous, sacrilegious, contrary to good customs and offensive to pious ears; she has lent aid, counsel and favor to those who have said, uttered, affirmed and promulgated these propositions."

This third article Jeanne denies and declares that as far as in her lies she has upheld the Church.

IV

"And the better and more particularly to inform you, my ford judges, of the offenses, excesses, crimes, and misdemeanors committed by the accused, as has been reported, in many parts of the realm, in this diocese and elsewhere, it is true that the accused was and is a native of the village of Greux, that she has for father Jacques d'Arc and for mother Isabelle, his wife; that she was brought up in her youth, until the age of 18 or thereabouts, in the village of Domrémy on the Meuse, in the diocese of Toul, in the Bailly of Chaumont-en-Bassigny, in the provosty of Monteclaire and Andelot. Which Jeanne in her youth was not taught or instructed in the belief and principles of the faith, but was lessoned and initiated by certain old women in the use of spells, divinations, and other superstitious works or magic arts. Many inhabitants of these villages are known from olden times to have practiced these evil arts, and from certain of them, and especially from her godmother, Jeanne declares she has often heard talk of visions or apparitions of fairies or fairy spirits, and from others also she has been taught and filled with these evil and pernicious errors about the spirits, so much so that she confessed to you, in judgment, that until this day she knew not whether these fairies were evil spirits."

To this article Jeanne replied that she allowed the first part, namely, about her father and mother and the place of

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her birth; but as for fairies, she did not understand. As for her instruction, she learned to believe and was well and duly taught how to behave as a good child should. For her godmother she referred to what she had stated elsewhere.

Asked about saying her Credo, she answers: "Ask the confessor to whom I said it."

V

"Near the village of Domrémy stands a certain large and ancient tree, commonly called ''l'arbre charmine faée de Bourlemont," and near the tree is a fountain. It is said that round about live evil spirits, called fairies, with whom those who practice spells are wont to dance at night, wandering about the tree and the fountain."

To this fifth article, touching the tree and the fountain, Jeanne refers to another answer she has given: the rest she denies.

On Saturday the 24th day of February, she answered that not far from Domrémy there is a tree called the Ladies' Tree which some call the Fairies' Tree, and near it is a fountain. She has heard that the sick drink of this fountain (she herself has drunk of it) and seek from its waters the restoration of their health; but she does not know whether they are cured or not.

On Thursday, March 1st asked if St. Catherine and St. Margaret spoke to her under the tree, she answered: "I do not know." And asked once more if the saints spoke to her at the fountain, she answered that they did, that she heard them there; but what they said to her then, she no longer knew. Asked, on the same day, what the saints promised her, there or elsewhere, she replied that they made no promise to her, but by God's permission.

On Saturday, March 17th, asked if her godmother who saw

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the fairies is accounted a wise woman, she answered that she is held and accounted a good honest woman, and not a witch or sorceress.

The same day, asked if she had not heretofore believed the fairies to be evil spirits, she answered that she did not know. And the same day, when asked if she knew anything of those who consort with the fairies, she answered that she never went and never knew aught of that, but she had heard that some went on Thursdays. She does not believe in it, and holds it to be witchcraft.

VI

"The said Jeanne was wont to frequent the fountain and the tree, mostly at night, sometimes during the day; particularly, so as to be alone, at hours when in church the divine office was being celebrated. When dancing she would turn around the tree and the fountain, then would hang on the boughs garlands of different herbs and flowers, made by her own hand, dancing and singing the while, before and after, certain songs and verses and invocations, spells and evil arts. And the next morning the chaplets of flowers would no longer be found there."

To this sixth article, on this 27th day of March, she answers that she refers to another reply that she has made. The remainder of the article she denies.

On Saturday, the 24th of February, she said that she heard how that the sick, when they can get up, go to the tree to walk about; it is a huge tree, a beech, from which "le beau may" comes; and it belonged, so it was said, to Pierre de Bourlemont. Sometimes she went playing with the other girls, in summer, and made garlands for Our Lady of Domrémy there. Often she had heard old people tell, not those of her family, that the fairies frequented it. She has heard Jeanne, the wife of mayor

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Aubrey of Domrémy, her godmother, say that she had seen the fairies, but she herself does not know if it is true. She never, as far as she knew, saw the fairies, and she does not know if she saw any elsewhere. She has seen the maidens putting chaplets of flowers on the boughs of the tree, and she herself has hung them with the others, sometimes carrying them away, sometimes leaving them there. She adds that ever since she knew she must come to France she had taken little part in games or dancing, as little as possible. She does not know whether she has danced near the tree since she had grown to understanding; and though on occasions she may well have danced there with the children, she more often sang than danced there. There is also a wood, called the Oak wood, which can be seen from her father's door, not more than half a league away. She does not know, nor has she ever heard, that the fairies repair there, but she has heard from her brothers that after she had left the country it was said that she received her message at the Fairies' Tree. She says she did not and she told her brother so. Further, she says that when she came to her king, several people asked her if there was not in her part of the country a wood called the Oak wood; for there were prophecies saying that out of the Oak wood should come a maid who should work miracles; but she said she put no faith therein.

VII

"The said Jeanne was wont to bear a mandrake in her bosom, hoping thereby to have good fortune in riches and the things of this world; which mandrake, she affirmed, possessed this virtue and potency."

This seventh article, of the mandrake, Jeanne utterly denies.

Now, on the 1st day of March, when asked what she had done with her mandrake, she replied that she had never had

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one, but had heard say that there was one, near her village; but she never saw it. Also she had heard that it is an evil and dangerous thing to keep; yet she cannot tell what its use is. Asked where this mandrake is, of which she has heard, she answered that she heard it was in the ground, near the tree but she cannot tell whereabouts. And she has heard that over the mandrake a hazel tree grows. Asked what good the mandrake is, she replied that she has heard that it attracts money: but she puts no faith in that, and her voices never told her anything of this.

VIII

"Jeanne, when she was about [fifteen], of her own will and without the leave of her said father and mother, went to the town of Neufchâteau in Lorraine and there for some time served in the house of a woman, an innkeeper named La Rousse, where many young unguarded women stayed, and the lodgers were for the most part soldiers. Thus, dwelling at this inn, she would sometimes stay with the said women, sometimes would drive the sheep to the fields, and occasionally lead the horses to drink, or to the meadow, or pasture; and there she learned to ride and became acquainted with the profession of arms."

To this eighth article Jeanne answered that she referred to her other replies, and denied the remainder.

Now on February 22nd she confessed that out of dread of the Burgundians she left her father's house and went to the town of Neufchâteau in Lorraine, to the house of a certain woman named La Rousse, where she stayed about a fortnight,, undertaking the common duties of the house; but she did not go into the fields. On Saturday the twenty-sixth of the same month, when asked if she took the beasts to the fields, she, said she had already replied; she also added that, since she

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was grown up and had reached understanding, she did not commonly look after the cattle, but helped to take them to the meadows and to a castle called the Island, for fear of the soldiers, but she does not remember whether or not she tended them in her youth.

IX

"Jeanne, when in this service, summoned a certain youth for breach of promise before the magistrate of Toul, and in the pursuit of this case, she went frequently to Toul, and spent almost everything she had. This young man, knowing she had lived with the said women, refused to wed her, and died, pendente lite. For this reason, out of spite, Jeanne left the said service."

To this ninth article Jeanne answers that she has replied elsewhere, and that she refers to that reply. She denies the remainder.

Now on Monday, the 12th of March, in answer to the question who had persuaded her to summon a man from Toul for breach of promise, she said: "I did not have him summoned, it was he who summoned me, and I swore before the judge to tell the truth." Lastly she swore that she had made no promise to this man. And she added that her voices assured her she would win her case.

X

"After leaving the service of La Rousse, the said Jeanne claims to have had for five years, and still be having, visions and apparitions of St. Michael, of St. Catherine, and of St. Margaret, and that they had privately revealed to her that she should raise the siege of Orleans and have Charles, whom she calls her king, crowned, and should drive out all the adversaries of the kingdom of France; against the wishes of

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her father and mother, she left them, and of her own initiative and will, went to Robert de Baudricourt, captain of Vaucouleurs, to inform him, according to the command of St. Michael, and of St. Catherine and St. Margaret, of the visions and revelations made to her by God, as she claims, and to ask the said Robert to help her to accomplish the said revelations. And, twice refused by the said Robert, and being returned home, she received once more by revelation the command to return to him, and the third time she was welcomed and received by the said Robert."

To this tenth article she answers that she will abide by her other replies on this matter.

Now on Thursday, February And, she stated that, when she was about thirteen years, she had a voice from God to help her and guide her. The first time she was much afraid: it came towards noon on a summer's day, in her father's garden, when she was not fasting, and had not fasted on the previous day. She heard the voice on her right, towards the church, and she seldom heard it without a light. This light came from the same side as the voice, and generally there was a great light. When she came to France she often heard a great voice; and, for the first time, there was a light. She added that if she was in a wood she heard the voices well; and it seemed to her a worthy voice, and she believed it was sent to her from God. After she had heard it three times she knew it was the voice of an angel. She said too that the voice always protected her well, and that she understood it well. Asked what instruction this voice gave her for the salvation of her soul, she answered it taught her to be good and to go to church often, and that she must come to France. And she added that the examiner would not learn from her, this time, in what form the voice appeared to her. Further, the voice told her, two or three times a week, to leave and come to

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France, and her father was to know nothing of her leaving. The voice told her to come, and she could no longer stay where she was; it told her she would raise the siege of Orleans. When she reached Vaucouleurs she recognized Robert de Baudricourt, although she had never seen him; she told him that through her voices it had been revealed to her that she must come to France; she recognized the said Robert through her voice which told her it was he. Now he twice repulsed her, the third time he received her, and gave her an escort as her voice had foretold.

On Saturday, February 24th, asked at what time on the preceding day she had heard the voice, she answered that she had heard it then, and on that 24th of February, three times in all. First in the morning, next at Vespers, and lastly when the Ave Maria was rung; she often heard it more frequently than she said. And the morning before, whilst she was asleep, the voice woke her without touching her, but by speaking to her; she did not know if the voice was in the room, but she was certain it was in the castle; she confessed that when the voice came to her for the first time she was in or about her thirteenth year.

On Tuesday the 27th of the same month she said that it was a good seven years since St. Catherine and St. Margaret undertook for the first time to guide her. Asked if St. Michael appeared first, she answered yes, she had received great comfort from him. "I do not speak of St. Michael's voice, but of his great comfort." Asked which was the first voice to come to her, about the age of thirteen, she answered that it was St. Michael whom she saw before her eyes; and he was not alone, but accompanied by many angels from heaven. She said also that she came into France only by the instruction of God. Asked if she saw St. Michael and the angels corporeally and

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in reality, she answered that she saw them with her bodily eyes as well as she saw the assessors of the trial. And when St. Michael and the angels left her, she wept, and fain would have been taken with them. Asked, on the same day, if there was a light with the voices, she answered there was a great deal of light, on all sides, as was most fitting.

On Thursday, March 1st asked if since the preceding Tuesday day she had not spoken with St. Catherine and St. Margaret, she answered yes, both on that and on the previous day, but she did not know at what hour, but there is not a day but she hears them.

On Monday, March 12th, asked if she inquired of her voices whether she should tell her father and mother of her leaving, she answered that, regarding her father and mother, her voices would have been glad for her to tell them, had it not been for the difficulties they would have raised if she had done so. For her part, she would not have told them for anything; the voices left it to her to reveal her going to her parents, or be silent. Asked about the dreams her father had of her going away, she answered that her mother told her several times that whilst she was still at home her father said he had dreamt of Jeanne's going away with soldiers; and they took great care to keep her safely, and held her in great subjection; she obeyed them in all things, except in the incident at Toul, in the action for marriage. She had heard her mother tell how her father said to her brothers: "If I thought what I dreamed was going to happen, I should want you to drown her, and if you would not, I would do it myself." Her father and mother almost lost their senses when she left for Vaucouleurs. Asked whether these thoughts came to her father after she had had her visions and her voices, she answered yes, more than two years after she first heard the voices."

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XI

"The said Jeanne, having entered into intimate relations with Robert, boasted of having told him that after having dispatched and accomplished everything that had been enjoined by revelation from God, she would have three sons of which the first would be pope, the second emperor, and the third king. Hearing which, the said captain said to her: 'Now then, I should like to give you one if they're going to be such powerful men, because I should be better off.' To which she answered: 'No, gentle Robert, no, this is not the time; the Holy Spirit will find a way!' So the said Robert, in many places, and in the presence of prelates, lawyers, and notable persons, affirmed, said and uttered."

To this eleventh article Jeanne answers by referring to the replies she made elsewhere on this subject; and as for having three children, she never has boasted of it.

Now on Monday, March 12th asked if her voices called her daughter of God, or daughter great-hearted, she answered that before the siege of Orleans, and since then, they have spoken to her every day, often calling her Jeanne the Maid, daughter of God.

XII

"And, the better and more easily to accomplish her plan, the said Jeanne required the said Captain to have a male costume made for her, with arms to match; which he did, reluctantly, and with great repugnance, finally consenting to her demand. When these garments and these arms were made, fitted and completed, the said Jeanne put off and entirely abandoned woman's clothes; with her hair cropped short and round like a young fop's, she wore shirt, breeches, doublet, with hose joined together and fastened to the said doublet by 20 points, long leggings laced on the outside, a short mantle

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reaching to the knees, or thereabouts, a close-cut cap, tightfitting boots and buskins, long spurs, sword, dagger, breastplate, lance and other arms in the style of a man-at-arms, with which she performed actions of war and affirmed that she was fulfilling the commands of God as they had been revealed to her."

To this twelfth article Jeanne answers that she refers to her other replies on this matter. In consequence, asked whether she took this dress and these arms and other uniform of war by God's command, she answers: "I refer as formerly to what I have already said in reply to this."

Now on Thursday, February 22nd, she declared that her voice had told her to go to Robert, captain of Vaucouleurs, and he would give her men-at-arms; to which she answered that she was a poor maid who could neither ride nor fight. She declared that she had told an uncle that she had to go to Vaucouleurs, so he took her there. Further, that when she went to her king, she wore man's dress. Also that before she went to her lord the king the Duke of Lorraine sent for her; she went, and told him she wanted to go to France. The Duke questioned her about recovering his health, but she told him she knew nothing of that, and spoke to him little of her journey.

She told the Duke to give her his son and his men to take her to France, and she would pray for his health. She journeyed to the Duke by safe conduct, and returned to Vaucouleurs. On leaving Vaucouleurs she wore man's dress, carried a sword which the said Robert gave her, but no other arms, and was accompanied by a knight, a squire, and four servants. She went to the town of St. Urbain, and slept in the abbey. During this journey she passed through Auxerre where she heard Mass in the great church, and frequently had her voices with her. Further, the said Robert made those who were escorting

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her swear to lead her safely and surely, and when she left he said to her: "Go, go, and come what may." She said also that she had to change to man's costume since she believed her counsel in that respect was good: that she went without hindrance to her king to whom she sent letters for the first time when she was yet at Ste. Catherine de Fierbois.

On Tuesday, February 27th, asked if her voice instructed her to wear the habit of a man, she answered that the dress is but a little thing, the least of all; but she did not wear man's dress at anybody's counsel, she wore it, and did everything, only at the command of Our Lord and His angels. She did not wear this dress at Robert's bidding. Asked if she had done well to wear this dress, she answered that to her mind everything she did at God's bidding was well done, and she expects good warrant and help for it. She said, too, that she had a sword which she took at Vaucouleurs.

On the 12th of March, asked if it was at Robert's request that she wore man's dress, and if the voice had given her any command in connection with Robert, she answered as before. Of the voice she said that everything good which she had done had been at the instance of her voices; and, in respect of the dress, she would answer another time, for at present she was not advised, but would reply on the next day.

On Saturday, March 17th, asked what warrant or aid she expects from Our Lord from the fact that she wears man's dress, she answers that in this as in other respects she wanted no other recompense than the salvation of her soul.

XIII

"The said Jeanne attributes to God, to His angels and to His Saints instructions that are contrary to the honesty of womankind, forbidden by divine law, abominable to God and man, and prohibited under penalty of anathema by ecclesiastical

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decrees, such as the wearing of short, tight, and dissolute male habits, those underneath the tunic and breeches as well as the rest; and, according to their bidding, she often dressed in rich and sumptuous habits, precious stuffs and cloth of gold and furs; and not only did she wear short tunics, but she dressed herself in tabards and garments open at the sides, whilst it is notorious that when she was captured she was wearing a loose cloak of cloth of gold, a cap on her head and her hair cropped round in man's style. And in general, having cast aside all womanly decency, not only to the scorn of feminine modesty, but also of well-instructed men, she had worn the apparel and garments of most dissolute men, and in addition, had borne weapons of offense. To attribute this to the bidding of God, His holy angels and virgin saints, is blasphemy of Our Lord and His saints, setting at nought the divine decrees, infringement of canon law, the scandal of her sex and womanly decency, the perversion of all modesty of outward bearing, the approbation and encouragement of most reprobate examples of conduct."

To this thirteenth article, Jeanne answers: "I have not blasphemed God or His saints."

On Tuesday, February 27th, asked if she thought the instruction to wear man's dress was lawful, she answered that everything she did was at God's command; and that, if He had bidden her wear a different dress, she would have done so, for it was God's bidding. Asked whether she thought that in this particular instance she had done well, she replied that she did not wear it without God's command, and that no single action of hers was otherwise than at His command.

On Saturday, the 3rd, asked whether when she went to her king for the first time, he inquired if she had changed her dress after revelation, she answered: "I replied to this before," and "nevertheless, I do not recall that I was asked that." She

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added it is written at Poitiers. On the same day, asked if she believed that she would err or commit mortal sin by returning to woman's clothes, she answered she would do better to obey and serve her sovereign Lord, namely God.

XIV

"The said Jeanne affirms that it was right so to wear garments and habits of dissolute men; and will persist therein, saying that she must not abandon them, except with express permission by revelation from God, to the injury of God, of His angels and His saints."

To this fourteenth article Jeanne answers: "I do not do ill to serve God; to-morrow you shall have a reply." The same day, asked by one of the assessors if she had received instruction or revelation to wear man's dress, she answers that her reply has been given, and she leaves it at that: then says that she will send answer the next day. She adds that she knows well who made her wear man's dress, but she does not know how she ought to reveal it.

On Saturday, February 24th, asked if she desired a woman's habit, she answered: "If you will give me permission, send me one. I will take it and go: otherwise I do not want one. I am content with this, since it is God's will that I should wear it."

On Monday, March 12th, asked whether she did not think she was doing wrong to wear man's dress, she answered no; and even at that moment, if she were back with her own party, it seemed to her that it would be to the great good of France for her to do as she did before her capture.

On Saturday, March 17th, asked why, since she declares her wearing of male attire to be at God's command, she asks for a woman's shift in the event of her death, she answered it were enough for her if it were long.

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XV

"The said Jeanne having repeatedly asked permission to hear Mass, was admonished to put off man's dress and return to woman's dress; her judges gave her hope that she would be allowed to hear Mass and receive Communion if she would finally put off man's dress and wear female attire, as befits her sex. She would not agree, and preferred not to take Communion and the holy offices, rather than abandon this dress, pretending that by so doing she would displease God, so revealing her obstinacy, her stubbornness in evil, her want of charity, her disobedience to the Church, and the scorn she has of the holy sacraments."

To this fifteenth article, on this Tuesday the 27th of March, Jeanne answers that she would much rather die than turn back on Our Lord's command.

On this same day, asked if she will put off man's dress and hear Mass, she replies that she will not yet put it off, and that it is not on her that the day depends when she may do so. '

She says that if the judges refuse to let her hear Mass, it is in God's power to let her hear Mass when it pleases Him, without them.

As for the remainder of the article, she answers that she confesses she has been admonished to wear woman's dress; but she denies the irreverence and the succeeding charges.

On Thursday, March 15th, asked which she would prefer, to wear woman's dress and hear Mass or keep to male costume and not hear Mass, she answered: "Promise me I shall hear Mass if I am in woman's dress, and I will answer you." Whereupon the examiner said he would promise, and Jeanne then answered: "What do you say if I have sworn and promised to our king not to put off this dress? Yet I answer you: Have a long dress, reaching down to the ground, with no

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train, made for me, and give it to me to go to Mass; and then on my return I will put on once more the dress I have." Asked once and for all whether she would wear a woman's dress and go to hear Mass, she answered: "I will have counsel on it, and then I will answer you." And in honor of God and of Our Lady she urged she would be allowed to hear Mass in this good town. Whereupon she was told to take a woman's dress, simply and absolutely. She replied: "Give me a dress such as the daughters of a burgess wear, a houppelande, and also a woman's hood; and I will wear it to go and hear Mass." Moreover she said, as urgently as she could, that she besought us to permit her to hear Mass in the dress she wore, without any change.

On Saturday, March 17th, questioned on the subject of the woman's dress offered to her so that she could hear Mass, she answered that she would not put it on till it should please Our Lord; and if it be that she must be brought to judgment and stripped, she asks the lords of the Church to grant her the mercy of a woman's shift and a hood for her head; for she would rather die than turn back from her Lord's command. She firmly believes God will not permit her to be brought so low, or be without His aid, or miracle. Asked whether her saying she would take a woman's dress if they would let her go would please God, she answered that if she were given permission to go in woman's dress she would immediately put on man's dress and do what Our Lord bade her, and that nothing in the world would induce her to swear not to take up arms or wear man's dress, to accomplish Our Lord's will and pleasure.

XVI

"The said Jeanne, after her capture, at the castle of Beaurevoir and at Arras, was repeatedly and charitably admonished

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by noble and eminent persons of both sexes to abandon man's dress and to wear habits decently fitting her sex. This she absolutely refused, and still obstinately persists in her refusal to do, as well as the other duties fitting to her sex; in all things she behaves more like a man than a woman."

To this sixteenth article Jeanne confesses that she was admonished at Arras and at Beaurevoir to wear woman's dress, and that she refused and still refuses. As for the other womanly duties, she says there are enough other women to do them.

On Saturday, March 3rd, asked if she recalls whether the clerks of her own party who examined her, some for the space of a month, others for three weeks, did not question her about the changing of her dress, she replied that she did not remember: that, however, they did ask her where she assumed her male costume, and she told them it was at Vaucouleurs. Asked if they inquired of her if she assumed it because of her voices, she said: "That is not in your case." Further asked if she was not asked to change her habit at Beaurevoir, she answered: "Yes, truly"; and she said she would not without God's leave. The Demoiselle of Luxembourg asked Jean de Luxembourg not to deliver her to the English, and with the Lady of Beaurevoir offered her a woman's dress, and told her to wear it. She replied that she had not God's permission, and it was not yet time. She added that Messire Jean de Pressy and others at Arras did not offer her a woman's dress; others asked her to change her dress. Moreover, she said that if she had had to do it she would rather have done so at the request of these two ladies than of any other ladies in France, save her queen. Asked also whether when God revealed to her that she should change to man's dress, it was by the voice of St. Michael, or by the voice of St. Catherine or St. Margaret, she answered: "You will learn no more for the present."

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XVII

"When the said Jeanne came, thus clothed and armed, into the. presence of the said Charles, she made amongst others three promises to him: the first that she would raise the siege of Orleans; the second that she would get him crowned at Reims; the third she would take vengeance of his enemies, that she would kill them all by her magic art, drive them out of the kingdom, both the English and the Burgundians. She boasted publicly of these promises many times in different places; and to increase faith in her acts and sayings, she then and thenceforth made use of spells, and showed up the habits, life, and secret actions of people coming into her presence whom she had never seen or known, and boasted that her knowledge came by revelation."

To this seventeenth article Jeanne replied that she bore to her king news from God saying that Our Lord would restore his kingdom, would have him crowned at Reims, and would expel his enemies. She was God's messenger to that effect; and told him to set her boldly to work, and she would raise the siege of Orleans. She spoke, she said, of the whole kingdom, and if the Lord Duke of Burgundy and other subjects of the realm did not come to obedience, her king would compel them by force. She said, with regard to the end of the article of recognizing Robert and her king: "I hold to what I said before."

On Thursday, February 22nd, she confessed that when she came to Vaucouleurs she recognized Robert de Baudricourt although she had never seen him, because her voice told her it was he. She said that she found her king at Chinon, where she arrived towards noon, and lodged at an inn; and after dinner, she went to her king at his castle, and she recognized

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him from the others, when she entered the chamber, by her voices; and she told the king she wanted to fight the English

On March 13th, asked about a certain married priest and a lost cup, she answered she knew nothing of that, and had never heard of it.

XVIII

"The said Jeanne, as long as she remained with the said Charles, dissuaded him and his men with all her power from negotiating any treaty of peace with his enemies, continually incited her party to murder and shed human blood, affirming that there could be no peace but by the sword and the lance's point: that it was so ordained of God, since the king's enemies would not otherwise yield what they held of the realm, and therefore to make war on them was to her mind of the greatest benefit to all Christendom."

To this eighteenth article Jeanne answers that she summoned the Duke of Burgundy both by letter and ambassadors to make peace with her king. As for the English, the only peace with them is by their return to their own country, to England. On the rest of the 'article she has made other replies, to which she refers.

On Tuesday, February 27th, asked why she did not conclude a treaty with the captain of Jargeau, she answered that the lords of her party replied to the English that they would not get the delay of a fortnight for which they asked, but must go off, with their horses, immediately. For her own part she said they could retire with their doublets, and their life safe, if they wished; otherwise they would be taken by assault. Asked if she had any conversation with her counsel, or voices, to find out whether or not to grant the delay, she answered that she had no recollection.

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XIX

"The said Jeanne, by consulting demons and employing spells, sent for a certain sword hidden in the church of Ste. Catherine de Fierbois, which she had maliciously and deceitfully hid or had hidden in this church, so that by misleading princes, nobles, clergy, and common folk, she might more easily induce them to believe that it was by revelation that she knew the sword was there, and they might more readily put absolute faith in her sayings."

To this nineteenth article on this Tuesday the 27th of March, she answers that she refers to her earlier answers in this connection: the rest of the article she denies.

