Joan of Arc - Maid of Heaven

Trial of Nullification (Rehabilitation)

MAÎTRE GUILLAUME DELACHAMBRE, Master in Arts and Medicine.

I gave no opinion during the Trial, but allowed myself to affix my signature, under compulsion from the Bishop of Beauvais. I made excuses to him that in these matters it did not belong to my profession to give an opinion: finally, however, the Bishop forced me to subscribe as others had done, saying that otherwise some ill would befall me for having come to Rouen. I say, too, that threats were also used against Maitre Jean Lohier and Maitre Nicolas de Houppeville, who, not wishing to take part in the Trial, were threatened with the penalty of drowning.

Sometimes it was the Abbot of Fe camp who interrogated Jeanne. Once, I saw the Abbot of Fecamp interrogating Jeanne, and Maitre Jean Beaupere interrupted with many and divers questions. Jeanne would not reply to them both at once, saying that they did her much harm by thus vexing her, and that she would reply presently. As to her illness, one day the Cardinal of England and the Earl of Warwick having sent for me, I found myself associated with Guillaume Desjardins and other doctors. The Earl of Warwick told us that Jeanne had been ill and that we had been sent for to give her all our attention, for the King would not, for anything, that she should die a natural death: he had bought her too dear for that, and he intended that she should die at the hands of justice, and should be burnt. For this, I and Guillaume Desjardins and others visited her. Desjardins and I felt her pulse on the right side, and found fever, from which we recommended she should be bled. "Away with your bleeding!" said Warwick, "she is artful, and might kill herself." Nevertheless, we did bleed her, and she recovered. One day, after she had recovered, there arrived a certain Maitre Guillaume d'Estivet, who used evil words against Jeanne, calling her. . . and paillarde. This abuse upset her to such a point that the fever returned, and she had a relapse. And this being brought to the notice of the Earl, he forbade d'Estivet to abuse Jeanne from that day forth.

I was present at a sermon of Maitre Guillaume Erard. I do not remember the sermon, but I remember well the Abjuration made by Jeanne. She was long in doing this. Maitre Guillaume Erard decided her by saying that, if she did what he advised her, she would be delivered from prison. She abjured on this condition and no other, and immediately read a small schedule containing six or seven lines on a piece of paper folded in two. I was so near her that, in all truth, I could see the lines and their form.

For the rest, I can only say that I was present at the last discourse made in the Old Market-Place of Rouen by Maitre Nicolas Midi. As soon as the sermon was over, Jeanne was burnt, the stake being already prepared. Her pious lamentations and ejaculations made many weep; only some English were laughing. I heard her say these or like words: "Alas! Rouen, I fear me that you wilt have to suffer for my death." Shortly after she began to cry " Jesus " and to invoke St. Michael; and then she perished in the flame.

The Reverend Father in God, the Lord JEAN DE MAILLY, Bishop of Noyon.

I knew nothing of Jeanne before she came to Rouen; and I saw her only two or three times. I do not remember either being present at the Trial or giving my opinion.

I remember that, the day before the discourse at St. Ouen, I was present at an Exhortation addressed to Jeanne; but what was said or done I do not remember. I was present also on the day after, when a sermon was given at St. Ouen by Maitre Guillaume Erard. There were two galleries or scaffolds: on one were the Bishop of Beauvais, myself and others; and on the other the preacher Maitre Guillaume Erard, and Jeanne. The words of the preacher I do not remember; but I remember well that, either then or on the preceding day, Jeanne said that, if there had been any thing evil in her words or deeds, whatever of either good or ill had been in her speech or action came from herself alone, and not from her King. After the sermon, I perceived that Jeanne was ordered to do or say something. I believe it was to abjure; they said to her: "Jeanne, do what you are advised. Would you cause your own death ?" These words verily moved her to make her Abjuration. After this Abjuration, many said that it was a mere trick, and that she had acted only in derision.

I remember to have heard from whom I cannot recall that the man's dress was returned to her by the window.

