Joan of Arc - Maid of Heaven

The Life of Joan of Arc
By Anatole France
FOOTNOTES VOLUME 1

[1] "De mon cœur l'orgueilleuse faiblesse," Racine, Iphigénie en Aulide, Act i, sc. i.—(W.S.)

[2] Le P. Lelong, Bibliothèque historique de la France, Paris, 1768 (5 vols. folio), II, n. 17172-17242. Potthast, Bibliotheca medii ævi, Berlin, 1895, 8vo, vol. i, pp. 643 seq. U. Chevalier, Répertoire des sources historiques du Moyen Âge, Paris, 8vo, 1877, pp. 1247-1255; Jeanne d'Arc, bibliographie, Montbéliard, 1878 [selections]; Supplément au Répertoire, Paris, 1883, pp. 2684-2686, 8vo. Lanéry d'Arc, Le livre d'or de Jeanne d'Arc, bibliographie raisonnée et analytique des ouvrages relatifs à Jeanne d'Arc, Paris, 1894, large 8vo, and supplement. A. Molinier, Les sources de l'histoire de France des origines aux guerres d'Italie, IV: Les Valois, 1328-1461, Paris, 1904, pp. 310-348.

[3] Jules Quicherat, Procès de condamnation et de réhabilitation de Jeanne d'Arc, Paris, 8vo, 1841, vol. i. (Called hereafter Trial.—W.S.)

[4] Trial, vol. i, p. 93, passim.

[5] Ibid., vol. iii, pp. 89, 142, 161, 176, 178, 201.

[6] Trial, vol. i, pp. 478 et seq.

[7] Cf. J. Quicherat, Aperçus nouveaux sur l'histoire de Jeanne d'Arc, Paris, 1880, pp. 138-144.

[8] Evidence of G. Manchon, Trial, vol. ii, p. 14.

[9] Ne donnoit point d'argent pour soy faire mettre ès croniques.—Jean de Bueil, Le Jouvencel, ed. C. Fabre and L. Lecestre, Paris, 1887, 8vo, vol. ii, p. 283.

[10] Perceval de Cagny, Chroniques, published by H. Moranvillé, Paris, 1902, 8vo.

[11] Le sens, mémoire, ne l'abillité de savoir faire metre par escript ce, ne autre chose mendre de plus de la moitié, Perceval de Cagny, p. 31.

[12] Trial, vol. iv, p. 1.

[13] Ibid., pp. 40-50. D. Godefroy, Histoire de Charles VII, Paris, 1661, fol. pp. 369-474.

[14] Jean Chartier, Chronique de Charles VII, roi de France, ed. Vallet de Viriville, Paris, 1858, 3 vols., 18mo. (Bibliothèque Elzévirienne).

[15] Lequel Luxembourg la vendit aux Angloix, qui la menèrent à Rouen, où elle fut durement traictée; et tellement que, après grant dillacion de temps, sans procez, maiz de leur voulenté indeue, la firent ardoir en icelle ville de Rouen publiquement ... qui fut bien inhumainement fait, veu la vie et gouvernement dont elle vivoit, car elle se confessoit et recepvoit par chacune sepmaine le corps de Nostre Seigneur, comme bonne catholique.—Jean Chartier, Chronique de Charles VII, roi de France, vol. i, p. 122.

[16] Jean Chartier, Chronique de Charles VII, roi de France, vol. i, p. 122.

[17] Par l'admonestement de ladite Pucelle, Jean Chartier, vol. i, p. 87.

[18] Fut cause, ibid., vol. i, p. 97.

[19] This revolt of the French nobles was so named because various risings of a similar nature had taken place in the city of Prague.—W.S.

[20] Journal du siège d'Orléans (1428-1429), ed. P. Charpentier and C. Cuissart, Orléans, 1896, 8vo.

[21] The oldest copy extant is dated 1472 (MS. fr. 14665).

[22] Journal du siège d'Orléans (1428-1429), p. 87. Trial, vol. iv, p. 162, note.

[23] Journal du siège, p. 97. Trial, vol. iii, p. 215.

[24] Chronique de la Pucelle, or Chronique de Cousinot, ed. Vallet de Viriville, Paris, 1859, 16mo. (Bibliothèque Gauloise).

[25] Mystère du Siège d'Orléans, first published by MM. F. Guessard and E. de Certain, Paris, 1862, 4to, according to the only manuscript, which is preserved in the Vatican Library.—Cf. Étude sur le mystère du siège d'Orléans, by H. Tivier, Paris, 1868, 8vo.

[26] Trial, vol. v, p. 309.

[27] The Abbé E. Bossard and de Maulde, Gilles de Rais, Maréchal de France, dit Barbe-Bleue (1404-1440), 2nd edition, Paris, 1886, 8vo, pp. 94-113.

[28] Un estandart et bannière qui furent à Monseigneur de Reys pour faire la manière de l'assault comment les Tourelles furent prinses sur les Anglois Mistère du siège, p. viii.

[29] Mistère du siège, preface, p. x.

[30]

Quant est de l'ostel de mon père,
Il est en pays de Barois;
Gentilhomme et de noble afaire
Honneste et loyal François.
Mistère du siège, pp. 397-398.

[31]

... Ayez en souvenance....
Comment Orléans eult délivrance....
L'an mil iiijc xxix;
Faites en mémoire tous dis;
Des jours de may ce fut le neuf.
Mistère du siège, lines 14375-14381, p. 559.

[32] Trial, vol. v, pp. 285 et seq.

[33] Relation inédite sur Jeanne d'Arc, extraite du livre noir de l'hôtel de ville de La Rochelle, ed. J. Quicherat, Orléans, 1879, 8vo, and La Revue Historique, vol. iv, 1877, pp. 329-344.

[34] Bibl. Nat. fr. 23018: J. Quicherat, Supplément aux témoignages contemporains sur Jeanne d'Arc, in Revue Historique, vol. xix, May-June, 1882, pp. 72-83.

[35] Pierre Champion, Guillaume de Flavy, Paris, 1906, in 8vo, pp. xi, xii.

[36] Chronique d'Antonio Morosini, introduction and commentary by Germain Lefèvre-Pontalis, text established by Léon Dorez, vol. iii, 1901, p. 302, and vol. iv, supplement xxi.

[37] Enguerrand de Monstrelet, Chronique, ed. Doüet-d'Arcq, Paris, 1857-1861, 6 vols. in 8vo.

[38] Rabelais, Urquhart's Trans., ii-49, in Bohn's edition, 1849 (W.S.). Plus baveux que ung pot de moutarde.—Rabelais, Pantagruel, bk. iii, chap. xxiv.

[39] Jehan de Wavrin, Anchiennes croniques d'Engleterre, ed. Mademoiselle Dupont, Paris, 1858-1863, 3 vols., 8vo.

[40] Wavrin's additions to Monstrelet in Trial, vol. iv, p. 407.

[41] Chronique de Jean le Fèvre, seigneur de Saint-Rémy, ed. François Morand, Paris, 1876-1881, 2 vols. in 8vo.

[42] Chroniques des ducs de Bourgogne, Paris, 1827, 2 vols. in 8vo; vols. xlii and xliii of the Collection des Chroniques françaises, by Buchon. Œuvres de Georges Chastellain, ed. Kervyn de Lettenhove, Brussels, 1863, 8 vols. in 8vo.

[43] Journal d'un bourgeois de Paris (1405-1449), ed. A. Tuetey, Paris, 1881, in 8vo.