On Tuesday, February 27th, asked if she had been to Ste. Catherine de Fierbois, she answered yes; that she had heard Mass there three times on the same day, and then went on to Chinon. The same Tuesday she said she had a sword from the church of Ste. Catherine de Fierbois that she sent for when at Tours or Chinon; it was in the earth behind the altar, and immediately afterwards the sword was found, all rusted. Asked how she knew the sword was there, she replied it was in the ground, rusted over, with five crosses upon it; she knew through her voices, and said she had never seen the man she sent to fetch it. She wrote to the clergy asking if it was their pleasure she should have this sword, and they sent it to her. She thought it was not buried deep behind the altar; she did not know exactly whether it was in front or behind the altar, yet she thought she wrote it was behind. As soon as the sword was found, she added, the priests rubbed it and the rust fell off at once without effort. An armorer of Tours fetched it. The priests of Ste. Catherine and also of Tours gave her a scabbard; there were two, one of crimson velvet, the other of cloth of gold. She herself had another made of very strong

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leather, and added that when she was captured she had not this sword with her, though she wore it continually until she reached St. Denis. Asked how it was blessed, whether she said or asked any benediction over the sword, she answered she had never asked blessing for it or known how to. She loved the sword, since it had been found in the church of St. Catherine whom she loved.

Asked on Saturday, March 17th, what was the purpose of the five crosses on the sword, she answered that she did not know.

"The said Jeanne put a spell on her ring, her standard, on certain pieces of linen or pennons, which she used to bear or have her men bear before her, as she did upon the sword she claimed to have found by revelation at Ste. Catherine de Fierbois, affirming that these objects brought good fortune. She uttered many curses and incantations over them in different places, publicly declaring that with their aid she would do great things and overcome her enemies, that her men could meet with no defeat in their attack or fighting, or suffer any misfortune, because they bore such pennons. In particular she publicly uttered and proclaimed this at Compiègne, on the eve of her attack upon the lord Duke of Burgundy, during the course of which she was captured and taken prisoner, and many of her men were wounded, killed, and taken. This she as much as declared when at St. Denis she incited her company to attack Paris."

To this twentieth article Jeanne, on Tuesday, March 27th, answered that she abides by her earlier answers in this connection. Furthermore, she adds that in nothing she did was there witchcraft or other magic art. With regard to her standard, she refers herself to the good fortune Our Lord brought it.

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On Tuesday, February 27th, asked if she had her sword when she was captured, she answered no, but a certain sword taken from a Burgundian instead.

On Thursday, March 1st asked who gave her the ring now in the possession of the Burgundians, she answered her father and mother; she thought it had written on it Jhesus Maria, but she knew not who wrote these words. The ring had no stone and was given her at Domrémy. She said her brother gave her another ring besides the one which we, the bishop, held, and she charged us to give it to the Church. Never, she said, did she tend or cure any person with the aid of these rings.

On Saturday, March 3rd, asked whether when the king first set her to work and she had her standard made, the men-at-arms and others of her party did not have pennons made like hers, she answered: "It is well to know that the lords kept their own arms." She replied that certain of her companions in arms had them made at their pleasure, others did not. Asked of what stuff they had them made, whether of linen or of cloth, she answered it was of white satin, and on some were fleurs-de-lys. She had only two or three lances in her company, but her companions in arms sometimes had pennons made like hers, doing so merely to distinguish their men from others. Asked if the pennons were often renewed, she answered that she did not know, that when the lances were broken, new pennons were made. Asked if those made like hers brought good fortune, she answered that she did indeed sometimes say to her men: "Go boldly in the midst of the English," or "among the English," and she herself would go. Asked if she told them to bear the pennons boldly, and they would have good fortune, she answered that she certainly told them what had happened and would happen again. Asked if she had thrown or had others throw holy

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water over the pennons, when they were first taken, she answered that she did not know, and if it was done it was not at her instruction. Asked if she ever saw holy water sprinkled on them, she answered: "That is not in your case," and if she did, she was not now advised to reply. Asked if her companions in arms did not have written on their pennons Jhesus Maria, she answered that by her faith she did not know. Asked if she had borne round the altar or church, or had others bear it, cloth which was to be made into pennons, she answered no, and she had never seen it done.

On Saturday, March 17th, asked what her ring which had Jhesus Maria written on it was made of, she answered she did not exactly know. If it was gold, it was not of fine gold: she does not know if it was gold or brass, but thinks there were three crosses upon it, and, to her knowledge, no other sign save Jhesus Maria. Asked why she gladly looked at this ring when she was going into battle, she answered it was out of pleasure, and in honor of her father and mother; and having her ring in her hand and on her finger she touched St. Catherine who appeared to her.

Asked what part of her she touched she answered: "You will get nothing more about that."

XXI

"The said Jeanne, thereto incited by her temerity and her presumption, had the names Jhesus Maria written in her letters, signed with a cross between, and addressed them from herself to Our Lord the King, to My Lord Duke of Bedford, then regent of France, and to the lords who held the siege at Orleans, letters containing many things evil, pernicious, and contrary to the Catholic faith, of which the tenor follows."

To this article, this Tuesday, March 27th, Jeanne answers that she did not send these letters out of pride or presumption,

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but at Our Lord's bidding, and confesses to the letters, except for three words.

On Thursday, February 22nd, she said she had sent letters to the English at Orleans, telling them to retire, according to the contents of the letters which were read to her, except for two or three words, for example, she declares that where it says Surrender to the Maid, it should read Surrender to the king, similarly for body for body and chieftain of war. The tenor of the letters begins "King of England, etc." and they are subscribed + Jhesus Maria +

On Saturday, March 3rd, asked if her own party firmly believed her to be sent from God, she answered she knew not whether they did, and referred us to their opinion; but if they did not, yet she is sent from God none the less. Asked if she did not think that they held a wise belief by deeming her to be sent from God, she answered: "If they believe I am sent from God, they are not deceived."

XXII

"+ Jhesus Maria +

"King of England, and you Duke of Bedford, calling yourself regent of France, you, William Pole, Count of Suffolk, John Talbot, and you Thomas Lord Scales, calling yourselves lieutenants of the said Duke of Bedford, do right in the King of Heaven's sight. Surrender to The Maid sent hither by God the King of Heaven, the keys of all the good towns you have taken and laid waste in France. She comes in God's name to establish the Blood Royal, ready to make peace if you agree to abandon France and repay what you have taken. And you, archers, comrades in arms, gentles and others, who are before the town of Orleans, retire in God's name to your own country. If you do not, expect to hear tidings from The Maid who will shortly come upon you to your very great hurt. And to

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you, King of England, if you do not thus, I am "chef de guerre"; and whenever I meet your followers in France, I will drive them out; if they will not obey, I will put them all to death. I am sent here in God's name, the King of Heaven, to drive you body for body out of all France. If they obey, I will show them mercy. Do not think otherwise; you will not withhold the kingdom of France from God, the King of Kings, Blessed Mary's Son. The King Charles, the true inheritor, will possess it, for God wills it, and has revealed it to him through The Maid, and he will enter Paris with a good company. If you do not believe these tidings from God and The Maid, wherever we find you we shall strike you and make a great tumult ["hahay"] than France has heard for a thousand years. Know well that the King of Heaven will send a greater force to The Maid and her good men-at-arms than you in all your assaults can overcome: and by blows shall the favor of the God of Heaven be seen. You Duke of Bedford, The Maid prays and beseeches not to bring yourself to destruction. If you obey her, you may join her company, where the French shall do the fairest deed ever done for Christendom. Answer, if you desire peace in the city of Orleans; if not, bethink you of your great hurt soon. Written this Tuesday of Holy Week."

XXIII

"From the tenor of these letters it is manifest that Jean has been deceived by evil spirits, and that she has frequently

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consulted them in her actions; or, to mislead the peoples, she has perniciously and falsely invented such fictions."

To this article she replies, she denies the end of it which declares she acted on the counsel of evil spirits.

On February 27th she said she would rather have been drawn by horses than have come to France without God's leave.

XXIV

"The said Jeanne misused the names Of Jhesus and of Maria, the sign of the Cross placed between them, and warned certain of her party that when they found these words and this sign in letters from her they should believe and do the opposite of what she wrote."

To this article on this Tuesday, March 27th, Jeanne answers by referring herself to another answer she made in this connection.

On March 17th, asked what the purpose was of the sign she put in her letters, and of Jhesus Maria, she answered that the clerks who wrote her letters put them in, and some said it was proper to put the two words Jhesus Maria.

XXV

"The said Jeanne, usurping the office of angels, said and affirmed she was sent from God, even in things tending openly to violence and to the spilling of human blood, which is absolutely contrary to holiness, and horrible and abominable to all pious minds."

To this article on this Tuesday, March 27th, Jeanne answers that she first asked for peace, but if peace was not agreed to, she was quite prepared to fight.

On Saturday, February 24th, she said she came from God and had no business here, in this trial, and asked to be sent

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back to God from Whom she came. On Saturday, March 17th, she said that God sent her to help the kingdom of France.

XXVI

"The said Jeanne, being at Compiègne in August of the year of Our Lord, 1429, received a letter from the Count d'Armagnac of which the tenor follows."

To this article on this 27th of March Jeanne answers that she refers herself to the answer she made before in this connection.

On Thursday, March 1st, asked if she had not received a letter from the Count d'Armagnac about which of the three claimants to the Papacy he should obey, she answered that the Count did write her a letter to this effect, to which she replied, amongst other things, that when she was in Paris or anywhere at leisure, she would answer. She was about to mount her horse when she gave this answer.

After letters from the Count and from Jeanne were read, she was asked whether that was her actual reply. She answered that she thought she had made that answer in part, but not all of it. Asked if she had professed to know, by her counsel of the King of Kings, what the Count should believe in the matter, she answered she knew nothing about it. Asked if she entertained any doubt concerning whom she should obey, she answered that she did not know how to instruct him to obey since he asked her to say whom God wanted him to obey. For her part she believed that we should obey Our Holy Father the Pope at Rome. She added that she said other things to the Count's messenger which are not in the copy of the letter; and if the messenger had not gone off at once he would have been thrown into the water, though not through her. To the Count's inquiry as to whom God wished him to obey, she replied that she did not know; but sent him several

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messages not put into writing. For her part she believed in our Holy Father the Pope at Rome. Asked why she had written that she would answer at some other time, if she believed in the Pope of Rome, she said the answer referred to a different matter from the three popes. Asked if she had said she would have counsel on the question of the three popes, she answered she had never written, or caused to be written so, she swore by her oath, anything concerning the three popes.

XXVII

"My very dear Lady, I commend myself humbly to you and beseech you for God's sake, seeing the division which now exists in the holy Church Universal, concerning the question of the popes (for there are three contending for the papacy: one dwells at Rome and is called Martin V, whom all Christian Kings obey; the other dwells at Peñiscola, in the kingdom of Valencia, and is called Clement [VIII]; the third dwells no man knows where, unless it is the Cardinal of St. Estienne and a few folk with him, and is called Benedict XIV. The first, who is called Pope Martin, was elected at Constance by the consent of all the Christian nations; he who is called Pope Clement was elected at Peñiscola, after the death of Benedict XIII, by three of his cardinals; the third, called Pope Benedict XIV, was secretly elected at Peñiscola also by Cardinal Saint-Estienne), I beseech you to entreat Our Lord Jesus Christ that in His infinite mercy He declare unto us through you which of the three aforesaid is the true Pope, and which He would have us henceforth obey, him who is called Martin, or him who is called Clement, or him who is called Benedict; and in whom we should believe, in secret, and without dissimulation or public manifestation; for we are all ready to do the will and pleasure of Our Lord Jesus Christ.

Entirely your Count d'Armagnac."

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XXVIII

"To which the said Jeanne made answer by a letter signed with her own hand, of which the tenor follows."

XXIX

"Jhesus + Maria

"Count d'Armagnac, my good and very dear friend, Jeanne the Maid informs you that your message has reached her, wherein you declare you have sent to her to discover which of the three Popes mentioned in your memorial you should believe. In truth I cannot well for the present tell, until I am in Paris or at rest elsewhere, for I am now too pressed by the business of war: but when you hear I am in Paris, send me a message and I will tell you in whom you should rightfully believe, and what I shall know by the counsel of my just and Sovereign Lord, the King of all the World, and as far as I can, what you should do. I commend you to God: may He keep you. Written at Compiègne the 22nd day of August."

XXX

"And so required, as has been related, by the Count d'Armagnac, to say which of the three was the true Pope, and in whom he should believe, she not only cast doubt upon which it was, when there was only one true and authentic Pope, but also, presuming too much for herself, holding the authority of the Church Universal to be of little weight, preferring her own word to the authority of the whole Church, she affirmed that within a fixed interval, she would inform him in which Pope he should believe; which she would discover by God's counsel, as her letter declares at greater length."

To the articles XXVII, XXVIII, XXIX and XXX which were explained to her word for word, Jeanne refers to the answer she has made, which is put under article XXVI.

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This Wednesday after Palm Sunday, 1431, March 28th. The reading of the articles is continued.

[And first, required to take oath, she answered she would willingly swear to speak the truth on that which touched her case, and so she swore.

To the article touching her dress, she answered that she wore her habit and arms at God's bidding; this was true both of the male costume and the arms.

When asked to abandon this dress, she answered she would not give it up without Our Lord's permission, not even to save her head, but, please God, it would soon be put off. She added, that if she had not Our Lord's permission, she would not wear woman's dress.]

"The said Jeanne, in and since the time of her youth, has boasted and daily boasts of having had many revelations and visions, and concerning these, in spite of being charitably admonished and lawfully and properly required upon legal oath, she would not and will not swear; further, she refuses to declare them sufficiently by word or sign; but did and still does put off, contradict, and refuse. And when formally refusing to swear, on many and several occasions, she said and affirmed, in her examination and elsewhere, that she would

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not discover her visions and revelations, even if her head were cut off or her body were dismembered; that we should not drag from her lips the sign which God showed her, by which she knew she came from God."

To this thirty-first article, Jeanne answers that concerning the sign or other things contained in this article she may well have said she would not reveal it, and adds that her earlier confession should contain that without God's leave she would not reveal the sign.

On February 22nd she said there was no day when she did not hear this voice, or when she did not need it.

On Saturday, February 23rd [24th], she said that on that night her voice told her many things for the good of her king which she wished her king might know that day, if she had to go without wine till Easter, for he would cat the more happily for it.

On Tuesday, February 27th, she said she had told her king at one time all that had been revealed to her, for it concerned him nearly. On this Tuesday, she said that she addressed letters to her king to find out if she should enter the town where he was; that she had journeyed a good 150 leagues to come to his aid, and she knew many things to his advantage. She thought the letters told how she would be able to recognize him among all the others.

On Thursday, March 1st asked in what form St. Michael appeared, she answered that she did not see his crown, and knew nothing of his apparel. Asked if St. Michael was naked, she answered: "Do you think God has not wherewithal to clothe him?"

On Tuesday, March 15th required to tell how she hoped to escape from the castle of Beaulieu, between two pieces of wood, she answered that she was never imprisoned in any place but she would gladly escape; and being in this castle,

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she would have shut her guards up in the tower, had it not been for the porter, who had seen and encountered her. It seemed, she said, that it did not please God to have her escape on that occasion, and she must see the English king, as her voices had told her, and as it is written above. On this same day, asked about the size and stature of the angel who appeared to her, she said that she would answer on Saturday with the other matters, namely, what should please God. The same day, asked if she had said that one is sometimes hanged for telling the truth, and if she knew of any fault or crime of hers for which she should fear death, if she did not confess, she answered no.

On Saturday, March 17th, asked about the age and apparel of St. Catherine and St. Margaret, she answered: "You have my reply in this matter, and will get none other from me. I have answered you as best I can."

XXXII

"Consequently you can and must conclude that these revelations and visions, if Jeanne ever had them, proceed rather from evil and lying spirits than from good; and so they must be presumed by you, in view especially of the cruelty, pride, bearing, actions, lies and contradictions indicated in the several articles, which may well be said and held to be lawful and entirely legitimate presumptions."

To this thirty-second article Jeanne answered, on the Wednesday after Palm Sunday, March 28th, that she denies it, and declares she has acted from the revelations of St. Catherine and St. Margaret, and will so maintain till her death. This same day she said that she was advised by certain of her party to put Jhesus Maria on her letters; which she did on some, and not on others. Where it is written "All that

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she has done is at God's bidding," should read "All the good I have done."

Asked, on this same day, whether her expedition to La Charité was well or ill done, she answered: "If I have done wrong, I will confess."

Asked if it was right for her to go to Paris, she answered that the French noblemen wished to, and by so doing, she believes, they performed their duty of attacking their enemies.

XXXIII

"The said Jeanne presumptuously and rashly boasted and boasts of knowing the future and having known the past, of discovering things secret or hidden; and this attribute of God she attributes to herself, a simple and unlearned creature."

To this thirty-third article, this Wednesday, March 28th, Jeanne answers: "It is for God to make revelations to whom He pleases," and of the sword and other things to come which she told, she knew them by revelation.

On Saturday, February 24th, she said the Burgundians will have war, if they do not as they should; she knows it by her voice.

On Tuesday, February 27th, asked whether when the assault was to be made at Orleans, she did not tell her men that she would receive the arrows, crossbolts and stones, she answered no; and there were a hundred or more wounded. But she did tell them to have no fear, and they would raise the siege. Asked, on the same day, to which fortress she ordered her men to retire, she says she does not remember. She added that she was confident of raising the siege of Orleans, because it had been revealed to her; this she told her king before going there. She said also that at the assault upon the fortress of the Bridge she was wounded in the neck by a crossbolt; but received great comfort from St. Michael, and was better in a

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fortnight. Asked if she knew beforehand that she would be wounded, she answered that she did indeed, and had told her king so; but that notwithstanding, she would not give up her work. It was revealed to her by the voices of St. Catherine and St. Margaret. She added that she herself was the first to plant the ladder up against the fortress of the Bridge, and as she was raising it, she was wounded in the neck with a crossbolt.

On Thursday, March 1st she said that within seven years the English would lose a greater stake than they did at Orleans; that the English will suffer a greater loss than ever they did in France, which will be by the victory God will send the French. This she knows by revelation, it will happen within seven years, and she is very vexed that it should be so long postponed. She says, as above, that she knows it by revelation, as well as she knows that we were before her. She said: "I know it as well as I know you are here." Asked in what year it will happen, she answered: "You will not learn that; nevertheless I heartily wish it might be before St. John's Day." This same day, asked if she said it would happen before Martinmas, she answered that she had said that many things would be seen before then; and it might well be that the English would be overthrown and stricken to the ground. Asked what she told John Grey, her guard, in prison, about Martinmas, she answered: "I have told you!" Asked through whom she knew it would happen before Martinmas, she answered that she knew it from St. Catherine and St. Margaret.

This same Thursday, March 1st asked what promises St. Catherine and St. Margaret made her, she answered: "That is not in your case," and, amongst other things, they told her that her king should be reëstablished in his kingdom, whether his enemies wished it or not. The same day she said she knew

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well that her king would regain the kingdom of France, as well as she knew we were there.

On Saturday, March 3rd, asked if the voices told her anything in a general way, she answered: "Yes, indeed, they told me I shall be delivered; but I do not know the day or the hour; and that I must boldly show a cheerful countenance before you."

On Saturday, March 10th asked if the sally at Compiègne was made at the instruction of her voices, she answered that in Easter week last, when she was in the trenches at Melun, she was told by the voices of St. Catherine and St. Margaret that she would be captured before St. John's Day; it had to be so; and she should not be distressed, but take everything in good part, and God would aid her. This same day, asked if since Melun she had been told by her voices that she would be captured, she answered yes, several times, nearly every day. She asked of her voices that when she was taken she might die quickly without long suffering in prison; and her voices told her to be resigned, that it must so happen, but they did not tell her when. If she had known when she was to be captured, she would not have gone. She had often asked them, but they did not tell her. The same day she said that when she had to leave for her king, she was told by her voices: "Go boldly; when thou art in the king's presence, he shall have a good sign to receive thee and believe in thee."

On Monday, March 12th, asked how she would have delivered the Duke of Orleans, she answered she would have taken enough English prisoners in this district to ransom him; and if she had not taken enough, she would have crossed the sea to fetch him by force from England. Asked if St. Catherine and St. Margaret had told her absolutely and unconditionally that she would take enough prisoners to ransom the Duke, who was in England, or else she should cross the sea

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to fetch him and bring him back within three years, she answered yes, and she told the king to let her have her way with the prisoners. She added that if she had gone on for three years unhindered she would have delivered him. She said that she needed less than three years and more than one, but does not now remember.

On Wednesday, March 14th, asked to what peril and danger we, bishop and clerics, expose ourselves by trying her, she answered that St. Catherine told her she should have help; she does not know whether this will be her deliverance from prison, or if, whilst she is being tried, some tumult may arise through which she can be delivered. She thinks it will be one or the other; and most often her voices tell her she will be delivered by a great victory. And then they say: "Take everything peacefully; have no care for thy martyrdom."

XXXIV

"The said Jeanne, persisting in her rash and presumptuous ways, has declared, spread abroad and published that she is able to recognize and distinguish the voices of God's archangels, angels, and saints, affirming that she can distinguish them from human voices."

To this thirty-fourth article on Wednesday, March 28th, Jeanne replies that she abides by her former answers in this connection and in respect of her rashness and the end of the article, she refers herself to the judgment of Our Lord.

On Tuesday, February 27th, asked if it was the voice of an angel, or of a saint, or of God Himself, which spoke to her, she answered that it was the voice of St. Catherine or St. Margaret. Their heads were crowned in rich and precious fashion with beautiful crowns. "And to tell this, she said, "I have God's permission. If you doubt it, send to Poitiers where I was examined before." The same day, asked how she knew

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one saint from the other, she answered that she knew them by the greeting they gave her, and because they tell her their names.

On Thursday, March 1st asked how she knew whether her apparition was man or woman, she answered: "I know well, and I recognize the saints by their voices," and because they revealed themselves to her. The same day, asked what part of them she saw, she answered the face. Asked if they had hair, she answered: "It is well to know they have." Asked if there were anything between their crowns and their hair, she answered no. Asked if their hair were long and hung down, she answered: "I do not know." She added that she did not know whether they appeared to have arms or other members. She said they spoke very well and beautifully, and she understood them well. Asked how they spoke if they had no other members, she answered: "I refer me to God." On March 15th, asked if she had no other sign than these apparitions were good spirits, she answered: "St. Michael certified it before the voices came to me." Asked how she knew it was St. Michael, she answered: "By the angels' speech and tongue," and she firmly believed they were angels. Asked how she knew it was the speech of angels, she answered that she believed it very soon and had the desire to believe it. She added that St. Michael, when he came to her, told her that St. Catherine and St. Margaret would come to her, that she should follow their counsel, and that they were instructed to lead her and advise her what she had to do; and that she should believe what they said, for it was at Our Lord's command.

Asked how she would tell if he were a good or evil spirit if the Enemy put himself in the form and guise of an angel, she answered that she would certainly know whether it was St. Michael or a counterfeit in his likeness. She answered that at first she had grave doubts whether it was St. Michael, and

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the first time she was afraid; and she saw him many times before she knew it was St. Michael. Asked how she knew then rather than on the first occasion that it was St. Michael who had appeared to her, she replied that the first time she was a young girl and was afraid; since then St. Michael taught her and showed her so many things that she firmly believed it was he. Asked what doctrine he taught her, she answered that in all things he told her to be a good child and God would help her; and amongst other things he told her she should go to the aid of the king of France. A great part of what the angel taught her is in this book, and the angel told her of the great pity that was in the kingdom of France.

XXXV

"The said Jeanne hath boasted and affirmed that she is able to tell whom God loves and whom He hates."

To this thirty-fifth article, this Wednesday, March 28th, she answers: "I abide by what I have already answered, with regard to the king and the Duke of Orleans"; of other folk, she knows nothing. She says she knows very well that God loves her king and the Duke of Orleans more than her, for their bodily ease; and she knows this by revelation.

On Thursday, February 22nd, she said that she knows God loves greatly the Duke of Orleans, and also that she had had more revelations about him than any man alive, save her king.

On Saturday, February 24th, asked if she could so influence the voice that it would obey her and take news to her king, she answered that she did not know whether the voice would obey her unless it were God's will, and God consented thereto. "And if it please God He will be able to send revelations to the king, and with this I shall be well pleased." Asked why

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this voice no longer speaks with the king as it did when Jeanne was in his presence, she answered that she does not know if it be not God's will.

On Saturday, March 17th, asked how she knows that St. Margaret and St. Catherine hate the English, she answered: "They love those whom God loves, and hate whom He hates." Asked if God hates the English, she answers that she knows nothing of God's love or hatred, or what God will do to their souls, but she is certain that with the exception of those who shall die there, they will be driven out of France, and that God will send victory to the French and against the English. Asked if God was for the English when they were prospering in France, she answered that she knew not whether God hated the French, but she believed it was His will to suffer them to be beaten for their sins, if they were in a state of sin.

XXXVI

"The said Jeanne hath declared, affirmed, and boasted, and still doth, from day to day, that she knows and hath truly known, and not she alone, but also other men at her request have truly known and recognized a certain voice, which she calls her voice, which came to her; although, by its nature, the said voice which she describes and hath described, must have been and is invisible to every human creature."

To this thirty-sixth article the said Jeanne answers that she abides by her earlier answers.

On Thursday, February 22nd she said that those of her party knew well that the voice was sent from God, and that they saw and knew it, this she knew well. Moreover, she said that her king and several others heard and saw the voice which came to her, and there were present Charles de Bourbon and two or three others.

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XXXVII

"The said Jeanne confesses that she has often done the opposite of what the revelations she boasts to receive from God enjoined and commanded her; for example, when she left Saint-Denis, after the assault at Paris; when she jumped from the tower at Beaurevoir, and on other occasions. Wherein it is manifest, either that she has not had revelations from God or she has scorned the instructions and express revelations by which she proclaims she is wholly influenced and governed. Moreover she said, when she was ordered not to jump from the tower, and was tempted to do the opposite, that she could not do otherwise. Wherein she appears to hold erroneous opinions of men's free will and to fall into the error of those who advance that it is conditioned by fatal prescriptions, or something of similar import."

To this thirty-seventh article, this Wednesday, March 28th, she answers: "I refer to my earlier answers," yet she added that she had received permission for her departure from Saint-Denis. Asked whether by acting against the instruction of her voices she did not believe herself in mortal sin, she answered: "I have already answered this, and I refer to that answer." And, in respect of the conclusion of the article, she commits herself to God.