For the rest, I was present at the last sermon on the day she was burnt. There were three galleries or scaffolds: one where sat the Judges, one where many Bishops sat, myself among them, and one where wood was prepared for the burning of Jeanne. At the end of the sermon the sentence was pronounced which delivered Jeanne to secular justice. After this sentence was pronounced, Jeanne began to make many pious exclamations and lamentations; and among other things she said that nothing she had done, either good or ill had been suggested by the King. Thereupon I left, not wishing to see the burning of Jeanne. I saw many of the bystanders weeping.

As to certain letters of guarantee which the King of England gave to the Bishop of Beauvais and others concerned in this Trial, in which I, the Bishop of Noyon, am mentioned as having been present, I can well believe that it was so, though I do not remember much about it.


I believe that the Bishop of Beauvais undertook the Trial brought against Jeanne in the matter of the Faith because he was a Counselor of the King of England, and also Bishop of Beauvais, in which territory Jeanne had been taken captive.

I have heard it said that money was given to the Inquisitor by a certain Surreau, receiver-general, for his participation in the said Trial; but I never heard that the Bishop received anything.

At the time when Jeanne was brought to Rouen, I, being in Paris, was summoned by the Bishop of Beauvais aforesaid to proceed to Rouen for the Trial. I went in the company of Maitres Nicolas Midi, Jacques de Touraine, Jean de Rouel, (Not mentioned elsewhere.) and others whom I do not remember, to the town of Rouen, at the expense of those who took us, among whom was Maitre Jean de Reynel. (Secretary to the King of England.)

About that time Maitre Jean Lohier came to the town of Rouen, and order was given to put him in possession of the details of the Action. And when the said Lohier had seen the evidence, he told me that evidently they ought not to proceed against Jeanne in a matter of Faith withoug previous information as to the charges of guilt, and that the law required such information.

I remember well that in the first deliberation, I never held Jeanne to be a heretic, except in that she obstinately maintained she ought not to submit to the Church; and finally-as my conscience can bear me witness, before God-it seems to me that my words were: " Jeanne is now what she was. If she was heretic then, she is so now." Yet I never positively gave an opinion that she was a heretic. I may add that in the first deliberations there was much discussion and difficulty among those consulted as to whether Jeanne should be reputed a heretic. I never gave an opinion as to her being put to the torture. (It is, however, stated that, on being consulted, he did advise the extreme measure of putting Jeanne to the torture.)

Many of the Assessors were of opinion and advised that Jeanne should be put in the hands of the Church, into an ecclesiastical prison; but I do not remember that this subject formed a part of our discussions.

Certain Articles, to the number of twelve, were made and extracted from the confessions and answers of the said Jeanne. They were drawn up, I verily believe, by the late Maitre Nicolas Midi. It was on these Twelve Articles, thus extracted, that all deliberations and opinions were made and given. I do not know if there was ever any question of correcting them, or if they were corrected.

I often heard from Maitre Nicolas Loiseleur that he many times visited Jeanne in an assumed dress; but what he said I know not: and I always counseled him that he should reveal himself to Jeanne, and let her know that he was a priest. I believe he heard Jeanne in confession.

After the first preaching came word that Jeanne had resumed a man's attire; and immediately the Bishop went to the prison, accompanied by myself, and questioned her as to her reasons for resuming this dress. She replied that she had resumed it because it seemed to her more suitable to wear man's clothing, being with men, than a woman's dress.

I was present at the last preaching made in the Old Market-Place, on the day of her death. I did not see her burnt, for, after the sermon and the reading of the sentence, I went away.

MAÎTRE JEAN MONNET, S. T.P., Canon of Paris.

Three or four times I went to the Trial and wrote out the questions put to Jeanne and her answers, not as notary but as clerk and servant to Maitre Jean Beaupere. Among other things, I remember hearing Jeanne say to me and to the other notaries, that we were not writing properly; and often did she correct us. Often, in these questions and answers, when questioned on something which I could see she ought not to answer, she said that she would refer to the conscience of the questioner as to whether she should answer or not.