[44] Chronique d'Antonio Morosini, ed. Léon Dorez and Germain Lefèvre-Pontalis, Paris, 1900-1902, 4 vols. in 8vo.

[45] G. Lefèvre-Pontalis, Les sources allemandes de l'histoire de Jeanne d'Arc, Eberhard Windecke, Paris, 1903, in 8vo.

[46] Trial, vols. ii to iii, 1844-1845 (vols. v and vi, 1846-1847, contain the evidence).

[47] Lanéry d'Arc, Mémoires et consultations en faveur de Jeanne d'Arc, 1889, in 8vo. Trial, vol. iii, pp. 411-468.

[48] Trial, vol. ii, pp. 378-463.

[49] J. Quicherat, Histoire du costume, Paris, 1875, large 8vo, passim. G. Demay, Le costume au moyen âge d'après les sceaux, Paris, 1880, p. 121, figs. 76 and 77.

[50] Trial, vol. iii, p. 34.

[51] Ibid., p. 100.

[52] We must notice, however, that Brother Pasquerel, who was not present either at Chinon or at Poitiers, is careful to say that he knows nothing of Jeanne's sojourn in these two towns save what she herself has told him. Now we are surprised to find that she herself placed the examination at Poitiers before the audience at Chinon, since she says in her trial that at Chinon, when she gave her King a sign, the clerks ceased to contend with her.—Trial, vol. i, p. 145.

[53] Expectando succursum regis, Trial, vol. iii, p. 109.

[54] Trial, vol. iii, p. 105.

[55] Ibid., pp. 2 et seq.

[56] Trial, vol. iii, p. 13.

[57] Ibid., p. 15.

[58] Ibid., p. 12.

[59] Ibid., vol. ii, pp. 15, 161, 329; vol. iii, pp. 41 and passim.

[60] Ibid., vol. iii, p. 23.

[61] L. Jarry, Le compte de l'armée anglaise au siège d'Orléans (1428-1429), Orléans, 1892, in 8vo.

[62] Trial, vol. iii, p. 20.

[63] Ibid., p. 87.

[64] Trial, vol. iii, p. 85.

[65] Ibid., p. 100. On the other hand see the evidence of Dunois (vol. iii, p. 16), "licet dicta Johanna aliquotiens jocose loqueretur de facto armorum, pro animando armatos ... tamen quando loquebatur seriose de guerra ... nunquam affirmative asserebat nisi quod erat missa ad levandum obsidionem Aurelianensem."

[66] Trial, vol. ii, pp. 438, 457; vol. iii, pp. 100, 219.

[67] Trial, vol. ii, p. 438; vol. iii, pp. 15, 76, 100, 219, and 457.

[68] Trial, vol. iii, pp. 89 and 121.

[69] Trial, vol. iii, pp. 2 and 35.

[70] Trial, vol. iii, pp. 100 et seq.

[71] Siméon Luce, Jeanne d'Arc à Domremy, recherches critiques sur les origines de la mission de la Pucelle, Paris, 1886, in 8vo; La France pendant la guerre de cent ans: épisodes historiques et vie privée aux xive et xve siècles, Paris, 1890, in 12mo.

[72] D. Lottin, Recherches sur la ville d'Orléans, Orléans, 7 vols. in 8vo; Boucher de Molandon, Les comptes de ville d'Orléans des xive et xve siècles, 1880, in 8vo; Jules Loiseleur, Compte des dépenses faites par Charles VII pour secourir Orléans pendant le siège de 1428, Orléans, 1868, in 8vo; Louis Jarry, Le compte de l'armée anglaise au siège d'Orléans, Orléans, 1892, in 8vo; Couret, Un fragment inédit des anciens registres de la prévôté d'Orléans, relatif au règlement des frais du siège de 1428-1429, Orléans, 1697, in 8vo (extract from the Mémoires de l'Académie de Sainte Croix).

[73] Rymer, Fœdera, conventiones...., ed. tercia, Hagae Comitis, 1739-1745, 10 vols. in folio; Delpit, Collection de documents français qui se trouvent en Angleterre, Paris, 1847, in 4to; J. Stevenson, Letters and Papers illustrative of the Wars of the English in France during the reign of Henry VI, 1861-1864, 3 parts, in 2 vols. in 8vo; Charles Gross, The Sources and Literature of English History, 1900, in 8vo.

[74] Varin, Archives législatives de la ville de Reims, 2nd part; Statuts, vol. i, p. 596; Trial, vol. iv, pp. 284 et seq.

[75] E. Robillard de Beaurepaire, Recherches sur le procès de condamnation de Jeanne d'Arc, Rouen, 1869, in 8vo [Précis des travaux de l'Académie de Rouen, 1867-1868, pp. 321-448]; Notes sur les juges et les assesseurs du procès de condamnation de Jeanne d'Arc, Rouen, 1890, in 8vo [Précis des travaux de l'Académie de Rouen, 1888-1889, pp. 375-504].

[76] Trial, vol. v, pp. 342 et seq.

[77] Trial, vol. iii, p. 19.

[78] Brière de Boismont, De l'hallucination historique, ou étude médico-psychique sur les voix et les révélations de Jeanne d'Arc, 1861, in 8vo. Le Vicomte de Mouchy, Jeanne d'Arc, étude historique et psychologique, Montpellier, 1868, in 8vo, 67 pp.

[80] Acta Sanctorum, 1675, April, iii, 851.

[81] Ibid., March 1, 1532.

[82] Le Père Hugues de Saint-François, Les grandeurs de Sainte Anne, Rennes, 1657, in 8vo; L'abbé Max Nicol, Sainte-Anne-d'Auray, Paris, Brussels, s.d., in 8vo, pp. 37 et seq. M. le Docteur G. de Closmadeuc has kindly lent me his valuable work, as yet unpublished, on Yves Nicolazic, which is characterised by the same exactness of information and of criticism as are to be found in his studies of local history.

[83] Recueil des ouvrages de la célèbre Mademoiselle Labrousse, du Bourg de Vauxains, en Périgord, canton de Ribeirac de la Dordogne, actuellement prisonnière au château Saint-Ange, à Rome, Bordeaux, 1797, in 8vo; E. Lairtullier, Les femmes célèbres de 1789 à 1795, Paris, 1842, in 8vo, vol. i, pp. 212 et seq.; Abbé Chr. Moreau, Une mystique révolutionnaire Suzette Labrousse, Paris, 1886, in 8vo; A. France, Susette Labrousse, Paris, 1907, in 12mo.

[84] Vol. ii, Appendices ii and iii.

[85] Le P. Ayroles, La vraie Jeanne d'Arc, 5 vols. in large 8vo, Paris, 1894-1902. Writing of this book in a study of L'Abjuration de Jeanne d'Arc (Paris, 1902, pp. 7 and 8, note), Canon Ulysse Chevalier, author of a valuable Répertoire des sources du moyen âge, displays boldness and sound sense. "From the dimensions of these five volumes," he says, "one might expect this work to be the fullest history of Jeanne d'Arc; it is nothing of the sort. It is a chaos of memoranda translated or rendered into modern French, reflections and arguments against free-thought as represented by Michelet, H. Martin, Quicherat, Vallet de Viriville, Siméon Luce, and Joseph Fabre. Two headings will suffice to give an idea of the book's tone: The Pseudo-theologians, executioners of Jeanne d'Arc, executioners of the Papacy (vol. i, p. 87); The University of Paris and the Brigandage of Rouen (p. 149). The author too often judges the fifteenth century by the standards of the nineteenth. Is he quite sure that if he had been a member of the University of Paris in 1431 he would have thought and pronounced in favour of Jeanne, and in opposition to his colleagues?"