On Thursday, February 22nd she said that her voice told her to remain at Saint-Denis in France (and she wished to remain), but against her will the lords took her away. Nevertheless, if she had not been wounded she would not have gone. She was wounded in the trenches before Paris, and said that she recovered in five days.

On Saturday, March 10th asked whether, if her voices had ordered her to make the attack from Compiègne and had told her she would be captured, she would have gone, she answered

[191] that if she had known when she was to be captured she would not have gone willingly; nevertheless, she would have done their bidding in the end, whatever it cost her.

On Thursday, March 15th asked if she ever did anything against the instruction and will of her voices, she answered that she did and performed with all her might that which she could and was able to do. As for her leap from the tower at Beaurevoir, which she did against their bidding, she could not help herself; and when her voices saw her need, and that she could in no way hold herself back, they lent aid to her life and prevented her from being killed. Moreover, she said that whatever she did in her great ventures, they succored her, and this is a sign that they are good spirits.

The same day, asked if she did not believe it to be a great sin to anger St. Catherine and St. Margaret who appear to her, and to do contrary to their bidding, she answers yes, but she knows how to atone for it; what angered them most of all in her opinion was the leap at Beaurevoir, wherein she asked their 4forgiveness, and for other offenses she had committed against them.

XXXVIII

"The said Jeanne, although from her youth up she has uttered, committed, and perpetrated many sins, crimes, errors and faults, shameful, cruel, scandalous, dishonorable and unfitting to her sex, nevertheless proclaims and affirms that everything she has done is at God's bidding and according to His will, that she has never done anything which does not proceed from Him, through the revelations of His holy saints and blessed virgins Catherine and Margaret."

To this thirty-eighth article, Jeanne answers that she refers to her earlier replies in this connection. On Saturday, February 24th, she said that but for God's

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grace she could do nothing. The same day, asked if the people of Domrémy were on the side of the Burgundians or the others, she answered that she only knew one Burgundian in the village and she would have been quite willing for him to have his head cut off, if it had pleased God. Asked if in her youth her voice told her to hate the Burgundians, she answered that since she knew the voices were for the king of France, she did not like the Burgundians.

On Thursday, March 15th, asked if in battle she had done anything without the counsel of her voices, she answered: "You have my answer to this; read your book carefully, and you will find it." Nevertheless she said that at the request of men-at-arms she made an attack before Paris, and also before La Charité at her king's request. It was neither against nor according to the commands of her voices. Asked if she ever did anything contrary to their command and will, she answered as is contained in the preceding article.

XXXIX

"Although the just man falleth seven times in a day, nevertheless the said Jeanne utters and publishes that she has never committed, or at least never has to her knowledge committed, acts of mortal sin, notwithstanding that she has in reality performed all the acts (and others worse still) customary to fighting men; as it is declared in the preceding and following articles."

To this thirty-ninth article this Wednesday, March 28th, she answers: "I have answered this. I abide by my earlier answers."

On Saturday, February 24th, asked if she knows if she is in God's grace, she answered: "If I am not, may God put me there, and if I am, may God so keep me." She said she would be the saddest creature in the world if she were not

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in God's grace, and added that if she were in a state of sin, she did not think the voice would come to her, and wished every one could hear it as well as she did.

On Thursday, March 1st she said she is very glad when she sees her voice, and thinks when she sees it she cannot be in mortal sin. She says St. Catherine and St. Margaret in turn gladly hear her in confession, and if she is in mortal sin, she is not aware of it. Asked if, when she confesses, she feels as if in mortal sin, she answered that she did not know whether she is in a state of mortal sin, but does not think she has committed such deeds. "Please God," she said, "I never was, and if it please Him, I never shall commit or have committed such deeds as burden my soul."

On Wednesday, March 14th, asked whether it was not mortal sin to take a man at ransom and put him to death, a prisoner, she answered that she had not done that. And as mention was made of a certain Franquet d'Arras, who was sent to Lagny to be put to death, she answered that she was consenting to his death if he had deserved it, since he had confessed himself a murderer, a thief, and a traitor. His trial lasted, she said, for a fortnight, and he was tried by the Bailly of Senlis and a jury of the people of Lagny. She said she had asked to have Franquet exchanged for a man from Paris, the landlord of the Bear Inn; and when she heard of the death of the landlord, and the Bailly told her she would be doing great wrong to justice by delivering this Franquet, she said to the Bailly: "Since the man I wanted is dead, do with this fellow as justice demands." And when she was reminded that she had attacked Paris on a Feast Day, and that she had had the lord Bishop of Senlis's horse, and that she had thrown herself from the tower at Beaurevoir, and that she wore man's dress, she was asked if she did not believe she had committed mortal sin. She answered firstly, concerning

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the attack on Paris she did not think she was in mortal sin, and if she were, it was for God, and the priest in confession, to know it. Secondly, concerning the bishop's horse, she answered that she firmly believes that she did not therein commit mortal sin, for the lord Bishop of Senlis received a warrant for :zoo gold saluts for the horse. Thirdly, concerning the tower of Beaurevoir, she answered that she did not leap out of despair, but in hope of saving her body and of going to the aid of many good people in need, and after the leap she confessed herself and asked forgiveness of God, which she received, and she thinks it was wrong to make that leap. She knows she received pardon after her confession from a revelation of St. Catherine's, at whose counsel she confessed herself. Fourthly, concerning the man's dress, she answered: "Since I do it by God's command, and in His service, I do not think I do wrong; and as soon as it shall please God to command, I will put it off."

XL

"The said Jeanne, forgetful of her salvation and at the instigation of the Devil, is not and has not been ashamed from time to time and in many divers places to receive the Body of Christ in dissolute male attire, a costume forbidden and prohibited her by the command of God and the Church."

To this fortieth article, Jeanne answers: "l have answered this and I refer to my earlier answer," and in conclusion, submits to God.

On Saturday, March 3rd, asked whether when she was journeying through the country she often received the sacraments of the Eucharist and of Confession when she came to the good towns, she answered yes, from time to time. Asked if she received the sacraments in man's dress, she answered yes, but does not remember receiving them in armor.

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XLI

"The said Jeanne, like a madwoman, out of hatred and scorn for the English, and also from fear of the destruction of Compiègne which she had heard of, tried to cast herself from the top of a high tower, and at the instigation of the devil, decided to do so, attempting and performing all she could to accomplish this end; in this manner she cast herself, incited or induced by a diabolical instinct, more anxious for the safety of her body than the salvation of her soul, and of other souls; boasting often that she would rather die than let herself be delivered into the hands of the English."

To this forty-first article, Jeanne answers: "I refer to the answers I have already made."

On Saturday, March 3rd, asked if she was long in the town of Beaurevoir, she answered that she was there for about four months; and when she heard that the English were to come, she was very angry, and though her voices forbade her to jump from the tower, at last, from fear of the English, she leaped and commended herself to God and Our Lady. Asked if she had said that she would rather die than fall into the hands of the English, she answered that she would rather surrender her soul to God than fall in their hands.

On Wednesday, March 14th, asked why she jumped from the tower of Beaurevoir, she answered that she had heard that the people of Compiègne all of them to the age of seven years, were to be put to fire and to the sword; and she would rather die than live after such a destruction of good people. That was one reason why she jumped; the other was that she knew she had been sold to the English, and she would have died rather than fall into their hands. Asked if her leap was made at the counsel of her voices, she answered that St. Catherine told her almost every day not to jump, and

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God would aid her and the people of Compiègne too. But Jeanne told St. Catherine that since God was going to help the people of Compiègne she wanted to be there; and St. Catherine said: "You must be resigned and not falter; you will not be delivered until you have seen the King of the English." Jeanne answered: "Truly I do not want to see him, and I would rather die than fall into the hands of the English." She said that after her fall from the tower she was two or three days without desire to eat, yet she was comforted by St. Catherine who told her to confess and ask God's forgiveness for having cast herself down; and the people of Compiègne would have aid without fail before Martinmas in winter; and then she began to eat and drink, and soon after was well. Asked if when she regained her speech after her fall she denied God and His Saints, she answered that she did not remember that she had ever denied God or His Saints. Asked if she was willing to abide by the evidence collected or to be collected, she answered that she would leave it to God, and none other.

XLII

"The said Jeanne has said and publicly declared that St. Catherine, St. Margaret, and St. Michael have corporal members such as head, eyes, face, etc.; and added that she has touched these saints with her hands and has embraced and kissed them."

To this forty-second article, Jeanne answers: "I have answered this and refer to my earlier statements in respect of this."

Now on Saturday, March 17th, asked whether she ever kissed or embraced St. Catherine and St. Margaret, she answered that she had embraced them both, and they had a fine odor. Asked if, when she embraced them, she felt heat

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or anything else, she answered that she could not embrace them without feeling or touching them. Asked what part of them she embraced, their head or their feet, she answer that it is more fitting to embrace their feet.

XLIII

"The said Jeanne has said and publicly declared that the saints, angels, and archangels speak French and not English and that the saints, angels and archangels are not on the side of the English but of the French, affirming to their scorn that the saints in glory look with hatred on a Catholic realm and a country given to the veneration of all the saints according to the instruction of the Church."

To this forty-third article, which was explained to her word by word, Jeanne answered nothing beyond: "I refer me to Our Lord and to my earlier answers."

On Thursday, March 1st she said that the voice is fair soft and meek, and speaks French. Asked if this voice, that is St. Margaret, spoke English, she answered: "Why should she speak English? She is not on the English side."

XLIV

"The said Jeanne boasted and proclaimed, and still does that St. Catherine and St. Margaret promised to lead her to Paradise and assured her of salvation if she kept her virginity and that she is assured of salvation."

To this forty-fourth article, Jeanne answers: "I refer me to our Lord and my earlier answers."

On Thursday, February 22nd she said that she never asked of the voice any other final reward than the salvation of her soul.

[On Wednesday, March 14th] asked whether since her voices told her she will go in the end to the kingdom of Paradise,

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she feels assured of her salvation, and safe from damnation in hell, she answered that she firmly believes what her voices told her, namely, that she will be saved, as firmly as if she were already in Paradise. And when she was told that this was an answer of great weight, she replied that she held it for a great treasure; and meant, in respect of this article, provided she kept her oath and promise to Our Lord, that is, to keep safe her virginity of body and of soul. Asked whether after this revelation she believes it possible for her to commit mortal sin, she answered: "I do not know, but commit myself to God in all things." Asked if she need confess, since she believes from the revelation of her voices that she will be saved, she answered that she does not know of having committed mortal sin; but if she were in mortal sin, she thinks St. Catherine and St. Margaret would at once abandon her, and believes one cannot too much cleanse one's conscience. She said on Thursday, March 1st that her saints promised to lead her to Paradise, and so she had asked them to do.

XLV

"Although the judgments of God are altogether inscrutable to us, nevertheless the said Jeanne has said, uttered, declared, and proclaimed that she has known and knows who are the saints, angels, and archangels, the elect of God; and that she can distinguish them from one another."

To this forty-fifth article, Jeanne answers: "I refer to my earlier answers."

On Tuesday, February 27th, asked how and why she knew it was St. Catherine and St. Margaret who appeared to her, and how she told one from the other, she answered that she knew well who they were and easily recognized one from the other.

On Thursday, March 1st asked if the saints always appeared

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to her in the same dress, she answered that she always saw them in one and the same form, and their heads were richly crowned, and of their other clothing she does not speak, nor know anything of their robes. On Saturday, March 3rd, she said that she saw clearly St. Catherine and St. Margaret and her other apparitions, and knows they are saints of Paradise.

XLVI

"She says that she very affectionately interceded with St. Catherine and St. Margaret for the people of Compiègne before taking her leap, saying to them, among other things, by way of reproach: 'And how shall God suffer the people of Compiègne to die so wretchedly, who are so faithful to Him!' Wherein appear her impatience and irreverence towards God and His Saints."

To this forty-sixth article, Jeanne answers: I refer to my earlier answers."

On Saturday, March 3rd, she said that after she was wounded by leaping from the tower of Beaurevoir, the voice of St. Catherine told her to be of good cheer and she would recover, and the people of Compiègne would have aid; she said that she often prayed with her counsel for the Compiègne folk.

XLVII

"The said Jeanne, displeased with wounds she received from her fall or leap from the tower of Beaurevoir, and vexed that she had not realized her plan, blasphemed God and His Saints, shamefully denied them, and terribly scorned them to the horror of all who were present; and further, since she has been in the castle of Rouen, on many different days she has blasphemed and denied God, the Blessed Virgin, and the Saints, bearing with impatience and protesting against the fact that

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she is brought to trial before and is to be judged by the clergy."

To this forty-seventh article, Jeanne answers: "I refer me to Our Lord and to my answers in this connection."

On Saturday, March 3rd, asked whether she was not vexed and angry after jumping from the tower, and whether she did not blaspheme the Name of God, she answered that she never cursed the Saints, and it was not her custom to swear. Asked about Soissons, where her captain had surrendered the town, and whether she denied God, and said that if she captured the captain she would have him drawn and quartered, she answered that she never denied the Saints, and those who reported so were mistaken. On Wednesday, March 14th, asked whether since she had been in this prison she had not denied or blasphemed God, she answered no; sometimes when she said bon gré Dieu or saint Jehan or Nostre Dame, those who reported the words may have misunderstood.

XLVIII

"The said Jeanne declared that she believed and believes that the spirits which appeared to her were angels, archangels and saints of God, as firmly as she believes in the Christian faith, and in the articles of this faith, although she reports no sign sufficient to know them by; moreover, in this she consulted no bishop, priest or other prelate of the Church, or any other cleric to discover whether she should give credence to such spirits; and declares that she was forbidden by her voices to reveal these communications to any one except a captain of soldiers, to the said Charles, and to other purely secular persons. Wherein she confesses that her credulity is rash, her opinions on the articles of the faith and their foundations erroneous; and in addition that she had suspicious revelations

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which she hid from prelates and the clergy and made known by preference to secular persons."

To this forty-eighth article, Jeanne answers: I have given you my reply and refer to what is written down." As for the signs, if those who ask for them are not worthy, she cannot help that. Many times she has prayed to God that it please Him to reveal them to some of her party, and she added that for believing in her revelations she did not ask the advice of bishop or priest or any other. She said that she believes it was St. Michael, from the good doctrine he taught her.

Asked whether St. Michael said to her I am St. Michael," she answers "I have already answered," and in respect of the end of the article, says: "I refer me to Our Lord." She says she believes, as firmly as she believes Our Lord suffered death to redeem us from the pains of hell, that it is St. Michael , St. Gabriel, St. Catherine and St. Margaret, that Our Lord sends to comfort and advise her.

On Saturday, February 24th, she said that she firmly believes, as firmly as she believes in the Christian faith and that Our Lord redeemed us from the pains of hell, that this voice comes from God and at His command.

On Saturday, March 3rd, asked if she believes that St. Michael and St. Gabriel have natural heads, she answered she had seen them with her own eyes and believes they are St. Michael and St. Gabriel as firmly as she believes in the existence of God. Asked whether she believes God created them with the heads she saw, she answered: "I have seen them with my own eyes, and will not tell you any more!"

Asked whether she believes God created them in the shape and form she saw, she answered yes. On Monday, March 13th, asked whether she has not spoken of her visions to her priest or any other cleric, she answered no, only to Robert de Baudicourt and to her king. She added

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that she was not constrained by the voices to conceal them, but was afraid to speak of them for fear of the Burgundians, lest they should prevent her journey. The same day, asked if she thought it right to leave without the permission of her father and mother, since one should honor one's father and mother, she answered that she obeyed them in all things except this departure; and since then she had written to them, and they have forgiven her.

XLIX

"The said Jeanne with no reason beyond her imagination, venerated spirits of this sort, kissing the earth where she saw they passed, kneeling before them, embracing and kissing them, and doing them other reverence, giving them thanks, putting her hands together and entering into familiarity with them; yet she did not know whether they were good spirits, and moreover considering the circumstances they must be judged by her to be and manifestly are more evil than good. Which cult and veneration seem to partake of idolatry and to proceed from a pact made with devils." To this forty-ninth article on this Wednesday, March 28th, Jeanne answers, in respect of the beginning, "I have answered this," and of the end, I refer me to Our Lord."

On Saturday, February 24th, asked whether she did not thank the voice which appeared to her, and kneel down before it, she answered that she thanked it, but was sitting on the bed, and she put her hands together; and this was after she had asked counsel of it.

On Saturday, March 10th, asked what reverence she showed the sign when it came to her king, and whether it came from God, she answered that she thanked Our Lord for her deliverance from the trouble arising from the opposition of the clergy of her party; and she knelt down many times. The same day,

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asked whether her king and she did reverence to the angel when he brought the sign, she answered that for her part she did, she knelt down and uncovered her head.

On Monday, March 12th, asked whether she spoke to Our Lord when she promised Him to keep her virginity, she answered that it ought to be quite enough to promise it to those who were sent from Him, namely St. Catherine and St. Margaret. She said that the first time she heard her voice she vowed to keep her virginity as long as it should please God, and was then about thirteen years old. The same day, asked whether she did reverence to St. Michael and the angels when she saw them, she answered that she did, and- kissed the ground where they had passed after they were gone.

On Thursday, March Keith, asked whether when her voices come to her she bows down altogether, as to a saint, she answers yes; and if sometimes she has failed to do so, she afterwards asked forgiveness, nor could she do them the reverence proper to them, for she fully believes them to be St. Catherine and St. Margaret. She said the same in respect of St. Michael. This same day, asked whether she had not made offerings to the saints, who come to her, of burning candles or other things, in church, or elsewhere, or had Masses said, she answered no, except at Mass, in the priest's hands, and in honor of St. Catherine. She believes that St. Catherine is one of them that appear to her; nor has she lit as many candles to St. Catherine and St. Margaret who are in Paradise as she gladly would, for she fully believes it is they who come to her.

Asked the same day whether when she puts these candles before the images of St. Catherine she does it in honor of the saint who appears to her, she answered: "I do it in honor of God, of Our Lady, of St. Catherine, who is in heaven, and I make no difference between St. Catherine who is in heaven and her who appears to me." Asked this same day whether

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she always did or accomplished the bidding of her voices, she answered that with all her might she accomplished the behest which Our Lord spake through her voices, as far as she could understand; and they bade her nothing without the good pleasure of Our Lord.

On Saturday, March 17th, asked if she did not give chaplets of flowers to the saints who appeared to her, she answered that in honor of these saints she gave many chaplets to their images or representations in churches, but as far as she remembers she has not presented any to those who appear to her. Asked whether when she hung chaplets on the aforementioned tree she did it in honor of the saints who appeared to her, she answered no. The same day, asked whether when the saints came to her she did not do them reverence, as by kneeling or bowing, she answered yes; the more she could do them reverence the more she did, for she knows well they are saints of Paradise.

L

"The said Jeanne frequently and daily invokes these spirits, consulting them in her private actions, for example in the answers she should make in her trial, and in other subjects, which appears and constitutes an invocation of demons."

To this fiftieth article on Wednesday, March 28th, the said Jeanne answers: I have answered this," and she will call them to her aid as long as she shall live.

Asked in what manner she approaches them, she answers: "I beg Our Lord and Our Lady to send me their counsel and comfort and then they send it to me."

Asked with what words she beseeches them, she answers that she beseeches them in this manner: "Very sweet Lord, in honor of Thy holy passion, I beseech Thee, if Thou lovest me, to reveal to me how I am to answer these churchfolk. I

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know well, in the matter of the dress, the command by which I took it, but I do not know how I am to leave it off. In this, may it please Thee to instruct me." And then they come immediately. Often, she said, she has news through her voices of the bishop of Beauvais. Asked what they say of Us, she answered: "I will tell you apart," and on that very day they had come thrice to her.

Asked if they were in her room, she answered: "I have answered you in this; nevertheless I hear them well." She says St. Catherine and St. Margaret told her in what way she should reply in respect of the dress.

On Saturday, February 24th, she said the voice told her to answer boldly; and that when she awakened from sleep, she asked counsel of the voice in what she should reply, telling the voice to ask counsel of Our Lord; the voice told her to answer boldly and God would comfort her. The same day, asked whether before she questioned it the voice did not address certain words to her, she said the voice did, but she did not understand them all. However, when she awoke, she understood the voice to tell her to answer boldly. She said that night she had heard the voice say "Answer boldly."

On Tuesday, February 27th, asked what the voice had told her, she said that since last Saturday she had asked advice on certain points of our examinations in the trial. Asked if the voice had given her counsel on certain points, she answered yes, upon certain, and that on others she might be asked questions which she would not answer without leave. If she replied without leave perhaps she would not have the voices for warrant, but when she had leave from Our Lord she would not be afraid to speak, for then she would have a good warrant. The same day, asked how she could distinguish such points as she would answer, and such as she would not, she answered

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that on some points she had asked permission, and on some she had received it.

On Monday, March 12th, asked whether the angel did not deceive her in respect of the good things of fortune, when she was taken, she answered that she thought that since it pleased God, it was better for her to be taken prisoner. Asked whether the angel did not fail her in respect of the good things of grace, she answered: "How should he fail me when he comforts me every day?" And she believes the comfort is St. Catherine and St. Margaret. Asked if she calls them or if they come without being called, she answered that they often come without being called, and sometimes, if they did not come, she would pray to God to send them. Asked if she sometimes had called them without them coming, she answered that she never needed them, however little, but they came to her.

On Wednesday, March 13th, asked whether she had spoken to St. Catherine since the day before, she answered that she has heard her since then, and notwithstanding was told many times to answer the judges boldly what they should ask her touching the case.

On Wednesday, March 14th, asked whether her voices required a delay for answering, she says St. Catherine answers her sometimes but sometimes Jeanne falls to understand her, because of the tumult of the prison and the din from her guards; when she makes a request to St. Catherine, St. Catherine and St. Margaret immediately take it to Our Lord; and then, at Our Lord's bidding, give answer to Jeanne. Asked whether there is a light with the saints when they come to her, and whether she does not see a light, when she hears the voice in the castle, and whether she did not know if the voice was in her room, she answered that no day passes but they come to her in the castle of Rouen, and they do not come without light; and on this occasion when she heard the voice she does

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not remember if she saw the light, nor if she saw St. Catherine. She said she asked three things of her voices, namely first, her deliverance; second, that God should help the French and keep the towns in their control; and third, the salvation of her soul.

Ll

"The said Jeanne has not feared to boast that St. Michael, God's archangel, came to her with a great multitude of angels in the castle of Chinon, and in the house of a certain woman; that he walked with her, holding her by the hand, climbing together with her the castle steps and entering the king's chamber; that this archangel did reverence to the king, bowed before him, accompanied by other angels, as is declared above; some of them were crowned, others had wings. To say this of archangels and of holy angels must be held presumptuous, rash, deceitful; especially seeing that it is not written that any man, however upright, nor even Our Lady, Mother of God, received such reverence or greetings. Often she said that there came to her the archangel Gabriel, St. Michael, and sometimes a million angels. Moreover, the said Jeanne boasts that at her prayer the said angel brought with him, in this company of angels, a most precious crown for her king, to put upon his head, and that it is now put into the king's treasury; with it, according to Jeanne, the king would have been crowned at Reims if he had waited a few days, but owing to the haste with which his coronation was carried out he took another. These are less divine revelations than lies invented by Jeanne, suggested or shown to her by the demon in illusive apparitions, in order to mock at her imagination whilst she meddled with things which are beyond her and superior to the faculty of her condition."

To this fifty-first article on Wednesday, March 28th, Jeanne I

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answers that she has already replied in respect of the angel who brought the sign. As for the Promoter's statement about millions of angels, she answers that she has no recollection of having spoken thus of the number. She did say that she was never wounded, but she had great comfort and aid from Our Lord and St. Catherine and St. Margaret.

In respect of the crown, she says she has answered, and of the end of the article, and likewise of where the crown was made, she refers to God.

On Tuesday, February Keith, asked if there was an angel above the king's head when she saw him for the first time, she answered: "By Our Lady, if there was I do not know of it, and did not see it." Asked if there was a light, she answered that there were more than 300 knights and more than fifty torches, not counting the spiritual light; and she seldom had revelations without a light. Asked why her king put faith in her sayings, she answered that he had good instructions concerning them from the clerks. She said that the clerks of her party were of the opinion that nothing but good would come of her mission.

On Thursday, March 1st asked whether her king had a crown at Reims, she answered that she believes he gladly took one which he found at Reims, but a much richer one had been since brought; he did so to hasten his coronation at the request of the townsfolk and to avoid the burden of the soldiers; and if he had waited he would have been crowned with a crown a thousand times richer. Asked whether she saw this richer crown, she answered that she cannot tell without committing perjury, and that if she did not see it, she heard that it is of such wealth.

On Saturday, March 10th asked what the sign was which came to her king, she answered that it was fair, honorable, and most credible; rich and good, the richest in the world. Asked

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why she will not tell or show the sign, as she wanted to have Catherine de La Rochelle's sign, she answered that she would not have asked to know Catherine's sign if it had been as well shown as her own sign was before notable ecclesiastics, and other;, archbishops and bishops, whose names she does not know; Charles de Bourbon, the Sire de la Trémouille, the Duke d'Alençon and many other knights saw and heard it as plainly as she saw those speaking to her then. Moreover, she knew well through St. Catherine and St. Margaret that the affairs of this Catherine were as nothing at all. Asked whether the sign still exists she answered: "It is good to know that it does; it will last a thousand years, and more." She said the sign is with the king's treasure. Asked whether it was gold, silver, or precious stone, or a crown, she answered: "I will tell you no more. No man could describe a thing so rich as this sign," and added: "The sign you need is for God to deliver me out of your hands, the most certain sign He could show you." The same day she said that an angel from God and from none other gave the sign to her king; and for this she thanked Our Lord many times. She said the clergy of her party ceased opposing her when they had this sign. Asked whether the clergy of her party saw the sign, she answered that when her king and those who were with him saw the sign, and also the angel who bore it, she asked the king if he were content, and he replied yes. Then she left, and went to a little chapel hard by, and heard that after her departure more than 300 people saw the sign. She added that for her sake and to stop men from catechizing her, God willed that those of her party who were there should see the sign.

On Monday, March 12th, asked whether the angel that brought the sign did not speak, she answered yes, he told her king to set her to work, and the country would straightway be relieved. Asked whether the angel who brought the sign

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was the same that first appeared to her, or whether it was another, she answered that it was always the same one, and he never failed her. The same day, asked about the sign she gave the king, she said she would take counsel from St. Catherine concerning it.