I was present at the preaching at Saint-Ouen, seated on the platform at the feet of Maitre Jean Beaupere, my master. When the preaching was finished, and while the sentence was being read, Jeanne said that if she were advised by the clerics and if their consciences approved, she would willingly do as they recommended. Hearing this, the Bishop of Beauvais asked the Cardinal of England what he ought to do in face of this submission of Jeanne. To which the Cardinal answered the Bishop, that he should receive Jeanne to penitence. And therefore he laid on one side the sentence which he had begun to read, and admitted Jeanne to penitence. I saw the Schedule of Abjuration, which was then read; it was a short schedule, hardly six or seven lines in length. I remember well that Jeanne referred to the consciences of the Judges as to whether she ought to abjure or not. It was said that the executioner was already on the spot, expecting that she would be handed over to the secular power. I left Rouen on the Monday or Sunday before the death of Jeanne.

JEAN MARCEL, Burgess of Paris.

Maitre Jean Sauvage, of the Order of Saint Dominic, who often talked with me of Jeanne, has told me that he was engaged in the Process against her; but it was difficult to make him speak of it. He did once say, that he had never seen a woman of such years give so much trouble to her examiners, and he marveled much at her answers and at her memory. Once the notary reporting what he had written, she declared that she had not said what they had made her say, and referred it to those present, who all recognized that Jeanne was right, and the answer was corrected.

I was present at the sermon at Saint-Ouen; and there for the first time I saw Jeanne. I remember that Maitre Guillaume Erard preached in presence of the said Jeanne, who was in a man's dress. But what was said or done in the sermon I know not. I was at some distance from the Preacher. I heard it said that Maitre Lawrence Calot told Maitre Pierre Cauchon, that he was too slow in pronouncing judgment, and that he was not judging rightly; to which Maitre Pierre Cauchon replied that he lied.

I was also at the second preaching, on the day when Jeanne was burnt, and saw her in the flames calling Out in a loud voice many times "Jesus!" I believe firmly that she died a Catholic and ended her days well in good Christian estate; and this I know from what I had from the monks who were with her in her last hours. I saw many-the greater part of those present weeping and bewailing for pity, and saying that Jeanne had been unjustly condemned.

MAÎTRE JEAN DE LENOZOLLES, Priest, of the Order of St. Pierre Celestin.

At the time when Jeanne was at Rouen, I was in the service of Maitre Guillaume Erard, with whom I came from Burgundy. After we had arrived, I heard talk of this Trial; but of what was done therein I know nothing, for I left Rouen and went to Caen, and stayed there until the feast of Pentecost. At this feast I returned to Rouen to meet my master, who told me that he had a heavy task-to preach a sermon for this Jeanne, which much displeased him. He Said he would he were in Flanders: this business disturbed him much.

I saw Jeanne at the second sermon; and in the morning before the sermon I saw the Body of Christ carried to the said Jeanne with much solemnity, and the singing of Litanies and intercession "Orate pro ea," and with a great multitude of candles; but who decided or ordered this, I know not. I was not present at the reception, but I afterwards heard it Said that she received It with great devotion and abundance of tears.


I knew nothing of Jeanne till She was brought to Rouen for her trial, at which I was one of the notaries. In the copy of the Process shown to me, I recognize my own signature at the end. It Is the true Process made against Jeanne, and is one of five similar copies made. In the said Process were associated with me Maitre Guillaume Manchon and Maitre Pierre Taquel. In the morning we registered the notes and answers, and in the afternoon we collected them together. For nothing in the world would we have failed in any thing that should have been done.

I remember well that Jeanne answered more prudently when questioned a second time upon a point whereon she had been already questioned; she failed not to say that She had elsewhere replied, and she told the notaries to read what She had already said.

Maitre Nicolas Loyseleur, feigning to be a cobbler a captive on the part of the King of France, and from Lorraine obtained entrance to Jeanne's prison, to whom he said that she should not believe the Churchmen, "because," he added, "if you believe them, you will be destroyed." I believe the Bishop of Beauvais knew this well, otherwise Loyseleur would not have done as he did. Many of the Assessors in the Process murmured against him. It is said that Loyseleur died suddenly at Bale; and I have heard that, when he saw Jeanne condemned to death, he was seized with compunction and climbed into the cart, earnestly desiring her pardon; at which many of the English were indignant; and that, had it not been for the Earl of Warwick, Loyseleur would have been killed. The said Earl enjoined him to leave Rouen as soon as he possibly could, if he wished to Save his life.