[86] Trial, vol. ii, p. 456.

[87] Le P. Denifle, La désolation des églises, monastères hôpitaux en France vers le milieu du xvieme siècle, Mâcon, 1897, in 8vo.

[88] O. Raguenet, Les juges de Jeanne d'Arc à Poitiers, membres du Parlement ou gens d'Église? in Lettres et mémoires de l'Académie de Sainte-Croix d'Orléans VII, 1894, pp. 339-442; D. Lacombe, L'hôte de Jeanne d'Arc à Poitiers, maître Jean Rabateau, Président au Parlement de Poitiers in Revue du Bas-Poitou, 1891, pp. 46-66.

[89] Mr. Andrew Lang (La Jeanne d'Arc de M. Anatole France, p. 60) misreads this passage when he takes it to mean that the English withdrew their garrisons from these places. That their ultimate surrender became inevitable after the English retreat from Orléans is what the writer intends to convey.—W.S.

[90] Trial, vol. i, p. 146.

[91] Ibid., vol. iii, p. 13.

[92] Ibid., p. 100. See ante, p. xxvi (note 4).

[93] Letter from Alain Chartier in the Trial, vol. v, pp. 135, 136; Capitaine P. Marin, Jeanne d'Arc tacticien et stratégiste, Paris, 1889, 4 vols. in 12mo; Le Général Canonge, Jeanne d'Arc guerrière, Paris, 1907, in 8vo.

[94] Rossel et la légende de Jeanne d'Arc in la Petite République of July 15, 1896; Jeanne d'Arc soldat by Art Roë, in le Temps of May 8, 1907. See also the works of Captain Marin, always so praiseworthy for their carefulness and good faith.

[95] Trial, vol. iii, p. 16.

[96] Alain Chartier, Œuvres, ed. André du Chesne, p. 412.

[97] Jean Chartier, Chronique de Charles VII, vol. i, p. 121.

[98] See the deliberations of the Commons on December 2, 1421, in Bréquigny, Lettres de rois, reines et autres personnages des cours de France et d'Angleterre, Paris, 1847 (2 vols. in 4to), vol. ii, pp. 393 et seq.

[99] For the origin of this term see post, vol. i, p. 22 and note 2.—W.S.

[100] For the origin of this term see ibid. and note 1.—W.S.

[101] The Reverend Father M. Fornier, Histoire des Alpes-Maritimes, Paris, 1890, in 8vo, vol. ii, p. 324; Lanéry d'Arc, Mémoires et consultations, pp. 565 et seq.

[102] Trial, vol. iii, p. 117; Perceval de Cagny, p. 168; Marquis de Gaucourt, Le sire de Gaucourt, Orléans, 1855, in 8vo.

[103] Perceval de Cagny, pp. 168, 170, 171; Cronicques de Normendie, ed. Hellot, pp. 77, 78.

[104] Perceval de Cagny, pp. 170, 171; Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 313; Héraut Berry, in Trial, vol. iv, p. 48.

[105] H. Martin, Jeanne d'Arc, Paris, 1856, in 12mo; J. Quicherat, Nouvelles preuves des trahisons essuyées par la Pucelle in Revue de Normandie, vol. vi (1866), pp. 396-401.

[106] Even when the canons who took part in the trial are severally considered. Cf. Ch. de Beaurepaire, Recherches sur le procès de condamnation de Jeanne d'Arc, Rouen, 1869, in 8vo.

[107] Or at least the conclusions of the doctors which have been preserved. As for the register itself it could not have contained anything of great importance. From their evidence at the rehabilitation trial we see that the Poitiers clerks were not desirous for much to be said of their inquiry.

[108] Aug. Vallet, Observation sur l'ancien monument érigé à Orléans, Paris, 1858, in 8vo.

[109] See a curious project for the decoration of the platform of the Pont-Neuf addressed to Louis XIV (B.N.V., p. zz338, in fol.). A Sieur Dupuis, Aide des Cérémonies, proposes that thereon shall be erected statues to "those great and illustrious captains who from reign to reign have valiantly maintained the dignity of the crown.... Artus of Bretagne, Constable, Jean, Count of Dunois, Jeanne Dark, Maid of Orléans, Roger de Gramont, Count of Guiche, Guillaume, Count of Chaumont, Amaury de Severac, Vignoles, called La Hire...." (Communications of M. Paul Lacombe, Bulletin de la Société de l'Histoire de Paris, 1894, p. 115, June 11, 1907. Ibid.)

[110] Puellæ Aureliensis causa adversariis orationibus disceptata auctore Jacobo Jolio, Parisiis apud Julianum Bertant, 1609.

[111] Jean Hordal, Heroinae nobilissimae Ioannæ Darc Lotharingæ vulgo aurelianensis puellæ historia, Ponti-Mussi, 1612, in 8vo.

[112] Rabelais, Gargantua, chap. vi; Abbé Thiers, Traité des superstitions selon l'Écriture sainte, Paris, 1697, vol. i, p. 109.

[113] Edmond Richer, Histoire de la Pucelle d'Orléans en 4 livres, MS. Biblioth. Nat. f. Fr. 10448, fol. 12mo.

[114] "The Life of Saint Catherine, virgin and martyr, is fabulous throughout from beginning to end," Valesiana, p. 48. "M. de Launoy, doctor of theology, had cut Saint Catherine, virgin and martyr, out of his calendar. He said that her life was a myth, and to show that he placed no faith in it, every year when the feast of the saint came round, he said a Requiem mass. This curious circumstance I learn from his own telling," Ibid., p. 36.

[115] Jean Chapelain, La Pucelle ou la France délivrée, Paris, 1656, in fol.

[116] Œuvres de messire Jacques-Bénigne Bossuet, Paris, in 4to, vol. xi, 1749, numbered pages; vol. xii, pp. 234 et seq. Cf. what he says of inspired persons in l'Instruction sur les états d'oraison, Paris, 1697, in 8vo.

[117] "This girl called Jeanne d'Arq ... had been a servant in an inn," loc. cit., p. 233.

[118] We must not be too severe on a tutor's note-books. But Bossuet, who places the rehabilitation under the date 1431, does not tell us that it was only pronounced twenty-five years later. On the contrary, as far as he is concerned, we might conclude that it occurred before the deliverance of Compiègne. The following are his words: "In execution of this sentence, she was burned alive at Rouen in 1431. The English spread the rumour that at the last she had admitted the revelations which she had so loudly boasted to be false. But some time afterwards the Pope appointed commissioners. Her trial was solemnly revised and her conduct approved of by a final sentence which the Pope himself confirmed. The Burgundians were forced to raise the siege of Compiègne," loc. cit. p. 236. Mézeray is more credulous than Bossuet; he mentions "the Saints Catherine and Margaret, who purified her soul with heavenly conversations, wherefore she venerated them with a particular devotion." In relating the trial, he like Bossuet, ignores the Vice-Inquisitor (Histoire de France, vol. ii, 1746, in folio, pp. 11 et seq.)