On Tuesday, March 13th, when examined upon the sign she gave her king, and what it was, she answered: "Would you be content if I perjured myself?" Asked if she had vowed and promised St. Catherine not to tell this sign, she answered: "I swore and promised not to tell this sign, of my own accord, because I was too much pressed to tell it." Then she said she would not speak of it to any man. The same day she told that the sign was that an angel assured her king by bringing him the crown and saying he should possess the whole and entire kingdom of France, by God's help and the labors of Jeanne; and he was to put her to work, that is to say, to give her soldiers, else he would not so soon be crowned and consecrated.

The same day, asked how the angel brought the crown, and whether he placed it on the king's head, she answered that the crown was given to an archbishop, namely the archbishop of Reims, in the king's presence, so it seemed to her; and the archbishop received it and gave it to the king, and Jeanne was present, and it was put in the king's treasure. Asked where the crown was brought, she answered that it was in the king's chamber, in the castle of Chinon. Asked on what day and at what hour, she answered: "Of the day, I know nothing; of the hour, it was late," beyond that she did not remember the hour. Of the month, it was in April or March, she thought, and in next April or the present month it will be two years ago and it was after Easter. Asked whether the first day she saw the sign the king also saw it, she answered yes, he himself received it. Asked what the crown was made of, she answered: "It is good to know that it was of pure gold," and was so rich that

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she could not count its richness, and it signified that her king would gain the kingdom of France. Asked whether there were precious stones in it, she answered: "I have told you what I know." Asked if she held it or kissed it, she said no. Asked whether the angel who brought it came from on high or from the earth, she answered that he came from on high, meaning that he came at Our Lord's command and entered the room by the door. Asked whether the angel walked on the ground from the door, she answered that when he came before her king he did the king reverence by bowing before him, and pronouncing the words of the sign which Jeanne said above, and with this the angel recalled to the king the sweet patience he had shown in the great tribulation which had befallen him, walked and came forward from the door on the ground, moving towards the king. Asked how far it was from the door to the king, she answered that she thought it was a good lance-length; and the angel went out by the way he came. She said that when the angel came she accompanied him, and went with him by the stairs to the king's chamber, and the angel went in first, and then she said to the king: "Sire, here is your sign, take it." Asked where it was the angel appeared to her, she answered that she was nearly always praying God to send the king a sign; she was in her lodging in the house of a good woman near the castle of Chinon when the angel came. Then they went together to the king, and the angel was well accompanied by other angels whom no one saw, and but for her sake and to release her from the trouble of opposition she thought that many who saw the angel would not have seen him.

Asked whether all who were with the king saw the angel, she answered that she thinks the Archbishop of Reims, de la Trémouille, and Charles de Bourbon saw him, and many churchmen and others who did not see the angel saw the crown.

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Asked of what appearance and size the angel was, she answered that she has not leave to tell that, and will answer to-morrow. Asked if all who were in the company of the angel were of the same appearance, she answered that some were fairly similar, and some as far as she could see, were not; some had wings and some crowns, and others had not; and in their company were St. Catherine and St. Margaret, who were with the said angel and the other angels up to the very chamber of the king. Asked how the angel left her, she said he left her in the little chapel, and she was much vexed at his leaving, and wept; and would have gladly gone with him, that is her soul would. Asked whether at the angel's departure she remained happy or afraid and in great terror, she answered that he did not leave her in fear, but she was vexed at his leaving. Asked whether it was for any merit of hers that God sent His angel, she answered that he came with a great purpose, and in hope that the king would believe the sign, and she would be left without opposition, to help the good people of Orleans, and also for the merit of her king and the good Duke of Orleans.

Asked why he had come to her rather than to another, she answered: "It pleased God to do so by a simple maid to drive back the king's enemies." Asked whether she had been told whence the angel had first taken the crown, she answered that it was brought from God, and no goldsmith on earth could make one so rich and fair; but where it came from, in respect of this she refers herself to God, and knows nothing more of it. Asked if the crown had a good odor and whether it glittered, she answered that she does not remember and will think it over; afterwards she said it had and would always have a good odor, but must be well and duly guarded; and it was in the form of a crown. Asked whether the angel had not written her letters, she answered no. Asked what sign the king received, and the people who were with him and her, to convince

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them that it was an angel who appeared to them, she answered that the king believed it by the teaching of the churchmen who were there, and by the sign of the crown. Asked how the churchmen knew it was an angel, she answered that they knew by their learning and because they were clerks.

LII

"The said Jeanne has so misled the Catholic people by her inventions that many adored her as a saint in her presence and even adore her in her absence, ordering Masses and collects in church in reverence of her; nay, they declare her to be greater than all God's saints, after Our Lady; they set up her images on the altars of Saints, wear medals of lead or other metal in her likeness, like those made for the anniversaries of saints canonized by the Church; and they preach in public that she is sent from God, an angel rather than a woman. These are most scandalous actions, hurtful to the Christian religion and dangerous to the salvation of souls."

To this fifty-second article, this Wednesday, March 28th, Jeanne answers that, in respect of the beginning she has already given answer, and of the end, that she refers to Our Lord.

On Saturday, March 3rd, asked whether she ever knew brother Richard, she answered: "I had never seen him when I came before Troyes." Asked what manner of greeting he gave her, she answered that the people of Troyes, she thought, sent him to her, saying that they were afraid she was not a thing sent from God; and when he drew near her, he made the sign of the cross and sprinkled holy water; and she said to him: "Come boldly; I shall not fly away." Asked whether she has not seen or made any images or pictures in her likeness, she answered that at Arras she saw a painting in the hands of a Scot; she was shown in full armor, presenting letters to her king, with one knee on the ground. Asked about a certain

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painting, at her host's house in Orleans, showing three women, Justice, Peace, Union, she answered that she knew nothing of that. Asked whether she knows that certain of her party had service, Mass, and prayers said for her, she answered that she knows nothing of it; and if any service was held, it was not at her instruction; though if they prayed for her, she feels they did not ill. On this Saturday, March 3rd, she was asked what honor the people of Troyes did her when she entered the town, and she answered: "They did me none," and added that she thought brother Richard entered Troyes with her, but she does not remember seeing him enter. Asked whether he preached a sermon when she arrived, she answered that when she came she scarcely stopped at Troyes and did not sleep there; and as for the sermon, she knew nothing of it.

LIII

"The said Jeanne, against the bidding of God and His Saints, proudly and presumptuously assumed domination over men; she appointed herself leader and captain of an army which rose at times to the number of 16,000 men, in which there were princes, barons, and other nobles, all of whom she made fight under herself as principal captain."

To this fifty-third article, this Wednesday, March 28th, Jeanne answers that in the matter of being leader in war she has already given her reply, and if she was leader, it was to conquer the English. In respect of the end of the article she refers to Our Lord.

On Tuesday, February 27th, asked what forces her king gave her, when he set her to work, she answered that he gave her ten or twelve thousand men, and that she went first to Orleans to the fortress of St. Loup and then to the fortress of the Bridge.

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LIV

"The said Jeanne unashamedly walked with men, refusing to have the company or care of womenfolk, and wished to employ only men whom she made serve in the private offices of her room and in her secret affairs, a thing unseen and unheard of in a modest or devout woman."

To this fifty-fourth article, Jeanne answers that her government was through men; as for where she lodged or slept at night, she usually had a woman with her; when she was fighting, she would lie fully dressed and armed, if there was no woman to be found. In respect of the end of the article, she refers herself to God.

LV

"The said Jeanne misused the revelations and prophecies she claims to have from God, turning them into worldly profit and advantage; for, by means of them she acquired a great number of riches, great state and apparel, many officers, horses, ornaments; wherein she imitated the false prophets who for love of worldly goods and to gain the favor of the great of this world, are wont to pretend that they have revelations concerning them, and hope to please the temporal princes: then they abuse the divine oracles and attribute their false lies to God."

To this fifty-fifth article, Jeanne answers that she has already replied to this; and in respect of the gifts made to her brothers, the king gave them from his grace, without her seeking. In respect of the charge the Promoter makes and the end of the article she refers herself to God.

On Saturday, March 10th asked if she ever had any other riches from her king than her horses, she answered that she never asked anything of her king save good arms, good horses,

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and money to pay the people of her household. Asked whether she had no treasure, she answered that the ten or twelve thousand worth she had was not much to carry on a war with, very little indeed, and that, she thinks, her brothers have. What she has is her king's own money. She said she was captured when she was riding a demi-charger; asked who gave her it, she answered that her king or his people with the king s money gave her it; she had five chargers from the king's money, not counting the hacks, which were more than seven.

LVI

"The said Jeanne has often boasted of having two counselors whom she calls her counselors of the fountain, who came to her after she was captured, as has been proved by the confession of Catherine de La Rochelle before the official at Paris, which Catherine said that Jeanne would escape from her prison with the devil's aid if she were not well guarded."

To this fifty-sixth article, the said Jeanne answers that she abides by her other answers. As for the counselors of the fountain, she does not know what that means; but she believes she once heard St. Catherine and St. Margaret there. In respect of the end of the article, which she denies, she declares on oath that she would not want the devil to drag her out of prison.

On Saturday, March 3rd, asked if she saw or knew Catherine de La Rochelle, she answered yes, at Jargeau, and at Montfaucon-en-Berry. Asked whether this Catherine did not show her a lady robed in white who, she said sometimes appeared to her, she answered no. Asked on the same day what this Catherine said to her, she answered that Catherine told her she was visited by a white lady robed in cloth of gold who told the said Catherine to go through the good towns and

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her king would give her heralds and trumpets, and she should cry out that whoever had hidden gold' or silver or treasure should forthwith bring it out; and those who did not she would immediately know, and would be able to find their treasure; and it would be to pay Jeanne's soldiers. To which Jeanne answered Catherine that she should go home to her husband, do her work, and look after her children. To make sure, she spoke to St. Catherine and St. Margaret who told her that the mission of this Catherine was all madness and nonsense. Jeanne wrote to her king about Catherine, and told him what he should do with her; and when she came into his presence, she told him it was all madness and nonsense.

Nevertheless, brother Richard wanted to put her to work, and he and Catherine were ill-pleased with Jeanne. Asked whether she spoke to Catherine de La Rochelle of going to La Charité, she answered that Catherine did not advise her to go there, for the weather was too cold, and she would not go. This March 3rd Jeanne confessed that she told Catherine, who wished to go to the Duke of Burgundy and make peace, that no peace would be found save at the lance's point. The said Jeanne confessed to having asked Catherine if the white lady came to her every night, and would sleep with her to see her, which she did, watched till midnight and saw nothing, and then fell asleep. In the morning she asked Catherine if the lady had come and Catherine answered that she had, when Jeanne was sleeping, and she had not been able to awaken her. Then Jeanne asked if the lady would come the following night, and Catherine said she would, so Jeanne slept during the day so that she could watch at night, and the next night she lay with Catherine and watched all night long, but saw nothing, although she asked Catherine if the lady would come, and Catherine answered "Yes, soon."

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LVII

"The said Jeanne, on the day of the Festival of the Nativity of Our Lady, called together all the soldiers of Charles's army to march to the attack upon Paris, led them against the city, promised them they should enter that day, for she knew it by revelation, and had every measure taken by which she could attack the city: this nevertheless she was not afraid to deny in judgment before us. Likewise, in many other places, at La Charité-sur-Loire, at Pont l'Évêque, at Compiègne, when she attacked my Lord Duke of Burgundy's army, she made many promises and uttered many prophecies which she claimed to know by revelation, which in no way came true, and were altogether contradicted. Now before you she denied having made such promises and prophecies, because they did not turn out as she had said; yet many trustworthy persons have reported that these promises were uttered and published by her. Also, at the attack on Paris, she said that thousands of angels accompanied her, ready to bear her to Paradise should she die. Yet when she was asked why her entry into Paris according to her promise had not taken place, and many of her company, and she too, had instead been hurt with grievous wounds, some even killed, she is said to have answered: 'Jesus has failed in His promise."'

To this article on Wednesday, March 28th Jeanne answers in respect of its beginning that she has already answered it, and "If I am advised further, I will gladly answer more." In respect of the end, that Jesus had failed her, she denies it.

On Saturday, March 3rd, asked what she did in the trenches of La Charité, she answered that she had an assault made there, but she did not throw or sprinkle holy water. Asked why she did not enter the town, since she had God's bidding, she answered: "Who told you I was commanded to enter?"

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Asked if she had not counsel of her voice, she answered that she wished to come to France, but the soldiers told her it was better to go first before La Charité.

On Tuesday, March 13th, asked whether when she went to Paris it was revealed by her voices that she should go there, she answered no, but it was at the request of noblemen who wanted to make a skirmish or assault, but she really intended to go beyond and cross the trenches. Asked whether she had any revelation concerning her going before La Charité, she said no, but went there at the request of soldiers as she formerly said. The same Tuesday, asked if it was not revealed to her that she should go to Pont l'Évêque, she answered that after it was revealed to her at Melun that she would be captured, she generally deferred to the will of the captains in questions of war, yet she did not tell them that it had been revealed that she should be captured. Asked if it was right to attack Paris on the day of Our Lady's Nativity, she answered that in her opinion and conscience "It is good to keep the Festival of Our Lady" from beginning to end.

LVIII

"The said Jeanne had painted on her standard two angels and God holding the world in His hand, with the words Jhesus MARIA, and other designs; and this she says she did at God's command, who revealed it to her through His angels and saints. This standard she placed in the cathedral of Reims near the altar when the said Charles was crowned, desiring out of overweening vainglory that others should honor this standard in particular. She also had her coat-of-arms painted with two lilies or in a field azure, and in the midst of the lilies a sword argent, a hilt and guard or, with the point surmounted by a crown or: which appears to partake of ostentation and vanity and not of piety or religion, and to attribute

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such vanities to God and the angels is against the reverence due to God and His Saints."

To this fifty-eighth article on this March 28th, Jeanne answers: "I have answered this," and of the contradiction indicated by the Promoter: "I refer me to Our Lord."

On Tuesday, February 27th, asked whether when she went to Orleans she had a standard, and what color it was, she answered yes, and its field was sown with lilies, and the world was pictured on it, and two angels at the sides. It was white, of white linen or boucassin. The names Jhesus MARIA were written on it, and it was fringed with silk. Asked whether these names were written above or at the side or beneath, she said they were at the side. Asked if she liked her sword better than her standard, she answered that she liked her standard forty times better. Asked who made her paint it in this fashion, she answered: "I have told you often enough that I have done nothing except at God's command." She said she herself bore the standard when going among her enemies, to avoid killing any one; she said she had never killed a man.

On Saturday, March 3rd, she said her standard was in the church of Reims, she thought, fairly near the altar; she bore it for a short time., but did not know whether brother Richard did.

On Saturday, March 10th, asked whether the world with two angels was painted on her standard, she answered yes, she had but one. Asked what this signified to take God holding the world, and two angels, she answered that St. Catherine and St. Margaret had told her to take this standard and bear it boldly; and to paint thereon the King of Heaven. She told her king this, much against her will, in French, "très envis"; that was all she knew of its significance. Asked whether she had not a shield and arms, she answered that she never had, but the king granted arms to her brothers, namely a

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shield azure, with two fleurs-de-lis or, and a sword between; which she described to a painter in this town of Reims because he asked what arms she bore. She said the king gave them to her brothers to their joy without her request and without revelation.

On Saturday, March 17th, asked what decided her to have painted on her standard angels with arms, feet, legs, and robes, she answered: "You have my reply to that." Asked if she had the angels painted as they came to her, she answered that they were painted in the fashion that they are represented in churches. Asked if she ever saw them in the manner in which they were painted, she answered: "I will not tell you more." Asked why the light which came with the angels and her voices was not painted, she answered that she was not commanded to paint it. The same day she was asked if the two angels painted on her standard were St. Michael and St. Gabriel, she answered that the representations of two angels was solely for the honor of Our Lord, who was painted holding the world. Asked if the two angels on her standard were the two angels who guard the world, and why there were not more, seeing that she was bidden in Our Lord's name to take the standard, she answered that the whole standard was commanded for Our Lord, by the voices of St. Catherine and St. Margaret who said to her: "Take the standard in the name of the King of Heaven." And because the saints told her "Take the standard in the name of the King of Heaven," she had this figure of Our Lord and the angels painted in color on it. All this, and the color, she did at God's command.

Asked if she questioned her saints whether in virtue of this standard she would win all battles in which she fought, she answered that the saints told her to bear it boldly and God would aid her. Asked which was of more help, she to the standard or the standard to her, she answered that whether

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the victory was hers or the standard's, it all must be attributed to God. Asked whether the hope of victory was founded in the standard or in herself, she answered that it was founded in Our Lord, and nothing else. Asked whether if any one else had carried the standard he would have been as fortunate as she had been, she answered: I do not know, and I leave it to God." Asked whether if one of her party had sent her his standard to carry, and particularly if she had been given the king's standard, and had borne it, she would have had as firm a hope in that as in her own, which she received in God's name, she answered: "I more gladly bore that which was bidden me in God's name; yet in all things I committed myself to God." The same day, asked if she did not make her standard wave above the king's head when it was unfurled, she answered that she did not know it had been done. Asked why her standard was borne into the church at Reims rather than those of other captains at the Consecration of her king, she answered: It had been present in the perils, and that was reason enough for it to be honored."

LIX

"At Saint-Denis in France the said Jeanne offered and deposited in the church in a high place the armor in which she had been wounded in the assault on Paris, so that it might be honored by the people as relics. And, in the same town, she had waxen candles lit, from which she poured melted wax on the heads of little children, foretelling their fortune, and making by these enchantments many divinations about them."

To this fifty-ninth article, on Wednesday, March 28th, Jeanne replies: "I have answered this," in respect of the arms; and in respect of the lighted candles which were melted. she denies it.

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On Saturday, March 17th, asked what arms she offered to Saint-Denis, she answered that it was a whole black suit of armor for a man-at-arms, with a sword, which she had worn at Paris. Asked to what end she made an offering of these arms, she answered that it was an act of devotion, such as soldiers perform when they are wounded; and since she had been wounded before Paris, she offered them to Saint-Denis, because it was the war-cry of France. Asked if she did it so that the arms might be worshiped, she said no.

LX

"The said Jeanne, scornful of the precepts and sanctions of the Church, many times refused to take oath to speak the truth, so exposing herself to the suspicion of having said or done certain things in questions of faith or revelation which she dare not reveal to the ecclesiastical judges, being fearful of a just punishment: this it appears she sufficiently acknowledged by the proverb, 'Men are sometimes hanged for telling the truth,' and often she said, 'You will not know everything,' and 'I would rather have my head cut off than tell you everything."'

To this sixtieth article, Jeanne answers that she only asked for delay so that she could more certainly answer the questions; and as for the end of the article, she was afraid to answer, and she asked for delay to discover if she should speak. She said that since her king's counsel did not concern the case she did not wish to reveal it; she told the sign given to her king because the clergy condemned her to tell it.

On Thursday, February 22nd, asked whether there was no light when the voice showed her the king, she answered: "Continue." Asked whether she did not see an angel over the king's head, she replied: "Spare me and continue." She said that before the king set her to work he had many apparitions

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and beautiful revelations; asked what kind these were, she answered: "I will not tell you this; you will get no further answer. But send to the king, and he will tell-you."

On Saturday, February 24th, we explained to Jeanne that she must swear to speak the simple and absolute truth with no reservation to her oath, and she was thrice admonished to do this. She said: "Give me leave to speak," and added: "By my faith, you could ask such things as I would not answer." She said also: "Perhaps I shall not answer you truly in many things you ask me concerning the revelations; for perhaps you would constrain me to tell things I have sworn not to utter, and so I should be perjured, and you would not wish that." Also: "I tell you, take good heed of what you say, that you are my judge, for you assume a great responsibility, and overburden me." Asked if she would swear simply and absolutely, she answered: "You should be content. I have sworn enough, twice," adding that all the clergy of Rouen and Paris could not condemn her, but by law. She could not tell everything in a week: of her coming, she would gladly speak the truth, but not the whole truth. She was told to take the advice of the assessors whether or not she should swear, but she answered that of her coming she would willingly speak the truth, and not otherwise, and we must not speak of it to her any more. She was again warned that she lay herself open to suspicion; she answered as before. Then we Bishop of Beauvais summoned her to swear precisely; she answered: I will willingly tell what I know, but not all." She was required to swear, and admonished under penalty of being charged with what was imputed to her, and she answered: "I have sworn enough," and "Continue." Then, required and admonished to speak the truth in matters concerning the trial, and being told that she exposed herself to great danger, she answered: I am ready to swear to speak the truth of what I know concerning

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the trial, but not all I know," and in this manner took the oath.

The same day, February 24th, asked if the voice forbade her to tell everything, she answered: "I will not answer you that. I have revelations concerning, the king which I shall not tell you." Asked if the voice forbade her to tell of the revelations, she replied: "I have not been advised on that," and asked for a fortnight in which to answer. She said she asked for a delay in which to answer that. "If the voice forbade me, what would you say?" Again asked if the voices forbade her, she answered: "Believe me, it was not men who forbade me." She said she would not answer that day, and she does not know if she should answer all that was revealed to her. Asked whether she thought it displeasing to God for her to tell the truth, she answered that her voices said she was to tell certain things to the king and not to us. Asked if the counsel revealed to her that she should escape from prison, she answered: "Must I tell you that?" Asked whether that night the voice had not advised her what she should reply, she said that if the voice revealed it she did not well understand. Asked whether a light was visible on the last two days that she heard the voices, she answered that the light comes in the name of the voice. Asked whether she saw anything with this voice, she answered: "I will not tell you everything and I have not permission for that," for her oath did not touch on that. She said the voice is beautiful, good, and worthy, and she is not bound to answer what she is asked. Asked whether the voice had sight or eyes (this was asked because she desired to have in writing the points on which she did not reply), she answered: "You will not learn that yet," in French "Vous ne l'aurez pas encore." She said that little children have a proverb, "Men are sometimes hanged for telling the truth."

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On the Tuesday, February 27th, when we required the said Jeanne to take an oath and swear to speak the truth on questions concerning the trial, she answered that she would willingly swear in respect of the questions concerning her case, but not of all she knew. Then we required her to answer truthfully everything she should be asked. She replied as before, saying, "You ought to be satisfied. I have sworn enough." She said she would willingly speak the truth concerning subjects for which she had leave from Our Lord, but without the permission of her voice she will not tell the revelations concerning her king. The same day, asked whether St. Catherine and St. Margaret were dressed in the same cloth, she said: "I will not tell you any more now," for she had not permission to reveal it; and "if you don't believe me, go to Poitiers." She said certain revelations came to her king and not to those who questioned her. Asked if the saints who appeared to her were of the same age, she said she had not leave to tell. Asked whether they spoke at the same time, or one after another, she said she may not tell, but every day she had counsel of both.

Asked which first appeared to her, she answered: "I did not recognize them immediately"; once she knew well enough, but has now forgotten. If she is permitted she will willingly tell: it is written down at Poitiers. Asked in what form St. Michael appeared to her she said: "There is as yet no reply to that, for I have not leave to answer." Asked what St. Michael said to her the first time, she answered: "You will get no further reply today." She says the voices told her to answer boldly, and added that she has not yet leave to reveal what St. Michael told her; and wishes her examiner had a copy of the book at Poitiers, if it were God's will. Asked if St. Michael and the other saints told her she must not reveal them without their leave, she said: "I still may not answer,"

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and, What I have permission to, I will gladly answer," and if the voices forbade her, she did not understand them. Asked what sign she gives that this revelation comes from God, and that it is St. Catherine and St. Margaret who speak to her, she answered: "I have told you often enough that it is St. Catherine and St. Margaret," and "Believe me if you will." Asked what revelations the king had, she answered: "You will not learn from me this year."

On Thursday, March 1st asked what the saints promised her, she answered: "That is not in your case at all." Asked if they promised her anything beyond that they would lead her to Paradise, she answered that there were other promises, but she will not tell them, they do not concern the trial. Within three months she will tell the other promises. Asked if the saints said that within three months she should be delivered out of prison, she answered: "That is not in your case." Nevertheless she does not know when she will be delivered.

She says that they who want to get her out of this world may well go before her. Asked whether her counsel had not told her she would be delivered from jail, she answered: "Speak to me of it in three months' time; I will answer you." She added that we should ask the assessors on their oath 'whether it concerned the trial, and after they had deliberated and unanimously decided that it did, she said: "One day I must be delivered, and I want permission to tell you," and so asked for delay. Asked whether the saints forbade her to speak the truth, she answered: "Do you want me to tell you what is the concern of the king of France?" She said many things do not concern her case. The same day, asked what sign she gave the king that she came from God, she said: I have always told you you will not drag this from my lips. Go and ask him." Asked if she had sworn not to reveal what she

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was asked concerning the trial, she answered: "I have already told you that I will not tell you what concerns our king."

Asked if she did not know the sign, she answered: "You will not learn it from me." She was told that it concerned the trial, and answered: "What I have promised to keep secret I shall not tell you," and added: "I have already declared that I could not tell you without perjury." Asked to whom she made the promise, she answered that she promised St. Catherine and St. Margaret, and this was shown to her king. She said she promised without their asking, of her own accord, and said that too many people would have asked her about her sign, had she not made this promise to her saints. Asked whether any one else was present when she showed the sign to the king, she said: "I think there was no one but him, although many people were quite near." Asked if she saw the crown on her king's head, when she showed him the sign, she answered: "I cannot tell you without perjury."

On Saturday, March 3rd, asked whether she believes God created St. Michael and St. Gabriel from the beginning in the form and fashion in which she saw them, she answered: "You will learn no more at present from me than I have told you." Asked whether she had seen or known by revelation that she would escape, she answered: "That does not concern your case. Do you want me to speak against myself?" Asked if the voices told her anything of it, she said: "That is not in your case. I leave it to Our Lord, and if everything concerned you, I would tell you everything." She added: "By my faith, I do not know the hour." Asked whether when God told her to change her dress it was through the voice of St. Michael or St. Catherine or of St. Margaret, she answered: "You will not learn any more."

On Monday, March 12th, asked whether she had received letters from St. Michael or her voices, she answered: "I have

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not leave to tell you, but within a week I will gladly tell you what I know."

LXI

"The said Jeanne, admonished to submit all her acts and sayings to the decision of the Church Militant, and advised of the distinction between the Church Militant and the Church Triumphant, professed to submit to the Church Triumphant and refused to submit herself to the Church Militant, so declaring her erroneous opinion in respect of the article Unam Sanctam, etc., and in all this showing herself at fault. She said it was for God, without an intermediary, to judge her, and she committed herself, her acts and her sayings to Him and His Saints, and not to the judgment of the Church."