In the same way, Maitre Guillaume d'Estivet got into the prison, feigning to be a prisoner-as Loyseleur had done. This d'Estivet was Promoter, and in this matter was much affected towards the English, whom he desired to please. He was a bad man, and often during the Process spoke ill of the notaries and of those who, as he saw, wished to act justly; and he often cruelly insulted Jeanne, calling her foul names. I think that, in the end of his days, he was punished by God; for he died miserably. He was found dead in a drain outside the gates of Rouen.

Jeanne was often disconcerted by questions which were Subtle and not pertinent. I remember that, on one occasion, she was asked if she were in a state of grace. She replied, that it was a serious matter to answer such a question, and at last said : "If I am, may God so keep me. If I am not, may God so place me. I would rather die than not be in the love of God." At this reply the questioners were much confounded, and broke up the sitting; nor was she further interrogated on that occasion.

On the Sunday following the first sentence, I was summoned to the Castle with the other notaries to see Jeanne dressed in man's dress; we went to the Castle, entered the prison, and there saw her. Questioned as to why she had resumed it, she made excuses, as appears in the Process. I think, perhaps, that she was induced to act thus, for I saw many of those concerned in the Process applauding and rejoicing that she had resumed her old dress; yet Some lamented, among whom I saw Pierre Maurice grieving much.

On the following Wednesday, Jeanne was taken to the Old Market of Rouen, where a sermon was preached by Maitre Nicolas Midi upon the Sentence of Relapse pronounced by the Bishop of Beauvais. After this sentence was read, she was taken by the civil authorities, and, withoug further trial or Sentence, was led to the executioner, to be burnt. And I know, of a truth, that the Judges and their adherents were hence forward notorious to the population: after Jeanne was burnt, they were pointed at by the people and hated; and I have heard it maintained that all who were guilty of her death came to a shameful end. Maitre Nicolas Midi died of leprosy a few days later; and the Bishop died suddenly while he was being shaved.

MAUGIER LEPARMENTIER, Clerk, Apparitor of the Archiepiscopal Court of Rouen.

I knew nothing of Jeanne until she came to Rouen. I was summoned to the Castle of Rouen, with my assistants, to submit Jeanne to torture. On this occasion, she was questioned on various subjects and answered with such prudence that all present marveled. Then I and my associates retired withoug doing anything.

She was a prisoner in the Castle, in a great tower. I saw her when I was summoned to the torture, as aforesaid. I was present at the first preaching at St. Ouen, and also at the last at the Old Market, on the day when Jeanne was burnt. Wood was prepared for the burning before the preaching was finished or the sentence pronounced; and as soon as the sentence was read by the Bishop, withoug any interval, she was taken to the fire. I did not notice that any sentence by the civil authorities was read. When she was in the fire she cried, more than six times, "Jesus!" And with the last breath she cried with a loud voice, so that all present might hear, "Jesus!" Nearly all wept for pity. I have heard it said that, after the burning, her ashes were collected and thrown into the Seine.

LAURENCE GUESDON, Burgher of Rouen, and Advocate in the Civil Courts.

I knew nothing of Jeanne till she was brought to Rouen; but I was so anxious to see her that I went to the Castle, and there saw her for the first time. I did not see her again until the time of the preaching at Saint Ouen.

I was at the final sermon in the Old Market Place, at Rouen; I went as Bailly, for whom I was then acting as deputy. The sentence by which Jeanne was handed over to the civil authorities was read; and, as soon as it was pronounced, at once, withoug any interval of handing her over to the Bailly, withoug more ado, and before either the Bailly or myself, whose office it was, had given sentence,-the executioner seized her and took her to the place where the stake was already prepared: and she was burned. And this I hold was not a right proceeding: for soon after, a malefactor named George Folenfont was in like manner handed over, by sentence, from the ecclesiastical to the civil authorities; and, after the sentence, the said George was conducted to the Cohue, (The Court of the Bailiff.) and there condemned by the secular justice, instead of being immediately conducted to execution.

I think Jeanne died as a Catholic, for, in dying, she cried on the name of the Lord Jesus. She was very devout, and nearly all present were moved to tears. After she was dead, the ashes that remained were collected by the executioner and thrown into the Seine.