[119] Voltaire ed. Beuchot, vol. xxvi. Cf. also Essai sur les mœurs, chap. lxxx. "Finally, being accused of having once resumed man's dress, which had been left near her on purpose to tempt her, her judges ... declared her a relapsed heretic and caused to be burnt at the stake one who in heroic ages, when men erected altars to their liberators, would have had an altar raised to her for having served her King. Afterwards Charles VII rehabilitated her memory, which her death itself had sufficiently honoured."

[120] L'Abbé Lenglet du Fresnoy, Histoire de Jeanne d'Arc, vierge, héroïne et martyre d'État suscitée par la Providence pour rétablir la monarchie française, tirée des procès et pièces originales du temps, Paris, 1753-1754, 3 vols. in 12mo.

[121] F. de L'Averdy, Mémorial lu au comité des manuscrits concernant la recherche à faire des minutes originales des différentes affaires qui ont eu lieu par rapport à Jeanne d'Arc, appelée communément la Pucelle d'Orléans, Paris, Imprimerie Royale, 1787, in 4to; Notices et extraits des manuscrits de la Bibliothèque du roi, lus au comité établi par sa Majesté dans l'Académie royale des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres, Paris, Imp. Royale, 1790, vol. iii.

[122] "Modern times present but two fine subjects for an epic poem, the Crusades and the Discovery of the New World" (ed. 1802, Paris, vol. ii, p. 7).

[123] "The illustrious Jeanne d'Arc has proved that there is no miracle which the French genius is incapable of working when national independence is at stake" (Moniteur of 10 Pluviose, year XI, January 30, 1803). For the approval of the First Consul: facsimile in A. Sarrazin, Jeanne d'Arc et la Normandie, p. 600. [Original taken from the Reiset collection.]

[124] Le Brun de Charmettes, Histoire de Jeanne d'Arc surnommée la Pucelle d'Orléans, Paris, 1817, 4 vols. in 8vo.

[125] Michelet, Histoire de France, vol. v.

[126] Vallet de Viriville, Histoire de Charles VII, vol. ii, Paris, 1863, in 8vo.

[127] H. Wallon, Jeanne d'Arc, Paris, 1860, 2 vols. in 8vo.

[128] M. Sepet, Jeanne d'Arc, with an introduction by Léon Gautier, Tours, 1869, in 8vo.

[129] Chanoine Dunand, Histoire de Jeanne d'Arc, Toulouse, 1898-1899, 3 vols. in 8vo.

[130] Joseph Fabre, Jeanne d'Arc libératrice de la France, new edition, Paris, 1894, in 12mo.

[131] Procès de condamnation de Jeanne d'Arc...., translated with commentary by J. Fabre, new edition, Paris, 1895, in 18mo.

[132] Jeanne d'Arc à Domremy, op. cit.; La France pendant la guerre de Cent Ans, op. cit.

[133] Lanéry d'Arc, Le livre d'Or de Jeanne d'Arc, Nos. 2080 to 2112.

[134] A. Thomas, Le mot "Patrie" et Jeanne d'Arc in Revue des Idées, July 15, 1906.

[135] Les œuvres de Maistre Alain Chartier, published by André Duchesne, Paris, 1642, in 4to, p. 410.

[136] Trial, vol. ii, p. 436. See post, vol. i, p. 82.

[137] Froissart, Chroniques, book i, chap. 128.

[138] Jean Juvénal des Ursins in Buchon, Choix des Chroniques, iv.

[139] Rymer, Fœdera, vol. ix, p. 427.

[140] Pantagruel, book iv, chap. lxvii.

[141] La Pucelle, Preface.

[142] Germain Lefèvre-Pontalis, Les sources allemandes de l'histoire de Jeanne d'Arc, p. 93.

[143] Imitation velvet.

[144] See the picture of 1581, preserved in the Orléans Museum and reproduced in Wallon's Jeanne d'Arc, p. 466.

[145] La Danse des Morts, painted at Berne between 1515 and 1520 by Nicolas Manuel, lithographed by Guillaume Stettler, s.d. in folio oblong, engraving xx. M. Salomon Reinach believes this prototype may be found in the Judiths of Cranach.

[146] Lanéry d'Arc, Le livre d'Or de Jeanne d'Arc, Iconography, Nos. 2080-2112.

[147] J. Ch. Chappellier, Étude historique et géographique sur Domremy, pays de Jeanne d'Arc, Saint-Dié, 1890, in 8vo. É. Hinzelin, Chez Jeanne d'Arc, Paris, 1894, in 18mo.

[148] This may be inferred from vol. i, p. 46, of the Trial. But Jeanne did not know how old she was when she left her father's house (Trial, vol. i, p. 51). I have ignored the letter of Perceval de Boulainvilliers, p. 116, vol. v, of the Trial. It is quite unauthentic and is too much in the manner of a hagiologist. See post, p. 468, note 1.

[149] Darc (Trial, vol. i, p. 191; vol. ii, p. 82). Dars (Siméon Luce, Jeanne d'Arc à Domremy, p. 360). Day (Trial, vol. v, p. 150). Daiz (furnished by M. Pierre Champion). This document appears to justify the pronunciation Jeanne d'Arc. Concerning the orthography of the name d'Arc, cf. Lanéry d'Arc, Livre d'or de Jeanne d'Arc, notes 647-657.

[150] Trial, vol. i, pp. 46, 208. E. de Bouteiller and G. de Braux, La famille de Jeanne d'Arc, Paris, 1878, in 8vo, p. 185; Nouvelles recherches sur la famille de Jeanne d'Arc, Paris, Orléans, 1879, in 12mo, p. x, passim. Boucher de Molandon, Jacques d'Arc, père de la Pucelle, Orléans, 1885, in 8vo.

[151] See post, pp. 57, 451, 452.

[152] Trial, vol. ii, pp. 378 et seq.

[153] Ibid., vol. i, pp. 191, 208; vol. ii, p. 74, note 1. Armand Boucher de Crèvecœur, Les Romée et les de Perthes, famille maternelle de Jeanne d'Arc, Abbeville, 1891, in 8vo. Lanéry d'Arc, Livre d'or, notes 1278-1308.

[154] Du Cange, Glossaire, under the word Romeus. G. de Braux, Jeanne d'Arc à Saint-Nicolas, Nancy, 1889, p. 8. Revue catholique des institutions et du droit, August, 1886. E. de Bouteiller, Nouvelles recherches, p. xii. Vallet de Viriville, Histoire de Charles VII, vol. ii, p. 43.

[155] Probably before Jeanne's birth. "My surname is d'Arc or Romée," said Jeanne (Trial, vol. i, p. 191). Thus she indiscriminately assumes either her father's or her mother's surname, although she says (Trial, vol. i, p. 191) that in her country girls are called by their mother's surname.

[156] Trial, vol. v, p. 252. E. de Bouteiller and G. de Braux, Nouvelles recherches sur la famille de Jeanne d'Arc, Paris, 1879, pp. 3-20. Ch. du Lys, Traité sommaire tant du nom et des armes que de la naissance et parenté de la Pucelle d'Orléans et de ses frères, ed. Vallet de Viriville, Paris, 1857, p. 28. E. Georges, Jeanne d'Arc considérée au point de vue Franco-Champenois, Troyes, 1893, in 8vo, p. 101.

[157] The order of the births of Jacques d'Arc's children is extremely doubtful (Trial, index, under the word Arc).

[158] Trial, vol. ii, p. 393, passim. S. Luce, Jeanne d'Arc à Domremy, vol. xvi, p. 357.

[159] A. Monteil, Histoire des Français, 1853, in 18mo, vol. ii, p. 194.