To this sixty-first article, Jeanne answers that she would desire to bring to the Church Militant all the honor and reverence in her power, but in respect of submitting her actions to the Church Militant, she says: "I must submit them to the Lord God who commands me."

Asked whether she submits her actions to the Church Militant, she answers: "Send me the clerk next Saturday and I will tell you."

On Thursday, March 15th she was told of the Church Triumphant and the Church Militant, and was required to submit her sayings and her actions both good and bad to the decision of the Church, and she answered: "I will not give you any further answer for the present." And after warnings and summons had been given her, that if she had done anything contrary to our faith she ought to refer it to the decision of the Church, she answered that her replies should be seen and examined by the clergy, and then she should be told if there were anything contrary to the Christian faith: she would certainly be able to tell what it was, and then she would say

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what she learned from her counsel. "Nevertheless if there were anything contrary to the Christian faith which Our Lord ordained she would not wish to sustain it, and would be grieved to be in opposition. The same day, asked whether she would submit her acts and sayings to the decision of the Church, she answered: "Everything I have said or done is in God's hands, and I commit myself to Him. I certify to you that I would do or say nothing contrary to the Christian faith, and if I had said or done anything, or if anything were found on me, which the clerks should declare to be against the Christian faith established by Our Lord, I would not uphold it, but would cast it out." Then asked whether she would not submit herself therein to the decision of the Church, she answered: "I will not now answer you more, but on Saturday next, send me the clerk, if you do not wish to come, and I will answer him this with God's aid, and it shall be set down in writing."

On Saturday, March 17th, asked if she thought she was bounden to answer the whole truth to Our Holy Father the Pope, God's Vicar, on everything we asked her concerning the faith and the state of her conscience, she answered that she required to be taken to him and then she would answer.

On Saturday, the last day of March, asked whether she would submit to the decision of the Church on earth everything she had done, either good or evil, especially the questions, crimes, and misdemeanors imputed to her, and all that concerns her case, she answered that in respect of what she was asked she would submit to the Church Militant provided we did not ask her to do what was impossible, meaning by impossible the revocation of her acts and sayings, put forth in the proceedings, which concern the visions and revelations she claims to have from God; she would not revoke them for anything in the world. What Our Lord has bidden her she will not for any man alive cease to do; that, she could not revoke.

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In the event of the Church wishing her to do otherwise against the bidding of Our Lord she would not obey for anything. Asked whether she would submit to the Church if the Church Militant said that her revelations were false and devilish things, superstitious and evil, she answered that she would submit to Our Lord, whose bidding she will ever perform, for she knows that the happenings described in the proceedings were done at His bidding; it would be impossible for her to do other than what she declares she has done at God's bidding. If the Church Militant told her to do otherwise, she would submit to none other than Our Lord, whose good bidding she always performed. Asked if she believes she is subject to the Church on earth, namely Our Holy Father the Pope, to the cardinals, archbishops, bishops and other prelates of the Church, she answered yes, Our Lord being first served. Asked whether her voices bade her not to submit to the Church Militant on earth, or its judgment, she said that she does not answer anything which comes to her mind, but answers according to the voices' instruction, and they do not forbid her to obey the Church, Our Lord being first served.

On Wednesday, April 18th, the said Jeanne was told that because of her sickness the more fearful she was of her life the more necessary it was for her to reform, and that she would not receive the rights of the church as a Catholic if she did not submit to the Church. She answered: "If my body dies in prison, I expect you to bury it in holy ground, and if you do not, I put my trust in Our Lord." The same day, asked since she desired the Church to grant her the sacrament of the Eucharist, whether she would submit to the Church if she were promised the Eucharist, she answered that she would not answer, in respect to this submission, other than she had done; but she loves and serves God, as a good Christian, and would aid and sustain the Church with all her might.

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LXII

"The said Jeanne endeavors to scandalize the people, to induce them to believe all her words and prophecies, assuming the authority of God and His angels, lifting herself above all ecclesiastical power to lead men unto error, as false prophets are wont when they introduce sects of error and perdition and separate from the unity of the body of the Church: which is pernicious to the Christian religion; and unless the prelates of the Church take action, a subversion of the future ecclesiastical authority may ensue; men and women pretending to have revelations from God and His angels will flock in from all sides and sow lies and errors, as has often occurred since this woman arose and began to scandalize the Christian people and propagate her inventions."

To this sixty-second article on this Wednesday, March 28th, Jeanne answers that she will answer on Saturday.

LXIII

"The said Jeanne has not been afraid to lie before the law, in violation of her oath, and affirmed successively many conflicting and contradictory things about her revelations; she has uttered curses against nobles and notable people, against a whole nation; she has without shame uttered falsehoods and contemptuous words in no way becoming to a holy woman, showing adequately that she has been directed and governed in her actions by evil spirits, and not by the counsel of God and His angels, as she boasts. Now Christ said of false prophets, 'By their fruits ye shall know them."'

To this sixty-third article, Jeanne this day answers: "I refer to what I have said," and in respect of the accusation and conclusion of the article refers herself to Our Lord.

On Tuesday, February 27th, she said that she had a sword

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at Lagny, and from Lagny to Compiègne she bore the sword of a Burgundian which was a good fighting weapon, excellent for giving hard clouts and buffets; and that where she lost the other sword is not in the case, so she will not answer.

On Thursday, March 1st she said she would have died but for the daily revelation and comfort. Asked whether St. Michael had any hair, she answered: "Why should it be shorn off?" She had not seen St. Michael since she left the castle of Crotoy and did not often see him.

LXIV

"The said Jeanne boasts of knowing that she has obtained remission of the sins she committed when from a despairing heart and at the incitement of an evil spirit she cast herself from the top of the tower of the castle of Beaurevoir, although the Scripture teaches that none knows if he is worthy of love or of hatred, and therefore if he is purged or freed from sin."

To this sixty-fourth article on Wednesday, March 28th, Jeanne answers: "I have answered you this, and I refer you to my answer," and in respect of the conclusion, refers herself to Our Lord.

LXV

"The said Jeanne many times declared that she asked God to send her special revelation, through St. Catherine and St. Margaret, for her conduct, for instance whether she should answer truthfully in this trial certain questions and matters personal to her. That is to tempt the Lord God, to ask needlessly of Him forbidden things, without having performed all inquiries and investigations possible to man. Especially in respect of her leap from the tower, it is manifest that she tempted God."

To this sixty-fifth article on this Wednesday, Jeanne says

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that she has answered it; she will not utter what has been revealed to her without permission from God; and that she did not ask needlessly; and she wishes He would send other revelations still so that it could be better seen that she comes in His name and that He has sent her.

LXVI

"Certain of her prophecies depart from divine, evangelic, canon, and civil law, contrary to the decisions approved by the Councils General; they contain spells, enchantments, superstitions; some formally, others casually, and otherwise, pertaining to heresy; many errors against the faith encourage and incite to heretical error. Some are seditious, harmful, and contrary to peace; some encourage the spilling of human blood; some too are nothing but curses and blasphemies against God and His saints; others still offend the ears of pious men. In all this the accused with daring rashness and at the instigation of the Devil offended God and His Holy Church, against which she has scandalously committed excesses and crimes, is notoriously defamed thereof and has appeared before you to be corrected and reformed."

To this sixty-sixth article, the said Jeanne answers that she is a good Christian and in respect of all the accusations contained in this article commits herself to God.

LXVII

"Each and every one of these things the accused has committed, perpetrated, uttered, produced, declared, published and accomplished both in this and other jurisdictions, in many and divers places of the realm, not once, but repeatedly, on many times, days, and hours; she has persisted in them and given her aid, counsel and favor to those who committed them."

This sixty-seventh article the said Jeanne denies.

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LXVIII

"Therefore from the time that you discovered, by the insinuating noise which struck your ears not once but many times, and by public report and evidence collected herein, that the accused was vehemently suspected and defamed, you decreed that it was meet to hold an inquiry against her, and that you or one of you must take proceedings against her and call her to answer these questions, as it has been done." To this sixty-eighth article, Jeanne answers: "This article concerns the judges."

LXIX

"The said accused in everything which precedes was and is vehemently suspected, scandalous, and to the highest degree, notoriously defamed in the eyes of honest and sober men. Yet she in no way corrected her ways or reformed; on the contrary, she put off and declined to correct and amend herself; and continued and persisted in her errors, and still does, although both you and other notable clergy and other honest folk have, charitably and otherwise, duly and sufficiently summoned and required her so to do."

To this sixty-ninth article, Jeanne says that she has not committed the errors imputed to her by the Promoter; for the rest, she commits herself to God, and in respect of the crimes of which she is accused she does not think she has done anything contrary to the Christian faith.

Asked whether if she had done anything contrary to the Christian faith she would be willing to submit to the Church and to those whose part it is to administer corrections, she answered that she would reply after dinner on Saturday.

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LXX

"That each and every one of these propositions is true, known, and manifest, and that the public voice and report has worked on them; and the accused has acknowledged and confessed them as true on many and sufficient occasions, before men trustworthy and upright, both in and out of court."

This seventieth article Jeanne denies, except that which she has confessed.

"On these points, and on others you will complete, correct and further inquire into, the said Promoter requests and demands that the accused be examined before you: and concludes against her that inasmuch as he has sufficiently proved to the proposed end the foregoing wholly or in part, you should decide on and pronounce sentence on each and every one of the foregoing ends, and make further utterance and judgment according to law and reason; and therein he duly and humbly implores your offices."

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Saturday, the last day of March, in Prison

The following Saturday, Easter Eve, the last day of March, in the year of Our Lord 1431, in our presence in Jeanne's prison in the castle of Rouen, and with Jean Beaupère, Jacques de Touraine, Nicolas Midi, Pierre Maurice, Gérard Feuillet, doctors, William Haiton and Thomas de Courcelles, bachelors of sacred theology, and Guillaume Mouton and John Grey.

The said Jeanne was examined on certain points in the answering of which she had required a delay until this day, although she had replied to the preceding articles.

And first she was asked whether she would submit to the judgment of the Church which is on earth in her every act and saying, whether good or evil, and especially in the causes, crimes and errors of which she was accused, and in everything concerning her trial: she answered that in all these she would submit to the Church Militant provided that it did not command her to do the impossible. And by this it is understood she means the revocation of the things she has said and done (as the trial reports) in respect of the visions and revelations she claims to have from God. She will not deny them for anything in the world. What Our Lord told her and shall tell her to do she will not cease from doing for any man alive. It would be impossible for her to deny them, and in the event

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of the Church commanding her to do anything contrary to God's bidding, she would by no means undertake it.

Asked whether she would submit to the Church if the Church Militant said that her revelations were illusions, diabolical, superstitious and evil things, she said she would submit to Our Lord whose will she would always do. She knows that what is written in the proceedings came at His bidding, and what she therein claimed to have done at God's command she could in no way have done otherwise. If the Church Militant commanded her to do otherwise she would not submit to it for any man in the world, except Our Lord, whose good will s she would always do.

Asked if she did not think herself subject to the Church on earth, namely to Our Holy Father the Pope, the cardinals, archbishops, bishops, and other prelates of the Church, she answered yes, Our Lord being first served. Asked whether her voices had bidden her not to submit to the Church Militant on earth, or its judgments, she answered that she did not reply whatever happened to come into her head, but answered at Our Lord's command. Her voices did not tell her not to obey the Church, Our Lord being first served.

Asked whether files had been found upon her in the castle at Beaurevoir or Arras or elsewhere, she answers: "If any were found on me, I have nothing more to answer." At this point we retired and stayed these proceedings upon matters of faith.

Monday, April 2nd. A digest of the propositions is prepared

On the following Monday after Easter, April 2nd, 1431,and on the Tuesday and Wednesday following, we the aforesaid judges, with several other lords and lawyers assembled thereto, perused the above articles and the examinations and

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replies of the said Jeanne, and caused to be drawn up from them all certain statements and propositions, in the form of twelve articles resuming summarily and comprehensively many of her sayings. These we decided to dispatch to doctors and other men learned in canon and civil law, requesting their advice and consultation for the good of the faith.

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Thursday, April 5th. The digest is submitted to the assessors

The following Thursday, April 5th, we conveyed our schedule of requisition, with the said statements, in the following form to each of the doctors who to our knowledge were in this town.

"We, Pierre by divine mercy Bishop of Beauvais and brother Jean Le Maistre Vice-Inquisitor, etc., demand and beseech you for the faith's sake to deliver to us in writing under your seal a salutary counsel upon the following assertions, namely whether, being respectively seen, weighed, and discussed, they or some of them are contrary to orthodox faith or suspect with regard to Holy Writ, opposed to the decrees of the Holy Roman Church and the canonical sanctions, scandalous, rash, noxious to the public weal, injurious, enveloped in crimes, contrary to good customs and in every respect offensive; or whatever shall be said of the statements in the judgment of the faith. Written this Thursday after Easter, April 5th, 1431

Here follows the tenor of the said assertions

"And firstly this woman says and affirms that in the thirteenth year of her age, or thereabouts, she saw with her bodily eyes St. Michael, who would console her, and at times St.

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Gabriel, and they appeared to her in bodily form. Sometimes also she saw a great host of angels; and since then, St. Catherine and St. Margaret have appeared to the said woman who saw them in the flesh. And every day she sees them and hears their speech; and, when she embraces and kisses them, she touches them and feels them physically. She has seen, not only the heads of the said angels and the saints, but other parts of their bodies, whereof she has not chosen to speak. And the said St. Catherine and St. Margaret spoke to her at times by a certain fountain, near a great tree, commonly called 'The Fairies' Tree'; in the matter of the fountain and of the tree, the common report is that it is the frequent resort of witches, that many sick of the fever go to this fountain and tree to recover their health, although these are situated in an unhallowed spot. There, and elsewhere, on several occasions, she has adored them and done them reverence.

"In addition she has said that St. Catherine and St. Margaret appeared and showed themselves to her, crowned with rich and beautiful crowns. And from that moment, taking up the matter afresh on divers occasions, they said to this woman that God had commanded her to go to a certain prince of this world, promising that, by the aid and effort of the said woman, this prince would recover by force of arms great worldly dominions and glory, and that he would overcome his enemies; and also that this prince would welcome her, and lend her soldiers and weapons to fulfill her promises. Moreover, the said St. Catherine and St. Margaret instructed this woman, in the name of God, to take and wear a man's clothes: and she has worn them, and still wears them, stubbornly obeying the said command, to such an extent that this woman has declared that she would rather die than relinquish these clothes.

"She has made this declaration simply and purely, adding at times 'except at Our Lord's command.' She has preferred

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to be absent from the office of the Mass, to be deprived of the Holy Sacrament of Communion, at the times when the Church commands the faithful to receive the said Sacrament, rather than wear woman's clothes once more and relinquish male costume. These saints would seem to have shown similar favor to this woman when, unknown to and against the will of her parents, in the seventeenth year of her age or thereabouts, she left her father's house, joined with a company of men following the profession of arms, living with them day and night, and never, or rarely, having another woman with her. And these saints have told and commanded her many other things: this is why this woman has claimed to be sent by the God of Heaven and by the Church Triumphant of the saints already in bliss, to whom she submits any good that she has wrought. But she has postponed and declined to submit her acts and words to the Church Militant; and, having been interrogated and admonished on this point more than once, she has answered that she could not do otherwise than what she has claimed, in her statement, to have done, in answer to the commands of God; for in these things she did not refer herself to the consideration and decision of living man, but to the judgment of Our Lord alone; that these saints had revealed to her that she would enter into the salvation and glory of the Blessed: that her soul would be saved if she preserved the virginity she had consecrated to them when she first saw and heard them. And at the time of this revelation she has asserted that she was as sure of her salvation as if she had suddenly found herself in reality in the Kingdom of Paradise."

II

"This woman has said that the sign which the prince, towards whom she had been sent, received, which led him to

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trust her revelations, to receive her, and to let her direct the war, was that St. Michael approached the said prince, in company with a multitude of angels of whom some wore crowns and others were winged; and with them were St. Catherine and St. Margaret. And the angel and this woman walked together by land and by highway, mounting steps, crossing the hall, traveling far; other angels and the said saints were with them. And one angel gave to the said prince a precious crown of fine gold, and bowed down before the prince, making obeisance to him. And on one occasion she has stated that when her prince received this sign, he seemed to be alone although there were several men quite near him: and on another occasion it would seem to her, an archbishop received this sign with the crown and gave it to the prince, in the presence and view of several lords temporal."

III

"This woman recognizes and is certain that he who visits her is St. Michael: she is certain of this because of the good counsel, consolation, and wise doctrine which the said St. Michael brings her; and also because he names himself, saying that he is Michael. And similarly she recognizes and distinguishes from one another, St. Catherine and St. Margaret, because they name themselves and greet her. This is why she believes that the St. Michael who visits her is St. Michael himself, and that his acts and words are good and true, as firmly as she believes that Our Lord Jesus Christ suffered death to redeem us."

IV

"The said woman says and affirms that she is as certain of future and purely contingent events, and that they will be realized, as she is of what she sees in reality before her; she

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boasts that she has and has had knowledge of secret things through the verbal revelations of St. Catherine and St. Margaret : as for example that she will be delivered from prison, that the French will have more glorious success in her presence than all Christendom had hitherto. In addition she has, according to her own account, recognized, by revelation, people she had never seen before, and whom none had shown to her; she has revealed and given forth that a certain sword was hidden in the ground."

V

"This woman says and affirms that, by the will. and command of God, she has taken to herself and has worn, and still dons and wears, clothes like those of a man. Moreover, she has said that, since she had God's command to wear man's clothes, she must take hood and doublet, breeches and hose with many points, her hair cut round above her ears, and nothing about her to display and announce her sex, save Nature's own distinctive marks. And in this garb she has received the Sacrament of the Eucharist on several occasions. And she has declined and still declines to wear woman's clothes once more, although many times she has been gently requested and reproved: for she says that she would rather die than relinquish a man's clothes; she has said this purely and simply, at times adding 'unless it be at Our Lord's command.' She has said that if she found herself in this garb among those of her company, for whom she took up arms erstwhile, and if she could do as she did before her capture and captivity, it would be one of the greatest blessings that could come to the whole realm of France: she added that not for anything in the world would she swear to give up man's clothes and to bear weapons no more. In all this she

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has declared that her acts were good, and are good, and that she has obeyed God and His commands."

VI

"This woman confesses and affirms that she has caused certain letters to be written and that on some of them were affixed the names: Jhesus Maria, with the invocation of the sign of the Cross, and sometimes she affixed a cross to show she did not wish what she set forth in her letters to be done. Moreover, in others she has caused to be written that she would have those who disobeyed her letters and warnings killed, and that 'by blows would the favor of the God of Heaven be seen.' And frequently she has said that she has performed nothing except by the revelation and command of God."

VII

"This woman says and confesses that in or about her seventeenth year, according to her own account, she went and found, intuitively and by revelation, a certain squire on whom she had never set eyes before, leaving her paternal house against her parents' wishes. The latter, when they knew of her departure, were almost stricken out of their senses. And this woman requested the said squire to lead her or have her led to the prince before mentioned. Then the said squire, a captain, lent this woman a man's clothes and a sword at her own request: and he told and instructed a knight, a squire, and four troopers to escort her. And when they had come to the aforesaid prince, this woman declared to him that she wished to direct the war against his enemies, promising him great dominion, that he would annihilate his foes, and saying that she had been sent for this purpose by the King

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of Heaven. In this matter she states that she has done well according to revelation and the command of God."

VIII

"This woman says and confesses that, without constraint or compulsion, she threw herself down from a lofty tower, preferring death to captivity in the hands of her enemies or life after the destruction of the town of Compiègne. Moreover, she has said that she could not help throwing herself down in this fashion, although St. Catherine and St. Margaret had forbidden her to do so, and she says that to offend them was a grave sin. Yet she claims to know that this sin was pardoned after she confessed it. And she says that she has had revelation of this."

IX

"This woman says and affirms that St. Catherine and St. Margaret promised to lead her into Paradise, if she preserved the virginity of body and soul which she consecrated to them. And she says that she is as certain of this as if she was already among the Blessed in glory. She thinks she has in no wise wrought mortal sin; for, if she were in mortal sin, it seems to her that the said St. Catherine and St. Margaret would not visit her every day as they do."

X

"This woman says and affirms that God loves certain persons whom she points out and names, who are still alive, and that He loves them more than He loves her. And she is aware of this by the revelations of St. Catherine and St. Margaret, who often speak to her in the French tongue, and not in English, for they are not on their side. And since she has known

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by revelation that they were on the side of the aforementioned prince, she has disliked the Burgundians."

XI

"The said woman says and confesses that she has on several occasions made reverence to the aforesaid voices and spirits whom she calls St. Michael, St. Gabriel, St. Catherine, and St. Margaret, has uncovered, knelt, and kissed the ground where they walked, and has consecrated her virginity to St. Catherine and St. Margaret, when she embraced and saluted them. And she has touched them bodily and felt them, asking their advice and consolation, has called upon them, although they have often visited her without invocation. She has acquiesced in and obeyed their advice and commands, and has done so from the beginning, without asking counsel of any, as for example her father or mother, or from a priest or prelate, or any other cleric. And nevertheless she firmly believes that the voices and revelations she has had, through saints male and female, come from God and are ordained by Him. And she believes it as solemnly as she believes the Christian faith, or the fact that Our Lord Jesus Christ suffered death for our sakes. She has added that if an evil spirit were to appear to her, pretending to be St. Michael, she would be able to tell whether he were St. Michael or not. This woman has also said that, of her own free will, without being in any way requested or constrained, she swore to St. Catherine and St. Margaret, who appeared to her, that she would not disclose the sign of the crown which she was to give to the prince to whom she was sent. And, finally, she said: 'unless she was given leave to reveal it."'

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XII

"This woman says and confesses that if the Church were to desire her to do anything contrary to the command she claims to have from God, she would not do it, for any reason whatever. She affirms that she is quite certain that the things declared in her deposition were done in God's Name, and that it would be impossible for her to do otherwise. She does not submit herself to the judgment of the Church Militant, or to that of living man, but to God alone, Our Lord, whose commands she will always obey; and she does this principally in all matters relating to these revelations, and what she claims to have performed owing to them. She says she did not make this reply, and others, by the power of her own mind alone: but she made and gave them as instructed by voice and revelation, although the judges and others present often reminded her of that article of faith: Unam Sanctam Ecclesiam Catholicam, explaining to her that every faithful pilgrim of this life must obey it, must submit his words and acts to the Church Militant, principally in matters of belief, in all that concerns holy doctrine and ecclesiastical sanctions."

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The tenor of the deliberations

Here follow the deliberations relating to the said assertions, which we received on divers following days.

And first sixteen doctors and six licentiates or bachelors in theology gave their opinions on the digest as follows:

"In the name of the Lord, Amen. By this present public act, be it evident and known to all that, in the year of Our Lord 1431, convocation 9, Thursday the 12th of April, the fourteenth year of the pontificate of our most Holy Father in Christ and Lord, Martin, by the divine providence fifth of that name, and in the presence of us, the undersigned public notaries and witnesses, the following reverend fathers and lords, venerable and discreet persons, lords and masters, were personally in session: Erard Emengart, president; Jean Beaupère, Guillaume Le Boucher, Jacques de Touraine, Nicolas Midi; Pierre Miget, prior of Longueville; Maurice de Quesnay, Jean de Nibat, Pierre Houdenc, Jean Le Fèvre, Pierre Maurice, the lord abbot of Mortemer, Gérard Feuillet, Richard Prati, and Jean Charpentier, professor of divinity; William Haiton, bachelor in theology; Raoul Le Sauvage, licentiate in theology; and also Nicolas Couppequesne, Ysambard de La Pierre, and Thomas de Courcelles, likewise bachelors in theology; and Nicolas Loiseleur, master of arts.

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"They informed us that the reverend father in Christ, the lord bishop of Beauvais, and brother John Le Maistre, vicar of the worthy doctor, master Jean Graverent, Inquisitor of Heretical Error for the kingdom of France, judges in a certain case of doctrine brought before them, had assembled the said doctors and masters, all and severally, by means of a certain summons of which the tenor commenced thus: 'We, Pierre, etc., the following articles, etc.: A certain woman, etc.' When the said doctors and masters had received, in the necessary manner, the said summons and its contents, they examined it diligently, with serious and mature consideration, on many occasions. And whereas, they stated, every doctor in divinity is legally required to give worthy counsel in matters of doctrine, whenever he is so requested for the good of the faith by the prelates of the Church and the inquisitors of heresy: and wishing, therefore, as their duty and their vocation bade them, to the extent of their power and duty towards God, to obey the lord judges and their request; they have declared firstly, having been desired urgently and often, verbally and in writing, by the aforesaid judges, to fulfill that request, as has been reported, for the good of the faith, that they understand they are to give their opinions in this matter as shall seem to them to conform with Holy Scripture, with the doctrines of the saints, and with the sanctions of the Church, having before their eyes nothing but the will of God and the truth of the faith.

"They have declared secondly that all their words and deliberations, in this matter and others, they submit to the scrutiny, correction, and judgment of the most Holy Roman Church and to all those to whom scrutiny, correction, and judgment belong, or to whom it will and should belong: with all the accustomed reservations in similar matters, and in the best form and manner which is wont to be employed

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in such declarations. With the said reservations, the doctors and masters gave judgment in the following form:

"We declare, having conscientiously considered, discussed and weighed the quality of the person in question, her words and her acts, the manner of her apparitions and revelations, the purpose, cause, circumstances, and all that is contained in the said articles and proceedings, that there is reason to think that the said apparitions and revelations, which she boasts and affirms she has had from God through His angels and His saints, do not come from God through His angels and His saints; but are rather the fictions of the human imagination or proceed from the spirit of evil. She has not had sufficient evidence to believe and recognize them; in the aforesaid articles there are fabricated lies, certain improbabilities, and beliefs lightly accepted on her part: superstitions and divinations: scandalous and irreligious acts; temeritous, presumptuous, and boasting speech: blasphemies of God and His saints (St. Michael and St. Gabriel); disrespect towards parents; disregard of the command to love our neighbor; idolatry, or at least misleading fiction; schism directed against the unity, authority, and power of the Church; things of evil sound and to be vehemently suspected of heresy. In proclaiming that these apparitions were St. Michael, St. Catherine, and St. Margaret, and that their acts and words are good, as firmly as she holds the Christian Faith, she is to be held suspect of straying from the faith: for if she believes that the articles of the faith have no more assurance than her own beliefs, her apparitions whom she names St. Michael, St. Catherine, and St. Margaret, and her statement that their acts and words are good, she strays from the faith. For to say thus, as contained in Article V and also in Article 1, that in not receiving the Sacrament of the Eucharist, at the time ordained by the Church, she has acted

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rightly, and that all she has done was done by God's command, is to blaspheme against Him, to stray from the faith.