JEAN RICQUIER, Priest, Chaplain in the Cathedral of Rouen, and Cure of the Church at Hendicourt.

I first saw Jeanne at the sermon at Saint Ouen, and again at the Old Market. I was then about twenty.

At the time when Jeanne was brought to Rouen, I was in the choir of the Cathedral, and sometimes heard of the Trial from the Clergy of the Cathedral.

I was present at the sermon in the Old Market, on the day Jeanne died. I know she was handed over by the ecclesiastical authorities. I saw the English followers and soldiers seize her, and lead her immediately to the place of execution; nor did I see any sentence read by the secular authorities.

On that morning, before the sermon, Maitre Pierre Maurice came to visit her; to whom she said, "Maitre Pierre, where shall I be this evening?" Maitre Pierre replied, "Have you not a good hope in God?" She answered that she had; and that, God willing, she would be in Paradise. This I heard from the aforesaid Maitre Pierre. When Jeanne saw that they were setting fire to the pile, she began to say, with a loud voice, "Jesus!" and constantly, to the end, she cried, "Jesus!"

And after she was dead, because the English feared that people would say she had escaped, they ordered the executioner to part the flames a little, in order that those present might see she was dead. I was near to Maitre Jean Alepee, at that time Canon of Rouen, and heard him say these words, weeping greatly: "God grant that my soul may be in the place where I believe this woman's to be!"

JEAN MOREAU, Visitor in the city of Rouen.

I live at Rouen; but I came from Viville, in Bassigny, not far from Domremy, where Jeanne was born.

At the time when Jeanne was at Rouen, and during the Trial against her, a man of note from Lorraine came to the town. We soon made acquaintance, being of the same country. He told me that he came from the Marches of Lorraine, and that he had been called to Rouen, having been commissioned to get information in the native country of the said Jeanne, and to hear what was said about her. This he had done, and had brought it to the Bishop of Beauvais, expecting to have satisfaction for his labor and expense. But the Bishop blamed him for a traitor and a bad man, and said he had not done in this as he had been told. My compatriot complained that he could not get any wage from the Bishop, who found his information of no use: he told me that in this information he had learnt nothing of Jeanne which he would not willingly know of his own sister, although he had made inquiries in five or six parishes near Domremy as well as in the village itself. I remember it was said that she had committed the crime of lese majeste, ("Crimen laesae majestatis.") and had led the people away.

PIERRE DARON, Locum Tenens, Deputy to the Bailiff of Rouen.

I knew nothing of Jeanne until she was brought to Rouen, where, at that time, I was Procurator of the town. Having much curiosity to see the said Jeanne, I inquired the best means to accomplish this: and a certain Pierre Manuel, Advocate of the King of England, who was also anxious to see her, came, and together we went to see her.

We found her in the Castle, in a certain turret, in shackles, with a great piece of wood chained to her feet, and having many English guards. And Manuel said to her, in my presence, jokingly, that she would never have come there if she had not been brought: and he asked her if she knew, before she was captured, that she would be taken; to which she replied that she had feared it. When he asked her, afterwards, why, if she feared to be taken prisoner, she did not guard herself on the day that she was captured, she replied that she did not know either the day or hour when she was to be taken.

I saw her once again during the Trial, when she was being brought from the prison to the great hall of the Castle.

I heard from several, during the Trial, that Jeanne was quite wonderful in her answers, and that she had a remarkable memory; for, on one occasion, when questioned as to a point on which she had answered eight days before, she replied: "I was asked about this eight days ago, and thus replied." Boisguillaume, the other notary, said she had not answered; and, when some of those present declared that what Jeanne said was true, the answers of that day were read: and it was found that Jeanne had spoken right. At this she rejoiced, saying to Boisguillaume that, if he made mistakes again, she would pull his ears!

I was present at the sermon at the Old Market on the day that Jeanne died. Among other things, I heard her say: "Ah! Rouen, Rouen, wilt you be my last dwelling?" She inspired in all the greatest pity, and many were moved to tears; many, too, were much displeased that Jeanne had been executed in the town of Rouen. At the close of her life, she continually cried "Jesus!" Her ashes and remains were afterwards collected and thrown into the Seine.

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