[160] Trial, vol. i, p. 46. Jean Minet was a native of Neufchâteau.

[161] J. Corblet, Parrains et marraines, in Revue de l'art chrétien, 1881, vol. xiv, pp. 336 et seq.

[162] Siméon Luce, Jeanne d'Arc à Domremy, proofs and illustrations, li, p. 98.

[163] Ibid., p. clxxix, note.

[164] Cf. Trial, index, under parrains and marraines. It is not always possible to assign to these personages the names they bore and the position they occupied at the exact date when they are introduced.

[165] Relation du greffier de La Rochelle, in the Revue Historique, vol. iv, p. 342. Cf. Eustache Deschamps, ballad 354, vol. iii, p. 83, ed. Queux de Saint Hilaire.

[166] Trial, vol. ii, pp. 74-388; vol. v, pp. 151, 220, passim.

[167] Ibid., vol. i, p. 46. Henri Lepage, Jeanne d'Arc est-elle Lorraine? Nancy, 1852, pp. 57-79.

[168] Trial, vol. v, pp. 244 et seq. Jacques d'Arc's house doubtless looked on to the road; the Du Lys, or rather the Thiesselins, pulled it down and erected in its place a house no longer existing. The shields which ornamented its façade have been placed upon the door of the building now shown as Jeanne's house. What is represented as Jeanne's room is the bakehouse (É. Hinzelin, Chez Jeanne d'Arc, p. 74). See an article by Henri Arsac in L'écho de l'Est, 26 July, 1890. A whole literature has been written on this subject (Lanéry d'Arc, Livre d'or, pp. 330 et seq.).

[169] Émile Hinzelin, Chez Jeanne d'Arc, passim.

[170] Trial, vol. v, pp. 151, 220.

[171] Ibid., vol. ii, p. 417: "Jacuit amorose in domo patris sui."

[172] Ibid., p. 429.

[173] Ibid., p. 408.

[174] Ibid., p. 423.

[175] E. Georges, Jeanne d'Arc considérée au point de vue Franco-Champenois, p. 115. De La Fons-Mélicocq, Documents inédits pour servir à l'histoire de l'instruction publique en France et à l'histoire des mœurs au XVieme siècle, in the Bulletin de la Société des Antiquaires de la Morinie, vol. iii, pp. 460 et seq.

[176] Trial, vol. i, pp. 65-66. (Item: je donne à Oudinot, à Richard et à Gérard, clercz enfantz du maistre de l'escole de Marcey dessoubz Brixey, doubz escus pour priier pour mi et pour dire les sept psaulmes.) (Item: I give to the boys, Oudinot, Richard, and Gérard, scholars of the school-master at Marcey below Brixey, twelve crowns to pray for me and to repeat the seven psalms.) The will of Jean de Bourlémont, 23 October, 1399, in S. Luce, Jeanne d'Arc à Domremy, document in facsimile xiii.

[177] Trial, vol. i, pp. 46, 47.

[178] Ibid., vol. ii, p. 402. See in Montfaucon's Monuments de la Monarchie Française, vol. iii, the second miniature, the "Douze périls d'enfer" (the twelve perils of hell).

[179] Trial, vol. ii, pp. 409, 415, 420.

[180] Trial, vol. i, pp. 51, 66; vol. ii, p. 404. S. Luce, Jeanne d'Arc à Domremy, p. lij.

[181] Trial, vol. ii, p. 404.

[182] Ibid., vol. i, p. 423.

[183] Trial, index, at the word Bermont. Du Haldat, Notice sur la chapelle de Belmont, in the Mémoires de l'Académie Stanislas de Nancy, 1833-1834, p. 96. É. Hinzelin, Chez Jeanne d'Arc, p. 95. Lanéry d'Arc, Livre d'or, p. 330.

[184] Alexis Monteil, Histoire des François, vol. i, p. 91.

[185] Trial, index, under the words Bois Chesnu.

[186] Ibid., index, under the words Fontaine des Groseilliers.

[187] Ibid., vol. i, pp. 67-210; vol. ii. pp. 391 et seq.

[188] Journal d'un bourgeois de Paris, ed. Tuetey, p. 267.

[189] Trial, vol. i, p. 209.

[190] Trial, vol. i, pp. 67, 187, 209; vol. ii, pp. 390, 404, 450.

[191] Wolf, Mythologie des fées et des elfes, 1828, in 8vo. A. Maury, Les fées au moyen âge, 1843, in 18mo, and Croyances et légendes du moyen âge, Paris, 1896, in 8vo.

[192] Richer, Histoire manuscrite de Jeanne d'Arc, ms. fr. 10,448, fols. 14, 15.

[193] For tree worship, see an article by M. Henry Carnoy in La tradition, 15 March, 1889.

[194] Trial, vol. ii, p. 422.

[195] Ibid., index, under the words Arbre des Fées.

[196] Ibid., vol. ii, p. 404.

[197] Ibid., p. 404, passim. Simple Crayon de la noblesse des ducs de Lorraine et de Bar, in Le Brun des Charmettes' Histoire de Jeanne d'Arc, vol. i, p. 266. Jules Baudot, Les princesses Yolande et les ducs de Bar de la famille des Valois, first part. Mélusine, Paris, 1901, in 8vo, p. 121.

[198] Propter eorum peccata, in the Trial, vol. ii, p. 396. There is no doubt as to the meaning of these words.

[199] Trial, vol. ii, p. 390.

[200] Trial, vol. ii, p. 397.

[201] Ibid., p. 390. Bergier, Dictionnaire de théologie, under the word Conjuration.

[202] Trial, vol. i, p. 187.

[203] Ibid., pp. 67, 209.

[204] Ibid., pp. 178, 209 et seq.

[205] For the traditions of fairies at Domremy and for Jeanne's opinion of them, see Trial, index, under the word Fées.

[206] Concerning the Sunday and the Festival of the Well-Dressing at Domremy, see Trial, index, under the word Fontaine.

[207] Trial, vol. i, pp. 67, 212, 404 et seq. S. Luce, Jeanne d'Arc à Domremy, pp. xx-xxii.

[208] Trial, vol. ii, pp. 407, 411, 413, 421.

[209] Ibid., pp. 391-462.

[210] Trial, vol. i, pp. 67, 209, 210.

[211] Ibid., vol. ii, p. 434.

[212] Atropa Mandragor, female mandragora, main de gloire, herbe aux magiciens. Trial, vol. i, pp. 89, 213. Journal d'un bourgeois de Paris, p. 236.

[213] Trial, vol. i, p. 209.

[214] This is probable but not certain. Trial, vol. ii, pp. 74, 388; vol. v, p. 252. E. de Bouteiller and G. de Braux, Nouvelles recherches sur la famille de Jeanne d'Arc, pp. xviii et seq.; 7, 8, 10, passim. C. Gilardoni, Sermaize et son église, published at Vitry-le-François, 1893, 8vo.

[215] Capitaine Champion, Jeanne d'Arc écuyère, Paris, 1901, 12mo, p. 28.

[216] Boucher de Molandon, La famille de Jeanne d'Arc, p. 627. E. de Bouteiller et G. de Braux, Nouvelles recherches, pp. 9 and 10. S. Luce, Jeanne d'Arc à Domremy, pp. xlv et seq.

[217] E. Misset, Jeanne d'Arc champenoise, Paris, s.d. (1894), 8vo. Concerning the nationality of Joan of Arc there is a whole literature extremely rich, the bibliography of which it is impossible to give here. Cf. Lanéry d'Arc, Livre d'or, pp. 295 et seq.