"The said doctors and masters asked of us, as public notaries, a deposition for all that precedes, and requested us to forward it to the said lord judges. This was done in the chapel of the archbishop's manor at Rouen, in the said year, convocation, month, day, and pontificate, in presence of the discreet persons master Jean de la Haye and Jean Barenton, priests beneficed under the Church at Rouen, called and requested to be witnesses hereto."

Signed so:

"And I, Guillaume Manchon, priest of the diocese of Rouen, notary public and sworn by the imperial and apostolic authority of the archbishop's court of Rouen, have been present at all that has been said, done, and reported, with another notary and the above-signed witnesses, and have seen and heard it done. And for that reason I have affixed my usual signature together with my seal and subscription as notary public, to this present public instrument, faithfully written in my hand, as witness and in good faith, at the request of the above."

G. Manchon.

"And I, Guillaume Colles, or Boisguillaume, priest of the diocese of Rouen, public notary by apostolic authority and of the archbishop's Court of Rouen, notary sworn in this case, have been present at all that has been said and done, with the witnesses and notary named above, and have seen and heard it done. Hence I have signed the present public instrument, which is a faithful record, but in another hand, with my usual signature and seal as called and sworn to do, in assurance and as witness of the foregoing."

Colles.

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Master Denis Gastinel, licentiate in civil and canon law, gave his opinion in the following form

"With all the customary protestations in a case of doctrine, and with all submission to the corrections of my lords judges, of all other doctors in divinity, and of all learned in civil and canon law, whom it behooves to penetrate the intricacies of this matter, I feel compelled to say that this case is verily itself infected, its subject of a suspected faith, persistent in error, schismatical, and heretical: and all this is opposed to the dogma, wholesome custom, and decisions of the Church, the General Councils, the holy canons, and civil, human, and political law: this woman is scandalous, seditious, and wanton, towards God, the Church, and the faithful. She takes herself for an authority, a doctor and a judge, when her very faith is suspect, and she herself persistent in schismatical and heretical error, if she persists in her defense in the question submitted to authority, and on which her plaint is based; she is seditious and a disturber of the peace. He who undertakes an enterprise such as this, who professes such false and perverse doctrine, who returns not with speed to the unity of the Catholic faith, refusing to abjure publicly so extravagant a doctrine and the stain of obstinate heresy, and who does not make suitable reparation, as soon as the errors and perversities of such a doctrine have been brought home to him, is to be abandoned to the judgment of the secular judge, to undergo the sentence meet for his crime. If he would abjure, let him have the blessings of absolution, and let him suffer what is wont to be inflicted in these cases: and let him be confined in prison, that penitence may not delay, with the bread of sorrow and the water of affliction, let him weep for his sins, and commit no more for which he need weep."

Signed: D. Gastinel.

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Master Jean Basset, licentiate in canon law, official of Rotten, gave his counsel in the following manner

"Reverend fathers and masters, lord judges in this suit, have little or nothing to say in a matter of such importance for the faith, so arduous and difficult, especially in what relates to the revelations mentioned in the papers which your Highnesses have passed to me. Nevertheless, with the wonted reservations in such matters, and under the benign correction of those interested, I feel compelled to speak as follows on the said papers:

'Firstly, with regard to the revelations themselves, I say that it may be that the statements of this woman thereon are possible with God: none the less, seeing that this woman has not confirmed them by miracle or Scripture, and that there is no evidence, no belief must be accorded to the speech and statements of this woman concerning her revelations.

"With regard to her abandonment of feminine attire, if she has not been commanded by God to this effect, which is not credible, she has acted against honor, the decency of her sex, and honest living. "In the matter reported above, that she has not been willing to attend Communion, at least once a year, she has gone expressly against the decision and command of the Church.

"In that she has not seen fit to submit to the judgment of the Church Militant, it seems that she has infringed the article of faith: Unam Sanctam Ecclesiam Catholicam.

"Nevertheless I intend all which precedes on the assumption that her visions do not come from God: which I do not believe. But on that, and on other propositions of hers I refer to the decision of my lords the theologians and others whose business it is to be able to determine them, in order to qualify or name them in a Christian fashion. As for the form and manner of this woman's trial, if it is shown and explained

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to me according to the last chapter de Haereticis in the VIth book, notwithstanding my poor intellect and my unworthiness and ignorance in law, I offer to work at it with all my power.

"Your Jean Basset, unworthy licentiate in decrees and official of Rouen in the vacancy of the archiepiscopal see."

So signed: Jean Basset.

The reverend father in Christ, Gilles, lord abbot of Ste. Trinité de Fécamp gave his opinion in conformity with that of the said lords and masters, as is shown in the following letter signed with his own hand

"Reverend father and most distinguished master, your servant most humbly and promptly commends himself to your very reverend paternity. I received yesterday at ten o'clock your letters summarily containing the request made by your reverend self, and by the Vice-Inquisitor, of the doctors of theology, lately at Rouen, to deliberate doctrinally upon certain articles of faith; which has been done. You further desired my opinion. But, very reverend father and most distinguished master, when such men, in so great numbers, cannot be found in the whole world, what can my ignorance conceive or my unlearned tongue bring forth? Nothing. Therefore I adhere to their opinion, in everything, and in conformity with them I cleave to their deliberations, adding my protests and the customary preparatory submissions; and I fix thereto my sign manual, in witness thereof. If, very reverend father and master, there is any pleasure of yours: command it. For in the performance of your wishes though my ability may falter my good intentions never shall. May the Most High keep you, very Reverend father, and grant you blessed times of prosperity and success. Written at Fécamp, April 21, your very reverend father's disciple, abbot of Fécamp.

So signed: G. de Fécamp

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Master Jacques Guesdon, minor brother, doctor of sacred theology, gave his opinion in conformity with that of the said lords and masters, of which the tenor follows, signed with his own hand.

"This Wednesday, April 13th, Jacques Guesdon, master of theology of the Franciscan convent of Rouen, appeared before my lord bishop of Beauvais. He affirmed that he had been present, with my lords the theologians and the masters of this town, in the archiepiscopal chapel of Rouen, at the meeting and deliberations which took place there, upon the case of the said Jeanne, commonly called The Maid. Since each gave his advice separately, as he himself did, and they came to a single and unanimous opinion, he continues in agreement with them, and adds his opinion to theirs. But since he must attend to other business elsewhere he asks leave of my lord to retire and depart. Nevertheless he is ready to continue his work in the trial, if he is so bidden, as he is bounden to do, and when he returns, to participate in it again."

So signed: "I certify this to be true." Guesdon

Master Jean Maugier, canon of Rouen, licentiate in canon law, gave an opinion to corroborate that of the said lords and masters, as is shown below and signed with his own hand

"Reverend father, and you my lord the vicar of the lord Inquisitor, pray learn that I have received your communication with all due humility and obedience. I have seen its contents and your request: and the qualifications and opinions of my reverend lords and masters the distinguished professors of sacred theology, assembled in so great number with unanimous opinion and judgment, and I will answer your request. Certainly their decision and opinion appear to me good, just, holy, and meet to be followed, to conform and agree to the

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holy laws and ecclesiastical sanctions. Therefore, following their opinion I join myself with them in everything, and for every occasion, with the protestations they made when they delivered their sentence, and those customary in these affairs.

"Always ready to do your good pleasure."

Signed: Jean Maugier.

Master Jean Bruillot, licentiate in canon law, chantry priest and canon of Rouen Cathedral, gave his opinion in conformity with that of the said lords and masters, as is shown below written in his own hand and signed with his sign manual

"Having seen, reverend fathers and my lord vicar of the lord Inquisitor appointed by the apostolic see in all the Kingdom of France, the confessions and statement and other matters you have sent to me in writing; having conferred with many learned authorities in canon and civil law; having repeatedly turned over the leaves of the registers and meditated on the acts of the woman in question; and also considered the motives which can incline me towards the opinion of my lords and masters, these men learned in divine law and so experienced in such affairs who in great number are absolutely unanimous, I refer to and sustain their decision which appears to me according to holy laws; and I am with them in their opinion, subject to the customary protestations."

So signed: "J. Bruillot, chantry priest and canon of Rouen Cathedral."

Master Nicolas de Venderès, licentiate in canon law, archdeacon of Eu and canon of Rouen, gave judgment sustaining the opinion of the said lords and masters, as is shown in the schedule below signed with his own hand

With the protestations customary in such acts, which have been made by my lords and my masters the distinguished professors

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in sacred theology when they gave their opinion, I have seen their judgments which you addressed to me, reverend father and lord vicar of the Inquisitor, and their appreciations of the statements and confessions. To answer your request according to the faculties God has granted me, and with as little incompetence as possible, I declare that my lords and masters judged, proceeded and acted well, piously and sweetly: as I turned over the pages I found their opinion good, just, reasonable, and far from divergency from canonical sanctions, it is much more in complete agreement therewith. Consequently it is my opinion that I should embrace their decision and follow my lords and masters and adhere to their judgment in everything."

So signed: "Your servant and chaplain."

Nicolas de Venderès.

Master Gilles Deschamps, licentiate in canon law, chancellor and canon of the cathedral of Rouen, gave judgment sustaining that of the said lords and masters in a communication, signed with his own hand, of which the tenor follows

"Reverend father in Christ, you and the lord vicar of the reverend lord Inquisitor of Heretical Error, sent to me in connection with this woman certain propositions which your Highnesses had extracted. With the submissions and protestations proper in matters of faith, and without affirming any rash thing, intending in no way to derogate from the Divine Power, and having reflected and weighed it all: in view of and considering the charitable admonitions, the many summons and the choice offered even yesterday to the said Jeanne, in the presence of the venerable assembly of prelates and doctors in both canon and civil law, by you reverend father and my lord archdeacon of Évreux your deputy, to the end that she

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should submit the acts and sayings contained in these articles and her trial to the decision and judgment of the Church Universal, of the sovereign pontiff or of four notable men in obedience to him or of the church of Poitiers (which summons and exhortations were to my mind justly and reasonably made to her; and by all means should these charitable monitions and exhortations laudably begun by you to the honor of God, be continued for her salvation): now in view of all the preceding matter, the replies she made, and especially that she would in no way meet these exhortations or take the choice offered her, unless some other fact is brought before me to reveal the correction and reform of her statements, or some more healthy explanation, I think the said articles are suspect in faith, contrary to good customs, and ecclesiastical sanctions. For further more learned and illuminating qualification of the articles I think the judgments of the doctors of both canon and civil law are very worthy of consideration. Given in the year of our Lord 1431, May 3rd, under my sign manual."

So signed: G. Deschamps.

Master Nicolas Caval, licentiate in civil law, canon of the cathedral of Rouen, gave judgment sustaining that of the said lords and masters in a communication signed by his own hand of which the tenor follows

"I have seen the statements you sent me under the seals of the notaries public, reverend father in Christ and you lord vicar of the Inquisitor; have seen and heard the unanimous opinion of many notable masters of sacred theology which was given to you reverend father; and seeing that in my judgment their opinion is in accordance with ecclesiastical sanctions, I hold to their opinion: subject notwithstanding to your corrections and the protestations customary in such matters. Your

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very humble Nicolas Caval, canon of the church of Rouen."

Master Robert Le Barbier, licentiate in canon law, canon of the church of Rouen, gave his decision sustaining the opinions of the said lords and masters in a communication which follows

"The statements of this woman which were sent to me on behalf of you reverend father, my most feared lord and bishop, and of your highness, my lord vicar of the lord Inquisitor, I have seen, as well as the decisions given in this matter by several lords, masters and professors of sacred theology. After deliberating with certain of them and with other men learned in canon law, I refer and decide for the time being in accordance with the opinions the masters of theology have addressed to you; with the reservations customary in matters of faith. But to my little intelligence and subject to the superior judgment of others the statements should be sent for the good of the matter and the justification of the faith to our holy mother the University of Paris, and in particular to the Faculties of Theology and of Decrees: their opinions must be had before judgment on the case is delivered."

So signed: Le Barbier.

Master Jean Alespée licentiate in civil law, canon of the church of Rouen, gave an opinion in conformity with that of the said lords and masters, as is shown in the following communication signed with his sign manual and written with his own hand

"To the reverend father in Christ my most feared lord and bishop of Beauvais, ordinary judge in this trial, and to you venerable father, master Jean Le Maistre, vicar of the lord Inquisitor, reverence, honor, and promptitude in your service. Although I am not worthy or even sufficient among the least,

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you have requested and then summoned me under legal penalty before Thursday next (this delay being fixed once and for all from Monday, April 16th, 1431) to send you in writing my deliberation, namely whether the statements contained in the articles dispatched to me with your first request, or certain of them, are suspect or contrary to the orthodox faith, contrary to Holy Scripture and the Holy Roman Church, and the judgment of authorities approved by the Church, to ecclesiastical sanctions, whether they are scandalous, rash, hurtful, criminal, offensive in any way to good manners; and what it is fitting to say in the judgment of the faith. I, Jean Alespée, son of obedience, although the limits of my mind know little, nevertheless in order not to appear disobedient -- which God forbid -- and with the protestations which have been sent to you in writing by the reverend fathers and my lords and masters who have digested the matter better than I have, I hold and believe that the statements and propositions sent and dispatched by them have been well, duly, justly, and piously judged according to the ecclesiastical sanctions. Therefore I must refer to their deliberations and opinions; I refer and adhere thereto. If, however, you have conferred with our mother the University of Paris, the Faculty of Theology or Decrees, or one of them, or if you happen to do so, I in no way wish to think alone and separate myself from their deliberations; but rather would I submit myself in advance to their decision, to that of the holy Roman Church and the holy Council General."

So signed: J. Alespée.

Master Jean de Châtillon, archdeacon and canon of Évreux, doctor of sacred theology, gave judgment sustaining that of the said lords and masters in a communication signed with his own hand of which the tenor follows "Under the protestations customary in such matters I declare

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that I am in agreement with the said professors of sacred theology, and differ in no way from their opinion of the quality, acts and sayings of the person, etc. (here follows the opinion of the sixteen assessors). This I declare, subject to the correction of those whose duty is to bring back the wanderers to the way of truth, and with the said protestations and submissions, under my seal, in my own hand, in witness of these things written above, according to the form of the request."

So signed: Jean de Châtillon.

Master Jean de Bouesgue, -doctor of theology, almoner of Fécamp gave his opinion in this form

"I, Jean de Bouesgue, doctor of theology of the University of Paris, for 25 years almoner of the venerable abbey of Fécamp, in view of what has been written on the subject of this woman, her acts and her sayings, the quality of her person, the kinds of apparitions and revelations, etc., think she is schismatic of the unity, authority, and power of the Church; infected with heresy, in view of her obduracy, and of what she said concerning St. Michael, St. Catherine, and St. Margaret, of the sacrament of communion, etc., and that she did it all at God's bidding. Therefore is she to be punished and dealt with by law, to the honor of God and the exaltation of the faith."

So signed: J. de Bouesgue.

Master Jean Garin, doctor of law, canon of the church of Rouen gave judgment sustaining the lords and masters above named in a public document as is shown in the schedule signed with his own hand.

"Reverend father and lord, by divine mercy bishop of Beauvais and you brother Jean Le Maistre, vicar of the Inquisitor, etc., know that I have received with reverence and honor the propositions, inserted in a codicil, which you transmitted to

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me. I have seen them and their content, as well as the opinions of the learned doctors in respect of them; I have studied them according to my mean intelligence. Then, with doctors of canon an civil law and others as learned who met together, when I had heard the judgments on the said propositions an statements of our reverend fathers the distinguished professors of theology who were assembled in great number to this end, in order to confer with one another, I compared them according to judicial procedure. These judgments are to my mean intelligence in accordance with the decisions of the Holy Roman Church, and of doctors approved by the Church and by ecclesiastical sanctions; moreover, they are entirely in conformity with the holy laws. Therefore, with the protestations which the reverend masters and the doctors of law, of whom I am the least, made in this respect, which are customarily formulated in matters of this kind and importance, I sustain their opinion which is so learned, just and reasonable, and to my meager mind, in accordance with the doctrine of the holy laws. With a zealous heart and as far as in me lies I am ready to obey with all speed the commands of the Church and yourself in all things.

So signed: Entirely yours. J Garin.

The venerable chapter of the cathedral of Rouen deliberated as follows

"You reverend father and you venerable lord vicar of the Inquisitor of Heretical Error, you have summoned the chapter of the cathedral of Rouen to give you for the faith's sake a salutary counsel on certain propositions extracted and chosen from the confessions and sayings of the woman commonly known as The Maid: to wit whether these statements or any thereof being seen and weighed are contrary to the orthodox faith, etc., what in the judgment of the faith they must be

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thought of, as is contained at greater length in the exordium of the memorandum of these statements. But as we reflected on the importance of this matter we deferred our answer since we desired first, in order to give you a more certain and positive counsel, to be acquainted with the conferences, deliberations and decisions of the distinguished University of Paris, particularly of the Faculties of Theology and Decrees. Eventually, we saw and carefully considered the opinions of many doctors of sacred theology who were in this town; and also of the assembly of prelates, doctors of theology, of canon law, of licentiates in both canon and civil law and of other learned men, which you solemnly held and presided over on May 2nd, wherein many gentle and pious exhortations and summons were addressed to the said woman both by you and by the venerable lord archdeacon of Évreux the distinguished professor of sacred theology especially appointed by your order and authority, to persuade this woman that for the salvation of her soul and the welfare of her body, for the honor and praise of God, for the reparation due to the Catholic faith, she should correct and amend her shameless ways and words, and submit as every Catholic should to the judgment and decision of the Church Universal, of our Holy Father the Pope, of the Council General and of the other prelates of the Church to whom she could turn, of four distinguished and learned churchmen from the temporal obedience and dominion of her own party, of the doctors and others aforementioned who being present here confirmed that counsel.

"Now this woman would in no way accept and receive these admonitions, exhortations and charitable summonses. Far from so doing, when she was so urgently and repeatedly offered for the sake of the salvation of her body and soul, she damnably and perniciously scorned and rejected them all. She absolutely refused to submit to the decision and judgment of the

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Church, of the Sovereign Pontiff or of any other of her judges, notwithstanding the explanation and exposition of her errors and failings which were all mostly clearly shown her. Therefore, subject of course to the submissions and protestations customary in these affairs, we declare as follows in favor of the faith. Yes, the decisions and appreciations delivered by the doctors of theology -on these statements were gentle, just and reasonable. We adhere to their doctrine, adding that upon consideration of and careful attention to the warnings, admonitions and charitable exhortations, to the answers and denials made by this woman, and to her obstinacy of heart, it appears to us Proper for her to be accounted a heretic. Given in our chapter in the year of Our Lord 1431, May 3rd."

Signed: R. Guérould.

Masters Aubert Morel and Jean Duchemin, licentiates in canon law, advocates of the official's court of Rouen, gave their opinion as follows

"With the protestations customary in matters of faith, and submitting ourselves to the correction of our lords and judges and of the other doctors of sacred theology and the legal authorities to whom it is fitting to go deeply into this, it appears to us meet to declare: first, that in respect of the alleged revelations of this woman, according to written law it is possible for them to exist in God; nevertheless as this woman has not confirmed them by miracle or testimony of Holy Writ, as there is no evidence for them, there is no reason to believe in the words and statements of this woman. And in respect of her refusal of woman's dress, since she has not received God's bidding to this effect (which cannot be believed, since she alone did it, of her own accord, against both the honor and repute of her sex as well as good manner of life), since she was duly warned and disdained our admonitions, she is and should be

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excommunicate and anathema. This woman, in default of a reasonable motive or the instruction of her priest, is compelled to receive the sacrament of communion from time to time, and at least once a year, otherwise she breaks the ruling and commands of the Church: likewise to submit to the Church Militant. And if, being 'admonished on this point in a competent manner, she has not submitted, she appears to have broken the article of the faith: Unam Sanctam Ecclesiam Catholicam. All this we state on the assumption that her revelations did not come from God; and on these and other propositions, statements., and pretensions indicated, we refer ourselves to the judgment of our lords the theologians whom they more particularly concern. Whence it appears to us that the propositions are suspect in respect of the faith, contrary to honest living, to the decisions of the Church, and even scandalous and seditious, and make whoever professed such a doctrine suspect in respect of the faith, especially if she obstinately sustains it. She must therefore be punished with perpetual imprisonment, with bread of sorrow and water of affliction, to weep for her sins and never again do anything that need be wept for, or some other extraordinary penalty, subject to the moderation of the good pleasure of my lords the judges."

Signed: A. Morel. J. Duchemin.

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Eleven advocates of the court of Rouen, licentiates in canon or civil law, or both, gave their opinion as follows, as set forth in a public document to this effect. They were Guillaume de Livet, Pierre Carel, Guérould Poustel, Geoffroy du Crotay, Richard des Saulx, Bureau de Cormeilles, Jean Le Doulx, Laurent du Busc, Jean Colombel, Raoul Anguy, Jean le Tavernier

"In the name of the Lord, Amen. Know all those who shall see this present public instrument that in the year of our Lord 1431, indiction nine, the last day of April in the fourteenth year of the pontificate of Our most Holy Father in Christ Martin by divine Providence fifth of that name: in the chapel or oratory of the archiepiscopal manor of Rouen there were assembled the venerable and discreet advocates of the archiepiscopal court, to the number of eleven, whose names and surnames have not been declared herein. They, for their knowledge of law, had been summoned under legal penalties by the reverend father in Christ my lord Pierre by divine mercy bishop of Beauvais and by the religious brother Jean Le Maistre vicar of the Inquisitor, to confer upon certain articles which the said lord judges had dispatched to the said advocates so that they might send in writing their own deliberations to the judges before the Monday following, as is contained in a certain paper memorandum, signed with the signs manual of Guillaume Colles, otherwise called Boisguillaume, and of

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Guillaume Manchon, priest, notaries public. In my presence and of the undersigned witnesses especially called and summoned, the said lord advocates assembled, for they were prepared to obey as far as they were able the commands of my lord judges, since they were not anxious to incur the penalties of the law, but as true sons of obedience with a unanimous consent and a single will they deliberated thus, in the manner and form shown below:

"Subject to the kindly correction of our fathers and lords the judges and all other meet persons, although in an affair of such difficulty and importance as that which concerned the articles which your highnesses have dispatched to us we can say and declare in writing very little or nothing, nevertheless, subject to the protestations customary in such matters we think it proper to declare this.

"First, in respect of the revelations mentioned in the article; although it may be that the claims of this woman concerning these articles are possible in God, nevertheless there is no reason to believe this woman, since she has not confirmed her words by working miracles or by the testimony of the Holy Scripture. In respect of her rejection of woman's dress or refusal to wear it, it appears that she acted against the honor of woman's sex: she should be warned of the necessity of resuming woman's dress, otherwise sentence of excommunication can be pronounced against her, if she has not received God's command on this point, which cannot be presumed. When she says she would be deprived of the sacrament of communion with Christ at the times when the faithful are wont to partake of it, rather than put off man's dress, on this point, it appears, she goes directly counter to her holy duties, since every Christian is compelled to receive the sacrament of the Eucharist once a year. When she will not submit to the judgment of the Church Militant, it appears she contravenes

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the article Unam Sanctam and the decision of the law. This, be it always understood, on the assumption that her visions and statements do not proceed from God, which is not credible. Nevertheless for the estimate or detail of these propositions and others related in the trial and the articles, we refer ourselves to the decision of the theologians of our mother the University of Paris, who by their learning are more proper judges thereof.

"On each and every one of these points the eleven lord advocates in assembly before me as notary public, asked me to have made and set forth an official declaration, in one or more copies-which was done in the said chapel in the morning of the year, indiction, month, day and pontificate aforesaid, in the presence of master Pierre Cochon and Simon Davy, priests, sworn notaries of the archiepiscopal court of Rouen. And I, Guillaume Lecras, priest and notary of the diocese and archiepiscopal court of Rouen, by imperial and apostolic authority, charged with the inspection of witnesses, was present, with the said witnesses, at each and everything which the said advocates did and said, and I saw and heard their acts and deliberations and wrote them down. Therefore to this present public instrument written by my hand I have fixed my customary seal, and I have signed below as I was required and sworn, in witness of the truth of these things."

Signed: G. Lecras.

The reverend father in Christ Philibert, lord bishop of Coutances, gave his opinion in this form

"To the reverend father and lord in Christ Pierre by God's grace bishop of Beauvais, my very dear lord. Reverend father and lord in Christ, I received in all cordiality and esteem the letters which you addressed to me in this in my absence, as well as a certain book, containing the confessions and statements

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of a certain woman divided into twelve articles and signed with the signs manual of three notaries and with the royal seal. As far as I have been able to gather from these articles, this woman affirms that St. Michael and St. Gabriel with a host of angels, and St. Catherine and St. Margaret, appeared to her, sometimes near a fairy tree: that she bodily touched these saints who comforted her, and promised them, to keep her virginity. And these saints told the woman, at God's bidding, to go to a certain prince and with her he would regain a great kingdom: that she should assume and wear male dress, as she did. Therefore she went to this prince, accompanied by St. Michael and a host of angels and saints; and a most precious crown was given by the angel to the king. She said she knew by revelation that she would escape from prisons, that the French with her company would do a greater deed than ever before or ever was done by all Christendom: that for her to be in man's dress amongst the French as she was before her capture, would be one of the greatest pieces of fortune that could happen to the whole kingdom of France.