[218] Trial, vol. i, p. 208.

[219] P. Jollois, Histoire abrégée de la vie et des exploits de Jeanne d'Arc, Paris, 1821, engraving I, p. 190. A. Renard, La patrie de Jeanne d'Arc, Langres, 1880, in 18mo, p. 6. S. Luce, Jeanne d'Arc à Domremy, supplement with proofs and illustrations, pp. 281, 282.

[220] Trial, vol. v, p. 152.

[221] Colonel de Boureulle, Le pays de Jeanne d'Arc, Saint-Dié, 1890, in 8vo, 28 small engravings. J. Ch. Chappellier, Étude historique sur Domremy, pays de Jeanne d'Arc, 2 plans; C. Niobé, Le pays de Jeanne d'Arc, in Mémoires de la Société académique de l'Aube, 1894, 3d series, vol. xxxi, pp. 307 et seq.

[222] Juvénal des Ursins, in the Collection Michaud et Poujoulat, col. 561.

[223] A. Tuetey, Les écorcheurs sous Charles VII, Montbéliard, 1874, vol. i, p. 87.

[224] Trial, vol. i, pp. 66, 215.

[225] In 1390 one livre tournois was worth £7 5s of present money; in 1488, £5. Cf. Avenel, Histoire économique, 1894 (W.S.).

[226] "Imal," says Le Trévoux, "is a measure of corn used at Nancy." There are two imaux in a quarter, and four quarters in a réal, which contains fifteen bushels, according to the Paris measure.

[227] The Archives of the department of Meurthe-et-Moselle, collection Ruppes II, No. 28. The farm lease, dated 2nd of April, 1420, was first published by M. J. Ch. Chappellier in Le Journal de la Société d'Archéologie Lorraine, Jan.-Feb., 1889; and Deux actes inédits du XV siècle sur Domremy, Nancy, 1889, 8vo, 16 pages. S. Luce, La France pendant la guerre de cent ans, 1890, 18mo, pp. 274 et seq. Lefèvre-Pontalis, Étude historique et géographique sur Domremy, pays de Jeanne d'Arc, in Bibliothèque de l'École des Chartes, vol. lvi, pp. 154-168.

[228] Trial, vol. ii, pp. 420-426. S. Luce, Jeanne d'Arc à Domremy, p. lxiv.

[229] Liénard, Dictionnaire topographique de la Meuse, introduction, p. x.

[230] Dom Devienne, Histoire de Bordeaux, pp. 98, 103. L. Bachelier, Histoire du commerce de Bordeaux, Bordeaux, 1862, in 8vo, p. 45. D. Brissaud, Les Anglais en Guyenne, Paris, 1875, in 8vo.

[231] Ch. de Beaurepaire, De l'administration de la Normandie sous la domination Anglaise, Caen, 1859, in 4to; and États de Normandie sous la domination Anglaise, Évreux, 1859, in 8vo. De Beaucourt, Histoire de Charles VII, vol. v, pp. 40-56, 261-286.

[232] Thomas Basin, Histoire de Charles VII et de Louis XI, ed. Quicherat, vol. i, p. 27.

[233] La Curne, under the words Anglois and Goddons.

[234] Voragine, La légende de Saint-Grégoire. Du Cange, Glossaire, under the word Caudatus. Le Roux de Lincy, Recueil de chants historiques français, Paris, 1851, vol. i, pp. 300, 301. This oath is to be found current as early as Eustache Deschamps; it was still in use in the seventeenth century (Sommaire tant du nom et des armes que de la naissance et parenté de la Pucelle, ed. Vallet de Viriville).

[235] S. Luce, Jeanne d'Arc à Domremy, ch. iii. Carlier, Histoire du Valois, vol. ii, pp. 441 et seq.

[236] Dom Calmet, Histoire de Lorraine, vol. ii, col. 631. Bonnabelle, Notice sur la ville de Vaucouleurs, Bar-le-Duc, 1879, in 8vo, 75 pages.

[237] Trial, vol. i, pp. 65, 66. S. Luce, Jeanne d'Arc à Domremy, pp. 18 et seq.

[238] N. Villiaumé, Histoire de Jeanne d'Arc, 1864, in 8vo, p. 52, note 1.

[239] S. Luce, Jeanne d'Arc à Domremy, ch. iii.

[240] Pierre d'Alheim, Le jargon Jobelin, Paris, 1892, in 18mo: glossary, under the word Hirenalle, p. 61, and the verbal communication of M. Marcel Schwob. Cronique Martiniane, ed. P. Champion, p. 8, note 3; Journal d'un bourgeois de Paris, p. 270; De Montlezun, Histoire de Gascogne, 1847, in 8vo, p. 143; A. Castaing, La patrie du valet de cœur, in Revue de Gascogne, 1869, vol. x, pp. 29-33.

[241] S. Luce, Jeanne d'Arc à Domremy, pp. lxxiii, 87, note 1. E. de Bouteiller and G. de Braux, Nouvelles recherches, pp. 4-15.

[242] Bonvalot, Le tiers état d'après la charte de Beaumont et ses filiales, Paris, 1886, p. 412.

[243] S. Luce, Jeanne d'Arc à Domremy, pp. lxxi et seq.

[244] Ibid., proofs and illustrations, li, p. 97.

[245] De Beaucourt, Histoire de Charles VII, vol. ii, pp. 16, 17.

[246] S. Luce, Jeanne d'Arc à Domremy, appendix, lxii.

[247] Du Chesne, Génealogie de la maison de Vergy, Paris, 1625, folio. Nouvelle biographie générale, vol. xlv, p. 1125.

[248] S. Luce, Domremy and Vaucouleurs, from 1412 to 1425, in Jeanne d'Arc à Domremy, ch. iii.

[249] Trial, vol. i, p. 66.

[250] Trial, vol. i, p. 66. S. Luce, Jeanne d'Arc à Domremy, p. lxxxvi, and appendix, xiv, p. 20.

[251] A league is two and a half English miles (W.S.).

[252] S. Luce, Jeanne d'Arc à Domremy, pp. 275 et seq.

[253] E. de Bouteiller and G. de Braux, Nouvelles recherches, pp. 4-15.

[254] Trial, vol. i, pp. 52, 72, 73, 89, 170.

[255] The manuscript runs: non jejunaverat die præcedenti. Quicherat omits non. Trial, vol. i, p. 52. Cf. Revue critique, March, 1908, p. 215.

[256] V. Servais, Annales historiques du Barrois, Bar-le-Duc, 1865, vol. i, engraving 2.

[257] P. Ch. Cahier, Caractéristique des saints dans l'art populaire, vol. i, p. 363. Quicherat, Aperçus nouveaux, p. 50. S. Luce, Jeanne d'Arc à Domremy, pp. xcv, xcvi, and proofs and illustrations, xxiv, p. 74.

[258] Mystère de Saint Remi, the Arsenal Library, ms. 3.364, folios 4 and 108.

[259] "Sed signifer Sanctus Michael representet eas (animas) in lucem sanctam." Prayer from the mass for the dead.

[260] A. Maury, Croyances et légendes du moyen âge, pp. 171 et seq. Barbier de Montault, Traité d'iconographie chrétienne, vol. i, p. 191.

[261] AA. SS., 1672, vol. iii, i, pp. 85 et seq. Dom. J. Huynes, Histoire générale de l'abbaye du Mont-Saint-Michel, ed. R. de Beaurepaire, Rouen, 1872, pp. 61 et seq. A. Forgeais, Collection de plombs (seals) historiés trouvés dans la Seine, Paris, 1864, vol. iii, p. 197. S. Luce, Jeanne d'Arc à Domremy, ch. iv. Chronique du Mont-Saint-Michel (1343-1468), ed. S. Luce, Paris, 1880-1886 (2 vols. in 8vo), vol. i, pp. 26, 146, 163 et seq.

[262] Lanéry d'Arc, Mémoires et consultations en faveur de Jeanne d'Arc, p. 272 (opinion of Jean Bochard, called de Vaucelle, Bishop of Avranches). Dom. J. Huynes, loc. cit., ch. viii, p. 105.

[263] Dom Félibien, Histoire de l'abbaye royale de Saint-Denis.... Paris, 1706, in folio, p. 341.

[264] Richer, Histoire manuscrite de la Pucelle, ms. fr. 10,448, fol. 13. S. Luce, Jeanne d'Arc à Domremy, proofs and illustrations, xxiv.

[265] Trial, vol. i, pp. 173, 248, 249.

[266] Ibid., p. 170.

[267] La vierge Marguerite substituée à la Lucine antique, analysis of an unpublished poem of the fifteenth century, Paris, 1885, in 8vo, p. 2. Rabelais, Gargantua, vol. i, ch. vi. L'Abbé J.B. Thiers, Traité des superstitions qui regarde les sacrements selon l'Écriture sainte, Paris, 1697 (4 vols. in 12mo), vol. i, p. 109.

[268] S. Luce, Jeanne d'Arc à Domremy, proofs and illustrations, ccxxxiv, p. 272.

[269] Abbé Bourgaut, Guide du pélerin à Domremy, Nancy, 1878, in 12mo, p. 60. É. Hinzelin, Chez Jeanne d'Arc, pp. 65-72.

[270] Voragine, La légende dorée (Légende de Sainte Marguerite). Douhet, Dictionnaire des légendes, pp. 824-836.

[271] Gaston Paris, La littérature française au moyen âge, 1890, in 16mo, p. 212.

[272] La Curne, Dictionnaire de l'ancien langage français, under the word Olibrius. Olibrius figures also in the legend of Saint Reine, where he is governor of the Gallic Provinces. The legend of Saint Reine is only a somewhat ancient variant of the legend of Saint Margaret.

[273]

Hail, thou holy Catherine,
Virgin Maid so pure and fine.

Bibliothèque Mazarine, manuscrit, 515. Recueil de prières, folio 55. This manuscript comes from the banks of the Meuse.

[274] S. Luce, loc. cit., proofs and illustrations, xiii, p. 19, note 2. E. de Bouteiller and G. de Braux, Nouvelles recherches sur la famille de Jeanne d'Arc, pp. xvi and 62. Guide et souvenir du pélerin à Domremy, Nancy, 1878, in 18mo, p. 60.

[275] J. Miélot, Vie de sainte Cathérine, text revised by Marius Sepet, 1881, in large 8vo.

[276] Gaston Paris, La littérature française au moyen âge, pp. 82, 213.

[277] Voragine, La légende dorée, 1846, pp. 789-797. Douhet, Dictionnaire des légendes, 1855, pp. 824-836.

[278] Trial, vol. i, p. 128. Hinzelin, Chez Jeanne d'Arc, p. 29. When we come to the trial, we shall consider whether it be possible to reconcile Jeanne's assertions with regard to this vow.

[279] Trial, vol. i, p. 128; vol. iii, p. 219.

[280] Ibid., index, under the words, Voices, Catherine, and Marguerite.

[281] Ibid., vol. i, pp. 71-85, 167 seq., 186 seq.

[282] Ibid., pp. 185, 186.

[283] In the French, humblement. In old French humblement means courteously. In Froissart there is a passage quoted by La Curne: "Li contes de Hainaut rechut ces seigneurs d'Engleterre, l'un après l'autre, moult humblement."

[284] Trial, vol. i, p. 130.

[285] Ibid., p. 130.

[286] Ibid., vol. ii, p. 413, note 2.

[287] Trial, vol. i, p. 52, marginal comment of the d'Urfé MS.: Celavit visiones curato, patri et matri et cuicumque, in the Trial, vol. i, p. 128, note. Lanéry d'Arc, Mémoires et consultations en faveur de Jeanne d'Arc, p. 471.

[288] Trial, vol. i, p. 171: "Et luy racontet l'angle la pitié qui estoit ou royaume de France." Pitié means here occasion for tenderness and love. The angel is thinking especially of the Dauphin. For the meaning and use of this word, cf. Monstrelet, vol. iii, p. 74: "... et le peuple plorant de pitié et de joie qu'ils avoient à regarder leur seigneur." Gérard de Nevers in La Curne: "Pitié estoit de voir festoyer leur seigneur; on ne pourroit retenir ses larmes en voyant la joie qu'ils marquoient de recevoir leur seigneur."

[289] Trial, vol. i, p. 53.

[290] Trial, vol. ii, p. 444.

[291] "Nonne alias dictum fuit quod Francia per mulierem desolaretur, et postea per Virginem restaurari debebat?" Evidence given by Durand Lassois in Trial, vol. ii, p. 444.

[292] Trial, vol. ii, p. 447. Nevertheless the woman Le Royer of Domremy remembered it and was astonished by it. Et hunc ipsa testis hæc audisse recordata est et stupefacta fuit.

[293] Monstrelet, vol. iii, p. 180. Jean Chartier, Chronique latine, ed. Vallet de Viriville, vol. i, p. 13. Th. Basin, Histoire de Charles VII et de Louis XI, vol. i, pp. 44 et seq.

[294] Alain Chartier, Quadriloge invectif, ed. André Duchesne, Paris, 1617, pp. 440 et seq. Ordonnances, vol. xi, pp. 101 et seq. Viutry, Les monnaies sous les trois premiers Valois, Paris, 1881, in 8vo, passim. De Beaucourt, Histoire de Charles VII, vol. i, ch. xi.

[295] Juvénal des Ursins and Journal d'un bourgeois de Paris, passim. Letter from Nicholas de Clemangis to Gerson, in Clemangis opera omnia, 1613, in 4to, vol. ii, pp. 159 et seq.

[296] Le P. Denifle, La désolation des églises, monastères, Mâcon, 1897, in 8vo, introduction.

[297] Trial, vol. ii, pp. 402, 434.

[298] These two persons, however, are only known to us through somewhat doubtful genealogical documents. Trial, vol. v, p. 252. Boucher de Molandon, La famille de Jeanne d'Arc, p. 127. G. de Braux and E. de Bouteiller, Nouvelles recherches, pp. 7 et seq.

[299] Trial, vol. i, pp. 52, 53.

[300] Ibid., vol. ii, pp. 404, 407, 409, 411, 414, 416, passim.

[301] Trial, vol. ii, pp. 402, 434.

[302] Ibid., p. 402. Concerning Jeanne's religious observances, see Ibid., index, under the words Messe, Vierge, Cloche.

[303] Ibid., vol. ii, p. 429.

[304] Ibid., p. 427.

[305] Trial, vol. ii, p. 432.

[306] Ibid., vol. i, pp. 52, 53.

[307] Ibid., p. 53.

[308] Ibid., vol. ii, pp. 393, 400, passim.