"That from her prince she received arms and soldiers, and had often published mandates in which she inserted the words Jhesus and Maria, and also the sign of the cross, when she intended men to do other than as she -declared; in others she threatened with death those who did not obey her letters. Moreover, she hurled herself from a tower in spite of the prohibition of St. Catherine and St. Margaret, which was a great sin, capable of remission however by confession. This she knew by revelation. So she hurled herself out, preferring death to imprisonment in the hands of her enemies and the prospect of seeing the town of Compiègne destroyed. She said she would die and go without holy communion rather than give up man's dress: that she believes she has never been guilty of mortal sin, that she knows she is as assured of the salvation of her

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soul as if she were already in the kingdom of heaven. Of certain purely contingent events she Professes to have certain knowledge, as if she saw them in reality. Further she claims to know that God loves certain living persons she has named more than He loves her: also she affirms she did reverence to the angels, St. Catherine and St. Margaret, uncovering her head, bending her knees, kissing the earth on which they walked. She said she was as convinced and positive that her revelations came from God as she firmly believed in the Catholic faith and that Our Lord Jesus Christ suffered passion for our salvation. That if the Church wished her to do aught contrary to the command. she had received she would not for any reason do it, it would be impossible for her. That she is sure that what is written in her trial comes from God, and she will not submit to the judgment of the Church Militant or of any man alive, but to God whose will she does, especially in respect of the revelations. This, reverend father, is what I have been able to gather from the articles summarized from the original trial, and, to my mind, a lawfully conducted one.

"There is naturally no reason to suppose that you, reverend- father, and the lords and masters so learned and experienced whom you have consulted in such an affair, could in anything, much less in such a question, wander from the path of truth. And, although this matter has been conducted in the most learned and accurate fashion, and though I can supply no forceful or new explanation, I will, as you command, require and constrain me, with as little error as possible, speak in this way, but will abstain from evaluating the omissions in each of the articles since I do not wish to seem to teach Minerva herself. Certainly, reverend father, I consider this woman to have a subtle spirit, inclined to evil, excited by a devilish instinct, bereft of the grace of the Holy Spirit, namely

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virtue and humility. It is evident that these two signs are in no way present in this woman, if we carefully weigh her words. "Truly, certain of her statements (saving a superior judgment) appear contrary to the Catholic faith, heretical or at least vehemently suspected of heresy. These and others are filled only with boastings, superstitions that are scandalous, seditious of the public weal, and very frequently, more than I can express, offensive and dangerous. These statements even to blind eyes may not be dissimulated or passed over lightly without the timely remedy of justice, and as justice moreover advises, their condemnation may not be put off: for it is possible that some are of the opinion that it is meet to postpone the discussion and decision of this cause. For this woman, even if she were to consent to revoke all those parts of her statements which are in need of it, must be left under excellent guard as long as it is necessary until the day when she shall appear to have been sufficiently reformed and corrected. If she will not revoke what she should, she should be dealt with according to the custom for those who are stiffnecked against the faith: this is all subject to a higher opinion than mine. Thus, reverend father and lord, have I felt it my duty to speak in this circumstance, bating every correction which a higher judgment than my own can bring. I am ready to perform whatever is your pleasure, and may the Most High please to keep you in happiness according to your desires. Written at Coutances, May 5th. Yours in all things, most reverend father, Philibert, bishop of Coutances."

Signed: Santigny.

The reverend father in Christ, the lord bishop of Lisieux, gave the following opinion

"To the reverend father and lord in Christ my lord Pierre by divine grace bishop of Beauvais and to the prudent and

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learned master Jean Le Maistre, vicar of the Lord Inquisitor of Heretical Error, Zanon, by the same grace bishop of Lisieux, greeting in Our Lord and cordial goodwill in complying with your demands. Reverend father and lord, know that I have received your letters and the statements confessed recently by a certain woman commonly called The Maid in her trial, in the form of articles drawn up in a paper memorandum, with all the integrity of purpose proper to your reverence from my part. And having seen, examined, and carefully studied them all, I send you herewith the articles with my judgment and opinion, under my seal. Given at Lisieux this 14th day of March, 1431."

Signed: Langlois.

"Reverend father, it is extremely difficult to establish a certain judgment in the matter of apparitions and revelations contained in the articles you have addressed to me under the seals of certain notaries: for according to the words of the Apostle 'the natural man receiveth not the things of the spirit of God, and will not know the mind of the Lord that he may instruct him'; and as St. Augustine declares in his treatise De spiritu et anima, the mind is often deceived and mocked in this kind of vision or apparition; for -now it sees true things, now false, and at times either a good or a false spirit is in control. It is not easy to distinguish by what spirit the mind is directed; therefore we cannot give credence to any person who simply and barely affirms he is sent from God to show forth in the world the secret and invisible judgment of God, unless he is justified by the appearance of signs and miracles or by the special testimony of the Scriptures (as is declared in the decretal concerning heretics, Cum ex injuncto): but no conjecture or external appearance, or sign of admirable holiness or distinguished life appear in her, to my mind, from which it

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may be presumed that God has breathed into this woman the breath of prophecy, in virtue whereof she might have per. formed such marvelous deeds as she boasts. Therefore and in view of these facts I. Zanon, bishop of Lisieux, subject to the protestations and submissions usual in these affairs, after a mature examination and deliberation, I declare that considering the vile condition of her person, the foolish and presumptuous statements she has made, the manner and form in which she claims to have received these visions and revelations, and after having reflected on her other words and deeds, there is in truth reason to conclude that her visions and revelations do not come from God through the ministry of His angels, as she affirms.

"One of two things must be accepted: either that there have been deceptions and phantasms on the part of devils who usurp the form of angels and sometimes counterfeit the appearance and likeness of different persons, or that they are lies humanly conceived and invented to abuse gross and ignorant natures. In the first case many of the said articles contain false and scandalous innovations, rash and presumptuous declarations, full of false pride offensive to pious ears, of impiety, and of contempt of the sacrament of Communion. When she says she will not submit her acts and sayings to the decision and judgment of the Church Militant she utterly destroys the power and authority of the Church. Wherefore, after she has been properly and charitably admonished and exhorted, and solemnly required and summoned to submit the interpretation of her declarations and confessions as every faithful Christian must to the judgment and decision of Our Holy Father the Pope, of the Church Universal met together in general council, or of the other prelates of the Church who possess this authority, if she refuses and disdains with an obstinate mind to submit, she must be judged schismatic and vehemently

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suspected in the faith. This is my opinion in the present matter, bating a superior judgment. In witness whereof I affix my seal on the year and day above mentioned."

Signed: Zanon of Lisieux.

The reverend fathers in Christ, masters Nicolas, abbot of Jumièges, and Guillaume, abbot of Cormeilles, doctors of decrees, gave their opinion in a memorandum signed with their hand, of which the tenor follows

"You ask and require us in a memorandum, most reverend father and lord in Christ, Pierre, bishop of Beauvais, and you brother Jean Le Maistre, vicar of the lord Inquisitor, that we humble abbots, Nicolas de Jumièges and Guillaume de Cormeilles, should present to you in writing before Monday next our deliberations upon the subject of whether the statements contained in the articles that you have addressed to us in regard to a certain woman are contrary to the orthodox faith or suspect, etc., as is declared more fully in the memorandum. Formerly, however, we made answer to your demand under our seals that the whole trial of this woman should be submitted to our mother the University of Paris, whose opinion in such a difficult task we are most anxious to follow. Nevertheless you were not satisfied with our answer and have once more made this request: therefore, submitting our opinion to the decision of the Holy Roman Church and the Council General, we declare today that the case of this woman may be reduced to four points. First, concerning submission to the Church Militant, this woman should be charitably admonished in public and before all eyes, and the danger she is incurring should be explained to her; if after this lawful warning she persists in her evil-doing she must be deemed suspect in the faith. As for her revelations, and the wearing of man's dress which she claims to have from God, it does not prima facie

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appear to us that we can hold or believe or give faith to them, since they are not supported by holiness of life or miracles. The fourth point, that she is not guilty of mortal sin, God alone knows, who reads the heart of men; and as these are things we cannot know who may not judge of what is hidden, the more so since we were not present at her examination, we refer ourselves to the masters of theology for a further decision. In witness whereof we fix our signs manual to this scrip, Sunday, April 29th, 1431."

Signed: N. de Jumièges. G., abbot of Cormeilles.

Master Raoul Roussel, doctor of canon and civil law, treasurer of the church of Rouen, gave his opinion as follows

"Reverend father in Christ my most feared lord and you, our honored lord and master, may your highnesses know that beyond what I have already written to you I can say nothing, except that I believe these statements to be false, treacherous and cunningly invented by this woman and her abettors to accomplish her aims and those of her party. For further qualification of these propositions I defer to the masters of theology and intend to adhere to their opinion. These opinions are subject to the customary protestations in such difficult affairs. Given this last day of April, 1431."

Signed: Your servant, R. Roussel.

Master Pierre Minier, Jean Pigache, and Richard de Grouchet, bachelors of theology, gave their opinion in the following manner

"Subject to the protestations we elsewhere indicate, and to which we adhere, upon those things which you reverend father and the vicar of the lord Inquisitor demand our reply, namely a formal judgment on certain statements of this woman's

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which we heard, whether they are contrary to the orthodox faith, to Holy Scripture, and suspect in matters of faith, it appeared to us then as now, that a formal answer on these statements, subject to a higher decision, is dependent upon a positive distinction which our insufficiency cannot attain, concerning the origin of the revelations mentioned in the articles which you addressed to us. Because, if these revelations proceed from an evil spirit or demon, or are imagined by her own efforts, it appears to us that many of the statements are suspect in faith, injurious, contrary to honest living and infected with many errors indicated in the memorandum. If on the contrary these revelations come from God or a good spirit, which is however not clear to us, they cannot in our opinion be interpreted in an evil sense. Thus, reverend father and lord, our consciences dictate in all humility and due submission in respect of the points whereon you seek our answer."

Signed: P. Minier, J. Pigache, R. de Grouchet.

Master Raoul Le Sauvage, bachelor of theology, gave his opinion on a memorandum signed with his own hand of which the tenor follows

"Subject to all due protestations and submissions which I have elsewhere expressed in my deliberation, to which I adhere and which I beg you once more to receive, reverend father in Christ, my most feared lord and you, my reverend master lord vicar of the Inquisitor; of the statements concerning certain revelations in respect of which you lately addressed me, some, as I have already indicated, prima facie appear to me and formally are scandalous: others are suspect in faith, others still are rash, inciting to evil and error. And the better to expound them I have referred myself and do so once more to the lords and masters my superiors. Nevertheless now, without affirming anything which may not be affirmed, and humbly submitting

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my person and sayings to your kindly correction, reverend father and lord, as well as that of the lords and masters my superiors, when in Articles I and XI she says she saw St. Michael in the flesh, I do not know whether she is speaking the truth, but I fear there is some phantasm or invented lie. In respect of St. Catherine and St. Margaret ordering her in God's name to wear man's dress which she would rather die than put off, there is, I fear, presumptuousness. To prefer not to receive Mass, to be deprived of the sacrament of the Eucharist at the time ordained by the Church, rather than to give up her male costume, seems to me scandalous and of evil example. When she postponed and refused the submission of her person and deeds to the Church Militant, after being repeatedly admonished and required so to do, and in Article XII when she will not refer herself in respect of her revelations to the decision of the Church Militant or any living man, she appears in my opinion schismatic, suspect of error, and of evil example, for she is the more firmly and with greater assurance bound to obey the instructions and commands of the Church rather than her apparitions which are perchance fantastic and diabolical, since evil spirits sometimes counterfeit the appearance of good angels.

"In respect of Article II and the sign that she claims the prince to whom she was sent received, I do not know: perhaps as before, an invention and lying fiction. In respect of Article III, that she is certain that he who visited her was St. Michael because he so named himself, it appears a presumption beyond credence of any spirit, and perhaps as before the illusion of the evil one. In respect of her belief in her own truth and goodness, which she holds as firmly as she believes that Christ suffered and died for us, it appears that she is suspect of heresy, that she exposes our faith to derision and so endangers its strength.

"In respect of Article IV, that she is as sure of divers future events as of that which is actually before her eyes, she is presumptuous,

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for the things to come are not established of necessity; and even if one allowed it to be a divine revelation, it is perhaps merely in the category of the prophet Jonah's foretelling, 'Yet forty days and Nineveh shall be overthrown! In respect of St. Catherine and St. Margaret revealing to her that they would deliver her, it is doubtless a false invention or boasting. In respect of the revelation of the sword, perhaps it was the revelation of an evil or human spirit, and there is no reason to give it credence. In respect of Article V, that she assumed man's dress at God's command, it is not probable, but scandalous, shameful, and dishonest, especially for the woman and young girl she claims to be, unless she did it to escape violence and keep her virginity. In respect of Article VI, that in the letters she had written she inserted the sign of the cross and this sign was to indicate to those whom she wrote that they must not do as she commanded, although crosses signify what we wish, nevertheless she can be suspected of having done it at the instigation of the enemy to the scorn and blasphemy of Christ crucified, that is of the highest truth, which she hates.

"In respect of the remainder of the proposition, it discloses nothing but haughtiness and boasting. In Article VII, when she joined the company of a squire she had never seen, she acted with rashness and lay herself open to outrage; and in respect of Article VIII, of hurling herself from a high tower, that is evident. When of her own will she left her father's house against her parents' will, she showed less than the honor and love we owe our parents; she broke the commandments of honoring her father and mother, and doubtlessly acted from headstrong malice and a hard heart. In respect of Article VIII, as we have already said, when she threw herself from the tower she was ill and madly advised, and it appears that the evil spirit incited her and showed her the sign of despair; the remainder of this proposition can only be boasting.

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In respect of Article IX, that St. Catherine and St. Margaret gave her promises, I do not know; but it is undoubtedly a rash invention and boastful lie. When she imagines she has not committed mortal sin, that seems to be presumptuousness, and contrary to her leap from the tower. With regard to Article X, when she affirms that God loves certain people, it is well: but when she says that St. Catherine and St. Margaret do not speak English, she utters a rash statement and what seems to me a sort of blasphemy, for is not God lord of all, the supreme providence, both for the English and others? Thus she appears to have spoken contrary to the law of love which we should bear our neighbor. In respect of Article XI, that she embraced and kissed bodily and with her senses St. Catherine and St. Margaret, I see in this nothing but imagination, and fictitious lies, or the deception of demons: and if she had adored them, simply and unconditionally, she would not have rashly exposed herself to the charge of idolatry. In respect of Article XII, I have the same opinion as of Article I. Nevertheless, my reverend father and my lords, it is meet to take into account the frailty of womankind; and the propositions and statements should be repeated to her in French, she should be charitably admonished to reform, and not to presume so much upon revelations which may be uttered and invented by the evil spirit or some other. Therefore, as I said, to bring this to a more certain and positive conclusion and issue, so that it cannot be suspect from any quarter, I think, though submitting to higher opinion, that for the honor of his royal majesty and of yourself, for the peace and tranquillity of your conscience, the said articles should be sent with the appropriate comments to the apostolic Holy See. These, reverend father in Christ, and my master the lord vicar of the Inquisitor, are my opinions in this matter, subject to all correction and in all obedience."

Signed: R. Le Sauvage.

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Wednesday, April 18th. Jeanne is charitably exhorted

Therefore on Wednesday, April 18th, 1431, we the said judges, knowing from the deliberations and opinions of many doctors of sacred theology and of canon law, of licentiates in law and graduates of the other faculties, the great number of serious errors discovered in the answers and assertions of the said Jeanne, and knowing that if she did not correct herself she exposed herself to grave perils: for these reasons we decided to exhort her charitably and gently admonish her, and to have her admonished gently by many men of honesty and learning, doctors and others, in order to lead her back to the way of truth and a sincere profession of the faith. To this end we did this day repair to the place of her prison, accompanied by Guillaume Le Boucher, Jacques de Touraine, Maurice du Quesnay, Nicolas Midi, Guillaume Adelie, and Gerard Feuillet, doctors, and William Haiton, bachelor of sacred theology.

In their presence we the said bishop addressed the said Jeanne, who then said she was ill: we told her that the said masters and doctors had come in all friendliness and charity to visit her in her illness, to comfort and console her. Then we reminded her that for many different days in the presence of many learned persons she had been examined on grave and difficult questions concerning the faith, to which she had given varied and divergent answers which wise and learned men

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considering and examining diligently had found to contain words and confessions that from the point of view of the faith were dangerous; but because she was an unlettered and ignorant woman we offered to provide her with wise and learned men, upright and kindly, who could duly instruct her.

We exhorted the doctors and masters then present to give salutary counsel to this Jeanne for the salvation of her body and soul and to conform to the duty of faithfulness which bound them to the true doctrine of the faith. If Jeanne knew others apt for this we offered to send them to her so that they should give her advice and instruction upon what she should do, maintain and believe. We added that we were clergy, that we were by our vocation, will, and inclination, disposed to seek the salvation of the soul and assure that of the body by all possible means, as we should do it for our nearest and for ourselves. That we should be happy each day to furnish her with such men as would instruct her duly, and in a word to perform for her all the Church is accustomed to do in such circumstances, for she does not shut the fold against the lamb who would return. Finally we told the said Jeanne to take good account of the present admonition and to put it into effect. For if she should act in opposition thereto, trusting to her own mind and her inexperienced head, we should be compelled to abandon her; that she must therefore see the peril which would result to her in that case; which, with all our might and affection, we hoped to avoid.

To which Jeanne answered that she thanked us for what we said of her salvation, and added: "It seems to me, seeing how ill I am, that I am in great danger of death: if it be that God desires to do His pleasure on me, I ask to receive confession and my Saviour also, and a burial in holy ground."

Then she was told that if she wished to receive the sacraments of the Church, she must do as good Catholics are in

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duty bound, and must submit to the holy Church, and if she persisted in her intention not to submit to the Church she would not be allowed to receive the sacraments she asked for, except the sacrament of penance, which we were always ready to administer. But she answered: "I cannot now tell you anything more."

She was told that the more she feared for her life because of her illness, the more she ought to amend that life; that she would not enjoy the rights of the Church as a Catholic if she did not submit to the Church. She answered: "If my body dies in prison, I trust you will have it buried in holy ground; if you do not, I put my trust in Our Lord."

She was told that in her trial she had said that if she had done or said anything contrary to our Christian faith ordained by God she would not wish to sustain it. She answered: "I refer me to the answer which I made and to Our Lord."

Then, as she had professed to have many revelations from God through the medium of St. Michael, St. Catherine and St. Margaret, she was asked this question: "If some good creature were to come to you and affirm that he had received revelations from God concerning your mission, would you believe him?" She answered that no Christian in the world could come to her saying he had a revelation about her but she would know whether he was speaking the truth or not; she would know it through St. Catherine and St. Margaret.

Asked whether she thought God could reveal nothing to a good creature which she would not know, she answered that she knew well that He could. "But " she added "I should not believe any man or woman if I had no sign."

Asked whether she believed that the Holy Scriptures were revealed by God, she answered: "You know it well, it is good to know that it was."

Then she was summoned, exhorted and required to take

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the good counsel of the clergy and notable doctors and trust in it for the salvation of her soul. She was asked if she would submit her acts and sayings to the Church Militant, and answered in the end: "Whatever happens to me I will do and say nothing except what I have already said in the trial."

Whereupon the venerable doctors above mentioned who were present exhorted her as urgently as they could, to submit herself and her sayings to the Church Militant, citing in explanation to her many authorities and examples from the Holy Scriptures. And in particular one of the doctors [master Nicolas Midi], in his exhortation, quoted this passage from St. Matthew, chapter xviii. "If thy brother shall trespass against thee, etc.," and also, "If he neglect to hear the Church, let him be unto thee as an heathen man and a publican." This was explained to Jeanne in French, and she was finally told that if she would not submit to the Church and obey it she would be abandoned as an infidel.

To which the said Jeanne answered that she was a good Christian, and had been properly baptized, and so she would die a good Christian.

Asked why, since she requested the Church to administer the sacrament of the Eucharist to her, she would not submit to the Church Militant, as then she had been promised the sacrament, she answered that she would not reply other than she had already done on the question of submission; she loved God, was a good Christian and desired to aid and support Holy Church with all her strength.

Asked if she did not wish a fine and distinguished procession to be ordained to restore her to a good estate if she were not therein, she answered that she much desired the Church and the Catholics to pray for her.

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Wednesday, May 2nd. Public Admonition of The Maid

On Wednesday, May 2nd, in the year of Our Lord 1431, we the said judges held session in the room of the castle of Rouen near the great hall of the castle, assisted by the reverend fathers, lords and masters assembled at our order: Nicolas de Jumièges, Guillaume de Cormeilles, abbots, doctors of law; the abbot of St. Ouen, the prior of St. Lô, and Pierre, prior of Longueville; Jean de Nibat, Jacques Guesdon, Jean Footer, Maurice du Quesnay, Jean Le Fèvre, Guillaume Le Boucher, Pierre Houdenc, Jean de Châtillon, Erard Emengart, Richard Prati, Jean Carpentier, and Pierre Maurice, doctors; Nicolas Couppequesne, William Haiton, Thomas de Courcelles, Richard de Grouchet, Pierre Minier, Raoul Le Sauvage, Jean Pigache, Jean Maugier, and Jean Eude, bachelors of sacred theology; Raoul Roussel, treasurer of the cathedral of Rouen, doctor of canon and civil laws; Jean Garin, doctor of canon law; Robert Le Barbier, Denis Gastinel, Jean Le Doulx, licentiates of canon and civil laws; Nicolas de Venderès, archdeacon of Eu, Jean Pinchon, archdeacon of Josas; Jean Bruillot, chantry priest of the church of Rouen; Richard des Saulx, Laurent du Busc, Aubert Morel, Jean Duchemin, Jean Colombel, Raoul Anguy, Jean Le Tavernier, Guérould Poustel, licentiates of canon law; André Marguerie,

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archdeacon of Petit-Caux; Jean Alespée, Gilles Deschamps, chancellor, Nicolas Caval, canons of the cathedral of Rouen; Guillaume de Livet, Pierre Carel, Geoffroy du Crotay; Bureau de Cormeilles, licentiate in civil laws; Guillaume Desjardins, Jean Tiphaine, doctors of medicine; brother Ysambard de La Pierre, Guillaume Legrant, Jean de Rosay, curate of Duclair, brother Jean Des Bats, Eustache Cateleu, Regnault Lejeune, Jean Mahommet, Guillaume Le Cauchois, Jean Le Tonnellier, Laurent Leduc, priests.

We the said bishop addressed the said lords and masters as follows:

"After she had been thoroughly interrogated this woman replied to the articles judicially prepared against her by the Promoter, and we sent the digest of her confessions, drawn up and summarized in the form of twelve articles, to doctors and other persons learned in canon and civil law for the purpose of obtaining their advice. Already we have adequately perceived that in the opinion and decision of many this woman appears reprehensible in many points, although the case has not finally been decided by us; and before we come to a final judgment many honest, conscientious and learned men have thought it expedient to endeavor by every possible means to instruct this woman on the points in which she seems to be in error, and, as far as we are able, to bring her back to the way and knowledge of truth. This end we have always desired and still with all our strength desire to attain. This also we ought all to seek, especially we who live in the Church and for the ministration of holy things: we ought to show her in all charity wherein her acts and sayings are out of harmony with the faith, truth, and religion, and charitably warn her to consider her salvation. To this end we first tried to lead her back by means of many notable doctors of theology

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whom we sent to her on many different days; they gave themselves with all possible zeal to this work though they did not coerce her. But the cunning of the Devil prevailed and they have not yet been of any effect. When we perceived that private admonitions bore no fruit, it appeared to us opportune that this woman should by you in solemn assembly be gently and charitably admonished to amend: since perhaps your presence and the exhortations of some among you will more easily induce her to humility and obedience, and dissuade her from too much reliance on her own opinion, so that she will give credence to the advice of worthy and learned men, versed in divine and human laws, and will not expose herself to perils so great that they endanger her body and soul.

"To address this solemn admonition to her we have appointed an old and learned master of theology, one particularly understanding in these matters, namely Jean de Châtillon, archdeacon of Évreux, who, if it so please him, will accept the present task of demonstrating to this woman certain points on which she is in error, according to the counsel and consultations we have received from the said authorities, and he will persuade her to abandon her faults and errors and will show her the way of truth. Now therefore this woman will be brought before you and be admonished: if any among you thinks he can say or do any good thing to facilitate her return or helpfully instruct her for the salvation of her body and soul, we pray him not to hesitate to speak to us or to the assembly."

When Jeanne was led in before us and the judges on this day, we, bishop, in our name and on behalf of the Vice-Inquisitor her judge with us, counseled her to attend to the advice and warnings which the lord archdeacon, professor of sacred theology, would address to her, as he was about to

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utter many things profitable for the salvation of her body and soul, to which she must agree, for if she did not she lay herself open to peril of body and soul: and we explained many things to the said Jeanne, according to the tenor of the memorandum below.

Then we the said judges required the lord archdeacon to proceed charitably to the said admonitions. In obedience to our order the lord archdeacon, beginning to teach and instruct the said Jeanne, explained to her that all faithful Christians were compelled and obliged to believe and hold firmly the Christian faith and its articles; and he warned and required her in a general admonition to correct and reform herself, her words and her deeds, in accordance with the advice of the venerable doctors and masters who were learned in divine, canon and civil law.

To this general monition Jeanne answered, "Read your book," meaning the scrip the lord archdeacon held in his hand, "and then I will answer you. I trust in God my creator for everything. I love Him with my whole heart."

And when she was asked if she had anything further to say in answer to this general monition, she answered: "I trust in my Judge. He is the King of Heaven and of earth."

Then the lord archdeacon proceeded to the particular monitions which he had to address to Jeanne, according to the tenor of the following memorandum. He began thus:

I. In the first place he reminded her that she had recently said that if anything evil were found in her acts and sayings which the clergy pointed out to her, she would desire to correct herself in that respect. This was a good and laudable thing to say, for every Christian must be meek, ever ready to obey those who are wiser than he, and give greater credit to the judgment of good and learned men than to his own. Since then the acts and words of this woman had been diligently

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gently examined for many days by doctors and clergy, who had found in them many grave deficiencies: yet, if she wished to reform, as a good devout Christian must, the clergy were always ready to act towards her in all mercy and charity to effect her salvation. If, however, out of arrogant and haughty pride she desired to persist in her own views, and imagine she understood matters of faith better than doctors and learned men, she would expose herself to grave danger.

II. He explained to her, in respect of the revelations and visions she professed to have, that she would not submit to the Church Militant or any living man, but intended to refer herself to God alone in respect of her acts and sayings. He expounded to her on this point the nature of the Church Militant, the authority it derives from God, in Whom its power resides; how every Christian is bound to believe that the Holy Church is one and Catholic, that the Holy Spirit governs it, and it never errs or falls into error; that every Catholic is bound to obey it as a son his mother, and must submit all his acts and sayings to its judgment: that none, whatever his apparitions or revelations, must on their account withdraw from the judgment of the Church, since the apostles submitted their writings to the Church and that the whole Scripture, which is revealed by God, is sent for our belief by our mother the Church as an infallible guide to which we ought to conform in all things without schism or division of any kind, as St. Paul the apostle teaches in many passages. Moreover, every revelation from God leads us to preserve meekness and obedience towards our superiors, and never otherwise: for our Lord never desired any one to presume to call himself subject to God alone or to refer himself in respect of his acts or sayings to Him only. Indeed, he committed and gave into the hands of the clergy the authority and power to know and judge the deeds of the faithful, whether they

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were good or evil: who scorned them, scorned God; who listened to them listened to God. Finally he warned her that she must believe that the Catholic Church is incapable of error or false judgment, for he who does not hold this belief infringes the article Unam Sanctam which had been explained to her in detail: and he who persists in denying it must be accounted a heretic. He who does not is schismatic, and shows himself an evil thinker in respect of the holiness of the Church and the infallible direction of the Holy Spirit, and the canon laws lay it down that heavy punishment must be inflicted upon such wanderers.

III. She was shown how for a long time she persisted in wearing man's dress, in the fashion of men-at-arms, and continually and needlessly wears it still, contrary to the honesty of her sex: which is scandalous and against good living and custom; and she wore her hair cut round. All these habits are contrary to the commandments of God declared in Deuteronomy, chapter xxii. "The woman shall not wear, etc.," contrary to the instruction of the Apostle who says that woman shall veil her head, and to the prohibitions of the Church uttered in the holy Council General, to the teaching of saints, and of doctors in canon and civil law: and are of evil example to other women. And especially the said Jeanne was in error when out of a strange insistence upon her disgraceful dress she preferred not to receive the sacrament of the Eucharist at the time ordained of the Church rather than put off this dress and put on another in which she might receive the sacrament reverently and decently: scorning the command of the Church in order to satisfy such an insistent desire, although she had been often warned on this point, particularly about Easter, when she declared she greatly desired to hear Mass and receive Communion. Then we told her to resume woman's dress, which she had and still refused to

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do: in which in our opinion she gravely erred. Therefore she was admonished to change these things and put off her male costume.

IV. The said Jeanne, not content to wear this costume with the aforesaid aggravating circumstances, even wished to up. hold that in this she acted wisely and did not err. But to say that one is acting well when one goes against the teaching of the saints, against the commandments of God and His apostles, in scorn of the teachings of the Church, out of mere obstinacy in wearing a dishonest and indecent dress, is to deviate from the faith; and he who sustains it falls into heresy. Moreover, she desired to attribute the responsibility for her sins to God and His saints: wherein she blasphemed God and His saints by attributing unseemly things to them: for they wish all honesty to be preserved and all perversities and sins avoided, nor would they have the commandments of the Church disdained for such ends. Therefore he admonished her to cease from pronouncing such blasphemies, from rashly attributing such thoughts to God and His saints, and from maintaining them as lawful.

V. Many doctors and notable ecclesiastics have considered and examined with diligence the statements of the said Jeanne concerning her revelations and apparitions, and in view of the manifest falsehoods regarding the crown brought to Charles, and the coming of the angels, which she had invented, falsehoods and imaginations which have been recognized as such, both by those who afterwards were of our party and by others; in view also of her statements touching the kisses and embraces she gave to St. Catherine and St. Margaret, who, if she were believed, came to her every day, and even many times daily with no special intention or apparent manifestation, when there was no reason why they should come so frequently, and no precedent of saints revealing themselves

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in such miraculous apparitions; considering that she said she knew nothing of their limbs or any other details of their person, except their head, which does not accord with such frequent visions, in view also of many commands she declares they gave her, such as to wear man's dress, and to make such answers as she did in the trial, commands not in accord with God and His saints and which cannot be allowed to have emanated from them; in view finally of numerous other points which the doctors and learned men have well weighed in this matter: they see and recognize that such revelations and apparitions were not sent from God as she boasts. And then she was shown how dangerous in the extreme it was to believe audaciously that one is fit to receive such apparitions and revelations, for she lied in respect of things in the province of God, falsely prophesying and telling of things to come, which power God had not granted her, but she discovered it in the imaginations of her heart; and from it nothing can ensue but the seduction of the people, the springing up of new sects and many other ills inclining to the overthrow of the Church and the Catholic people.

And how grave and dangerous it is to search curiously into the things passing our understanding, to put faith in what is new without consulting the opinion of the Church and its prelates; and even to invent new and unaccustomed things, for devils are wont to insinuate themselves into this kind of oddity, either by occult instigation or by visible apparitions in which they transform themselves into angels of light, and beneath an appearance of piety or some other good they lead one on to pernicious pacts, plunge one into error, as is permitted by God to punish the presumption of those who allow themselves to be carried away by such things. Therefore he admonished her to renounce these vain imaginations,

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to cease propagating such falsehoods, and to return to the way of truth.

VI. These revelations so invented had been as it were the root which had induced her to so many other crimes, and so, usurping the office of God, she had not hesitated to announce and affirm future and contingent events, the presence of hidden objects, such as a sword buried in the ground; and further she had boasted of knowing with certainty that some people were loved by God; and for her own part she knew she would receive forgiveness for the sin she had committed by hurling herself from the tower of Beaurevoir: which was nothing but divination, presumption and rashness. She said also that she had adored these novel things which appeared to her, although she had concerning them no sufficient proof for her to believe that they were good spirits; that she had not taken the counsel of priests or any other ecclesiastic on this point, but presumed too much upon herself, in a matter wherein the danger of idolatry is ever imminent: she had rashly believed where she should not have given. the faintest credence, even if there were a sort of reality in these apparitions (which nevertheless to our mind are false). Moreover, she dared to say that she believed these apparitions to be St. Catherine and St. Margaret and angels as firmly as she believed in the Catholic faith; wherein she showed a rash credulity and appeared to indicate that there is no more or stronger reason to believe in the Christian faith and its articles, which the Church has handed down to us, than in certain apparitions of a new and unaccustomed kind. In this she had no judgment or consultation of the Church: further, Christ and His saints teach that it is not meet to give faith lightly to such apparitions, and she was told to consider these things carefully.

Whilst the archdeacon was explaining all this to Jeanne

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in French, according to the text of the memorandum, she answered as follows:

And first, concerning the first and second articles of this memorandum, she said: "As I have answered you before, so I will answer you now."

And when she had been told of the nature of the Church Militant, and had been admonished to believe and hold the article Unam Sanctam, and that she must submit to the Church Militant according to the tenor of Article II of the memorial, she answered: "I believe indeed in the Church on earth; but for my words and deeds, as I have already declared, I trust in and refer me to God." Then she said: "I believe that the Church Militant cannot err or fail; but in respect of my deeds and words I submit them and refer in everything to God who caused me to do what I have done." She said she submitted to God her creator who had caused her to do those things, and referred herself to Him and to her own self concerning them. '

Asked if she wished to say that she had no judge on earth and whether our Holy Father the Pope were not her judge, she answered: "I will not say anything more. I have a good master, Our Lord, to whom I refer everything, and to none other."

When she was told that if she would not believe in the Church and the article Unam Sanctam Ecclesiam Catholicam she would be a heretic, and would suffer the punishment of fire by the sentence of other judges, she answered: "I will say no more to you: and if I saw the fire, I should say all that I do now to you, and nothing more."

Asked whether if the General Council, or Our Holy Father the Pope, the cardinals and other ecclesiastics were present, she would submit and refer herself to the said General Council she answered: "You will get nothing further from me."

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Asked if she would submit to Our Holy Father the Pope, she answered, "Take me to him, and I will reply to him," and would make no other answer.

In respect of what was said of her dress in Articles III and IV, she answered that as for her dress she would willingly take a long dress and a woman's hood and go to Church and receive the sacrament of the Eucharist, as she had formerly said, provided that immediately after her return she might take it off and wear her present dress. And when it was explained to her that she was in no need of wearing this dress, particularly in prison, she said: "When I have done what God sent me to do I will resume woman's dress."

Asked if she thought she was doing well to wear man's dress, she answered: "I refer me to Our Lord."

Then when she was admonished and the contents of the fourth article were explained to her, she answered that she had blasphemed neither God nor His saints. And admonished to discontinue the wearing of this dress* and the belief that it was good to wear it, and advised to resume woman's dress, she said she would not do otherwise.

Asked whether whenever St. Catherine or St. Margaret came to her she made the sign of the cross, she answered that sometimes she did, and sometimes she did not.

Asked about what she had been told regarding her revelations in Article V of the memorandum, she answered that on that question she referred herself to her judge, namely God. She said her revelations came to her from God direct.

Asked, concerning the sign given to her king, whether she would defer to the archbishop of Reims, to the Sire de Boussac, to Charles de Bourbon, to the Sire de la Trémouille and to Étienne called La Hire, to whom or to some of whom she said she had shown the crown, since they were present when the angel brought it to him she calls her king and gave

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it to the archbishop; asked whether she would refer to others of her party writing under their seal of this matter, she answered: "Give me a messenger and I will write to them about this trial." Otherwise she would not believe in or refer to them.

Asked, with regard to the sixth article, about [the temerity of her belief and] her presumption in prophesying of future and contingent events, she answered: I refer me to my judge, that is to God, and to my earlier answers written in this book."

Asked whether if she were sent three or four clergy of her own party under a safe conduct she would refer herself to them concerning the apparitions and all that was contained in the trial, she replied that we should first let them come and then she would answer: otherwise she would not refer herself or submit to them in this trial.

Asked whether she would refer herself and submit to the church of Poitiers where she was examined, she answered: "Do you think you will catch me in that way and draw me to you so?"

Then in conclusion she was abundantly admonished anew in general to submit to the Church under pain of being abandoned by the Church; for if the Church abandoned her she would be in great peril of body and soul, her soul would be in danger of eternal fire and her body of temporal fire by the sentence of other judges. She answered: "You will not do as you say against me without evil overtaking you, in body and soul."

Asked to give at least one reason why she would not refer herself to the Church, she would make no other reply.

Whereupon many doctors and learned men of divers estates and faculties admonished and charitably guided her, exhorting her to submit to the Church Universal and Militant, to Our Holy Father the Pope, to the sacred General Council,

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and explaining to her the perils of body and soul to which she exposed herself by her refusal to submit her acts and sayings to the Church Militant. She answered as before.

Finally we the said bishop told Jeanne to be sure to take into serious account the said admonitions, our counsel and charitable exhortations, and to change her mind. She answered by the question: "How long will you give me to think it over?" We told her that she must think it over immediately and answer as she wished: but as she made no further reply we left the place and the said Jeanne was taken back to her prison.

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Wednesday, May 9th. She is threatened with torture

On Wednesday, May 9th of the same year, Jeanne was brought into the great tower of the castle of Rouen before us the said judges and in the presence of the reverend father,, lord abbot of St. Carmel de Compiègne, of masters Jean de Châtillon and Guillaume Erart, doctors of sacred theology, of André Marguerie and Nicolas de Venderès, archdeacons of the church of Rouen, of William Haiton, bachelor of theology, Aubert Morel, licentiate in canon law; Nicolas Loiseleur, canon of the cathedral of Rouen, and master Jean Massieu.

And Jeanne was required and admonished to speak the truth on many different points contained in her trial which she had denied or to which she had given false replies, whereas we possessed certain information, proofs, and vehement presumptions upon them. Many of the points were read and explained to her, and she was told that if she did not confess them truthfully she would be put to the torture, the instruments of which were shown to her all ready in the tower. There were also present by our instruction men ready to put her to the torture in order to restore her to the way and knowledge of truth, and by this means to procure the salvation of her body and soul which by her lying inventions she exposed to such grave perils.

To which the said Jeanne answered in this manner: "Truly

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if you were to tear me limb from limb and separate my soul from my body, I would not tell you anything more: and if I did say anything, I should afterwards declare that you had compelled me to say it by force." Then she said that on Holy Cross Day last she received comfort from St. Gabriel: she firmly believes it was St. Gabriel, she knew by her voices it was he. She said she asked counsel of her voices whether she should submit to the Church since the clergy were pressing her hard to submit: her voices told her that if she desired Our Lord to aid her she must wait upon Him in all her doings. She said that Our Lord has always been the master of her doings, and the Enemy never had power over them. She asked her voices if she would be burned and they answered that she must wait upon God, and He would aid her.

When asked about the crown she said she had given to the archbishop of Reims, and whether she would refer herself to him, she answered: "Send him here [and let me hear him speak]: and then I will answer you. He dare not deny what I have told you."

But seeing the hardness of her heart and her manner of answering, we the said judges, fearing that the torments of torture would be of little profit to her, decided to postpone their application until we had received more complete advice on the question.

Saturday, May 12th. Jeanne is not to be tortured

On Saturday following, May 12th, in our episcopal dwelling at Rouen, before us the said judges and in the presence of the venerable masters Raoul Roussel, treasurer, Nicolas de Venderès and André Marguerie, archdeacons and canons of Rouen; Guillaume Erart, master of theology; Robert Le Barbier, Denis Gastinel, Jean Le Doulx, and Aubert Morel, licentiates in canon law; Thomas de Courcelles, Nicolas Couppequesne.

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bachelors of sacred theology; Nicolas Loiseleur and brother Ysambard de La Pierre.

We the said bishop recalled what had taken place on the previous Wednesday, and we asked the counsel of the assessors on what remained to be done, in particular if it was expedient to put Jeanne to the torture.

[And first the said Raoul Roussel stated that he thought it was not expedient, lest a trial so well conducted should be exposed to calumny.

Master Nicolas de Venderès said he thought it was not yet expedient to put her to the torture.

Master André Marguerie said it was not yet expedient.

Master Guillaume Erart said it was needless to put her to the torture, sufficient matter was possessed without it.

Master Robert Le Barbier gave a similar opinion; but thought she should again be charitably admonished, once and for all, to submit to the Church. If she would not, then in God's name the proceedings should continue.

Master Denis Gastinel said it was not expedient.

Master Aubert Morel said he thought it expedient to put her to the torture in order to discover the truth of her lies.

Master Thomas de Courcelles said he thought it wise to torture her. She ought also to be examined whether she would submit to the judgment of the Church.

Master Nicolas Couppequesne said it is not expedient to put her to the torture, but she should, once more, be charitably admonished of the necessity of submitting to the decision of the Church.

Master Jean Le Doulx, similarly.

Brother Ysambard de La Pierre, similarly; but for the last time she should be admonished to submit to the Church Militant.

Master Nicolas Loiseleur said he thought it good for the

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health of her soul to put her to the torture: nevertheless he deferred to the earlier opinions.

Master William Haiton, who came later, was of the opinion that there was no need for torture.

Master Jean Le Maistre, Vice-Inquisitor, said she should once more be examined on whether she believed she should submit to the Church Militant.]

When these opinions had been heard and the answers which Jeanne had made on the previous Wednesday considered, in view of her disposition and will and of the circumstances, we concluded that it was neither necessary nor expedient to submit her to the torture, and that we should proceed further in the matter.

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Saturday, May 19th. The deliberations of the University of Paris are read, and the doctors give their opinions

On Saturday following, May 19th, before us the said judges in the chapel of the archiepiscopal manor of Rouen, where we were constituted tribunal, there appeared. the venerable lords and masters Gilles, abbot of Fécamp, Guillaume, abbot of Mortemer, doctors of theology; Nicolas, abbot of Jumièges, Guillaume, abbot of Cormeilles, doctors of canon law; and the abbot of Préaux, the priors of St. Lô and of Longueville, Jean de Nibat, Jacques Guesdon, Jean Fouchier, Maurice du Quesnay, Jean Le Fèvre, Guillaume Le Boucher, Pierre Houdenc, Jean de Châtillon, Erard Emengart, Jean Beaupère, Pierre Maurice, Nicolas Midi, doctors of theology; William Haiton, Nicolas Couppequesne, Thomas de Courcelles, Richard de Grouchet, Pierre Minier, Raoul Le Sauvage, Jean Pigache, bachelors of sacred theology; Raoul Roussel, doctor of canon and civil law; Robert Le Barbier, Denis Gastinel, licentiates in canon law; André Marguerie, in civil law; Nicolas de Venderès, Jean Pinchon, in canon law; Jean Alespée, Gilles Deschamps, Nicolas Caval, in civil law; Jean Bruillot, licentiate in canon law; and Nicolas Loiseleur, canons of Rouen; Jean Le Doulx, Guillaume de Livet, Pierre Carel, Geoffroy du Crotay, Richard des Saulx, Bureau de Cormeilles, Aubert Morel, Jean Duchemin, Laurent du Busc, Jean Colombel,

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Raoul Anguy, Guérould Poustel, licentiates in either canon or civil law.

In their presence we the said bishop explained how we had recently received a considerable number of the deliberations and opinions of notable doctors and masters upon the statements and confessions of the said Jeanne; and that from these resolutions we might have proceeded to conclude the judgment of the case, for they were assuredly sufficient. Nevertheless, to show our honor and reverence for our mother the University of Paris, and to obtain a clearer and more detailed elucidation of the matter, to the great peace of our conscience and the edification of all, we had judged it wise to transmit the said statements to our mother the University, and in particular to the Faculties of Theology and Decrees, and to ask the advice of the learned masters of the University, in particular those of these two Faculties. The University, and in particular these two Faculties, burning with no ordinary zeal for the faith, gave us their diligent, mature and solemn counsel upon each of the statements, and addressed them to us in the form of a Public Instrument. Which deliberations contained in the said instrument we ordered to be read aloud, word for word, clearly and publicly, and all the said doctors and masters heard them. And after they had heard the reading of these deliberations of the University and the two Faculties, the said masters gave and expounded to us their opinions, in conformity with those of the said Faculties and University, in addition to the opinions they had already formulated, upon the manner of procedure which we ought henceforth to adopt. We have written below the tenor of these deliberations and of the letters of the University.

First follows the tenor of the letters addressed by the University to Our Lord the King

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"To the most excellent, high and mighty prince, the King of France and England, our most feared and sovereign lord. Most excellent prince, our most feared and sovereign lord and father, your royal excellence ought in all things carefully endeavor to keep entire the honor, reverence and glory of the divine Majesty and of His Holy Catholic faith, by the extirpation of errors, false doctrines and all other offenses hostile thereto. In the continuance of this your highness will in all things have effective aid, succor and prosperity through the grace of the Most High, and receive large increase of your high renown. To this end your most noble highness with God's grace began a most excellent work concerning our holy faith, namely the legal proceedings against this woman known as The Maid, against her scandals, errors and crimes, which are manifest in this entire realm, and the form and manner of which we have repeatedly written to you. With the matter and form of this trial we are acquainted by letters we have received, from the account supplied in your name in our general assembly by our agents the very honorable and most reverend masters Jean Beaupère, Jacques de Touraine, Nicolas Midi, masters of theology; who have brought and given us answers on other points with which they were entrusted.

"In truth when we had heard and well considered this account, it appeared to us that in this woman's trial extreme gravity and a holy and just procedure had been observed, which must be pleasing to all men. Therefore we give most humble thanks, first to the sovereign Majesty, then to your most high nobility, with a humble and loyal affection; and finally to all those who from reverence of God have given their pains, labor and energies to this matter, for the good of our holy faith.

"Further, most dread and sovereign lord, according to the pleasure of your instructions and demands in letters and through these reverend masters, after many assemblies as well

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as great and mature deliberations among ourselves, we return to your excellence our counsel, conclusions and deliberations on the points, statements and articles which were transmitted and explained to us; and we are always prepared to employ ourselves whole-heartedly in matters so directly concerning our faith, as our profession directly enjoins, and as we have at all times shown to the best of our ability. If anything further remained to be said or expounded by us, these honorable and reverend masters, who now return to your highness and who were present at our deliberations, will be able to set forth, expound and declare all that pertains thereto in accordance with our intention. May it please your magnificence to give faith to all they shall say in our name and receive them with especial recommendation: for in truth they have shown great diligence in the said matters from pure and holy affection, unsparing of their efforts, their persons and their faculties, and careless of the great and threatening dangers particularly on the roads; and indeed through their wisdom, their ordered and discreet prudence this matter has been and shall be conducted to its end, if it please God, with wisdom, holiness and reason.

"Finally we humbly beseech your excellent highness to bring this matter as soon and diligently as possible to its conclusion, for in truth the length and delays are perilous, and a great and notable reparation is necessary to bring the people, so scandalized by this woman, back to a true and holy doctrine and belief. To the entire exaltation and integrity of our faith and for the praise of the eternal God who may in His grace maintain your excellency in prosperity until you reach eternal glory. Written at Paris in our solemn assembly, met at St. Bernard, on May 14th, 1431. Your most humble daughter the University of Paris."

Signed: Hébert.

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Then follows the tenor of the letters addressed by the University of Paris to Us the said bishop

"To the reverend father and lord in Christ the bishop of Beauvais. The diligent labor of pastoral vigilance is shown to be animated by an immense fervor of most singular charity, my lord and most reverend father, when a most firm righteousness never, in its stable and constant industry, out of pious concern for the public safety, ceases from work on behalf of our holy faith. The virile and famous martial spirit of your most sincere fervor showed its true measure when thanks to your valiant and forceful probity this woman commonly known as The Maid was brought into the hands of your justice by the propitious grace of Christ; by her poison widely discharged the most Christian flock of almost the entire western world seemed infected: the vigilant solicitude of your reverence which is ever at pains to perform the duties of a true pastor did not fail to oppose thereto a public obstacle.

"In our general assembly divers famous doctors of theology, our agents, masters Jean Beaupère, Jacques de Touraine and Nicolas Midi elegantly explained to us the form and conduct of the procedures already begun against the grave offenses of this perfidious woman, with certain propositions, articles, letters from our lord the king and from your reverence, credentials and demands. When we had heard their speeches in full we resolved to address our most active gratitude to your highness and reverence who has never displayed indifference when this celebrated work of exalting the divine name is in question, or the integrity and glory of the orthodox faith, and the salutary edification of the faithful people. We approved of this celebrated trial, and of its form, and considered it to be according to the holy canons and to emanate from the most eloquent and experienced minds. And out of respect for our lord the king and our ancient devotion to your reverence

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we granted all the requests which the said doctors presented to us verbally or in writing, since we desired with all our strength and sincere affection to please you, reverend father.

"On the principal question we took care to hold many most serious consultations and deliberations in which, after the matter had been frequently discussed with all liberty and candor, we decided to have drawn up in writing these deliberations and consultations at which in the end we had unanimously arrived: these the said doctors our agents who return to your reverence will faithfully show you. They will take care also to explain certain other things more fittingly explained at great length and which we more fully declare in our letters to our lord the king of which a copy is enclosed. May your reverence receive with especial recommendation these eminent doctors who have not spared their energies: who, heedless of perils and labors, have not ceased toiling at this matter of faith. To the accomplishment of this most famous task which has not been vainly undertaken we will give our succor and perseverance to your reverence's tireless zeal until reason shall decide that the divine Majesty has been appeased by a reparation proportionate to the offense, that the truth of our orthodox faith remains stainless, and the iniquitous and scandalous demoralization of the people is past. Then when the Prince of shepherds shall appear he will grant to the pastoral fervor of your reverence a crown of eternal glory. Written at Paris in our general assembly solemnly held at St. Bernard on May 13th, 1431. The Rector and the University of Paris."

Signed: Hébert.

Then follows the deliberation of the University of Paris

"In the name of the Lord, amen. Be it known and patent to all by the tenor of this present public instrument that in

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the year of the Lord 1431, indiction nine, on the 19th [29th] day of April in the vacancy of the apostolic see our mother the University of Paris was assembled and called together solemnly at St. Bernard in respect of two articles. The first and principal of these articles was to hear the reading of letters and propositions from the most Christian prince our lord the king, from his council and the lord judges, regarding the proceedings in matter of faith against a certain woman of the name of Jeanne commonly called The Maid, and to deliberate thereupon; the second was ordinary, concerning supplications and complaints. These articles were expounded by the venerable and prudent master Pierre de Gouda, master of arts, rector of the University and president of the assembly.

"When these letters had been opened and read, and their credentials explained by one of the ambassadors of our lord the king, a member of his council and one of the judges sent to the University, the twelve articles inserted below were read: My lord the rector discovered, proposed and declared that the content of the articles just mentioned was important and difficult, and concerned the orthodox faith, the Christian religion and the holy laws. He said that the task of considering and qualifying these articles concerned especially the venerable Faculties of Theology and Decrees, according to their professions; he added that the University could not deliberate and decide upon the judgment of these matters and articles without the aid of the said Faculties; the decision and judgment of the Faculties would then be submitted to the University, together or separately. After this explanation the rector opened the deliberation on each and every one of the things which had just been set forth in the general assembly of all the masters and doctors here present. Whereupon each Faculty or Nation retired and met separately in the place where it customarily assembled to consider the most difficult matters

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and tasks; and each of them continued to hold sessions there. After the mature- deliberations of the Faculties and Nations the private decisions of each were made public in accordance with custom and were reported in common. Finally the University through the offices of the lord rector and in conformity with the deliberations of the Faculties and Nations resolved to entrust the decisions of this matter and the qualifying of the said articles to the Faculties of Theology and Decrees, and their deliberations should be reported to the University.

"In the year and indiction aforesaid on the fourteenth day of March, during the vacancy of the apostolic see, the said mother the University of Paris was solemnly assembled at St. Bernard to consider two articles. The chief one was to hear the reading of the deliberations of the venerable Faculties of Theology and Decrees on a matter of faith according to the commission of the University dated April [29th]. After the matter of this article was fully and gravely expounded by the office of the lord rector, the said lord required the Faculties present at the assembly to make known and report their deliberations on this subject, and their judgment on the articles, in the presence of the University. Whereupon the venerable Faculty of Theology through the medium of master Jean de Troies, then vice-dean of the Faculty, answered that on many frequent occasions each of the said Faculties of Theology and Decrees in whole or in special commissions had assembled to judge the matter and qualify the articles. In the end they each after long and mature deliberation had doctrinally reached a decision according to the exact tenor of a certain memorandum which master Jean held in his hands. In the presence of the University he first displayed and then read it in a clear and loud voice, with the articles already mentioned. The tenor of these articles, judgments and qualifications contained in the said memorandum are given below word for word."

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