[309] Psalm ci, 20-23. Vulgate, Douai Version (W.S.).

[310] Grégoire de Tours, Le livre des miracles, ed. Bordier, 1864, in 8vo, vol. ii, pp. 27, 31. Hincmar, Vita sancti Remigii in the Patrologie de Migne, vol. cxxv, pp. 1130 et seq. H. Jadart, Bibliographie des ouvrages concernant la vie et le culte de saint Remi, évêque de Reims, 1891, in 8vo.

[311] Froissart, Bk. II, ch. lxxiv. Le doyen de Saint-Thibaud, p. 328. Vertot, Dissertation au sujet de la sainte ampoule conservée à Reims, in Mémoires de l'Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres, 1736, vol. ii, pp. 619-633; vol. iv, pp. 1350-1365. Leber, Des cérémonies du sacre ou recherches historiques et critiques sur les mœurs, les coutumes dans l'ancienne monarchie, Paris, Reims, 1825, in 8vo, pp. 255 et seq.

[312] A. Monteil, Histoire des Français, 1853, vol. ii, p. 194.

[313] Mystère de saint Remi, Arsenal Library, ms. no. 3.364. This mystery dates from the fifteenth century, from the time of the wars in Champagne. The following lines relate to the misfortunes of the kingdom:

SAINT-ESTIENNE
O Jhesucrist, qui les sains cieulx
As de lumiere environnez,
Soleil et lune enluminés,
Et ordonnez à ta plaisance;
Pour le tres doulz païs de France
Les martirs, non pas un mais tous,
A jointes mains et à genoux
Te requierent que tu effaces
La grant doleur de France; et faces
Par ta sainte digne vertu
Qu'ilz aient paix; adfin que tu,
Ta doulce mere et tous les sains,
Et ceulx qui sont de pechiez sains,
Devotement servis y soient!...

SAINT STEPHEN

O Jesus Christ who hast surrounded the heavens with light and kindled the sun and the moon, command, if it be thy will, the martyrs, not one only but all, to clasp their hands and on bended knee to implore thee to remove the great sorrow from France; and by thy holy and august merit ordain that they may have peace, that thou, thy sweet mother and all the saints and those who are cleansed from sin may be served devoutly!...

SAINT-NICOLAS
Dieu tout puissant fay tant qu'il ysse
Hors du doulz païs sans amer
Que toutes gens doivent amer
C'est France, où sont les bons Chrestiens
S'on les confort; si les soustiens
Car l'engin de leur adversaire
Et son faulx art les tire à faire
Contre ta sainte voulenté.
Ayez pitié de Crestienté
Beau sire Dieux
Tant en France qu'en autres lieux!
Ce seroit Pitié à oultrance
Que si noble roiaume, comme France,
Fust par male temptacion
Mis du tout à perdicion....
Fol. 3, verso.

SAINT NICHOLAS

God all powerful grant that he may issue forth from that sweet land which all must love, all France, where are good Christians, and may they be comforted, and may they be sustained; for the power of their adversary and his false art tempt them to withstand thy holy will. Have pity on Christendom, good lord God, on other lands as well as on France! It would be the worst of pities if so noble a kingdom as France were through much temptation to fall into perdition....

[314] Mystère de Saint Remi, Arsenal Library, ms. no. 3.364, fol. 69, verso.

[315] Mystère de Saint Remi, fol. 71, verso.

[316]

Le bon archevesque Remy,
Qui tant aime le sang royal,
Qui tant a son conseil loyal,
Qui tant aime Dieu et l'Église.

Mystère de Saint Remi, fol. 77.

The good Archbishop Remi, who so dearly cherishes the royal blood, so faithful in counsel, so devout a lover of God and the Church.

[317] Trial, vol. i, p. 53.

[318] Trial, vol. i, p. 130; vol. ii, p. 456; vol. iii, p. 3, passim.

[319] S. Luce, Jeanne d'Arc à Domremy, pp. cliv, clv, clvi, 97, 359 et seq.; La France pendant la guerre de cent ans, p. 287.

[320] Trial, vol. i, p. 53.

[321] Trial, vol. i, p. 128.

[322] Ibid., vol. ii, p. 443. Boucher de Molandon, La famille de Jeanne d'Arc, p. 146. E. de Bouteiller and G. de Braux, Nouvelles recherches sur la famille de Jeanne d'Arc, introduction, pp. xxi, xxii.

[323] Trial, vol. ii, pp. 411, 431, 439. S. Luce, Jeanne d'Arc à Domremy, p. clxi. Hinzelin, Chez Jeanne d'Arc, p. 92.

[324] Trial, vol. ii, pp. 443, 444.

[325] Trial, vol. ii, p. 442.

[326] Ibid., vol. i, pp. 53, 221; vol. ii, p. 443.

[327] Genealogical Inquiry made by the Bailie of Chaumont concerning Jehan Royer (8 October, 1555) in E. de Bouteiller and G. de Braux, Nouvelles recherches sur la famille de Jeanne d'Arc, p. 62. [Document of doubtful authenticity.]

[328] Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 271. Jean Chartier, Chronique, vol. i, p. 67. Le R.P. Benoît, Histoire ecclésiastique et politique de la ville et du diocèse de Toul, Toul, 1707, p. 529. S. Luce, Jeanne d'Arc à Domremy, pp. clxii, clxiii. Léon Mougenot, Jeanne d'Arc, le Duc de Lorraine et le Sire de Baudricourt, 1895, in 8vo. E. de Bouteiller and G. de Braux, Nouvelles recherches, p. xviii. G. Nioré, Le pays de Jeanne d'Arc, in Mémoires de la Société académique de l'Aube, 1894, vol. xxxi, pp. 307-320. De Pange, Le Pays de Jeanne d'Arc; Le fief et l'arrière-fief. Les Baudricourt, Paris, 1903, in 8vo.

[329] Trial, vol. ii, p. 436.

[330] Ibid., vol. i, p. 53.

[331] Ibid., vol. ii, p. 456.

[332] Chronique des quatre premiers Valois, ed. S. Luce, Paris, 1861, in 8vo, pp. 46-48.

[333] P. de Fénin, Mémoires, ed. Mademoiselle Dupont, Paris, 1837, pp. 195, 222, 223.

[334] L. Jarry, Le compte de l'armée anglaise au siège d'Orléans, Orléans, 1892, in 8vo, pp. 75, 76.

[335] Et quod aberet in commendam: illud regnum, Trial, vol. ii, p. 456 (evidence of Bertrand de Poulengy).

[336] Trial, vol. ii, p. 456.

[337] See La Curne and Godefroy for the word commande. Durand de Maillane, Dictionnaire de droit canonique, 1770, vol. i, pp. 567 et seq.

[338] See ante, p. 59, post, pp. 177, 178.

[339] Trial, vol. ii, pp. 392, 393, 458, 459.

[340] As for Nicolas de Vouthon, priest of the Abbey of Cheminon, what is stated concerning him in the evidence of the 2nd and 3rd November, 1476, seems improbable. Trial, vol. v, p. 252. E. de Bouteiller and G. de Braux, Nouvelles recherches sur la famille de Jeanne d'Arc, pp. xviii et seq., 9.

[341] Trial, vol. ii, p. 475. Servais, in Mémoires de la Société des Lettres, Sciences et Arts de Bar-le-Duc, vol. vi, p. 139. E. de Bouteiller and G. de Braux, Nouvelles recherches, p. xxviii. S. Luce, Jeanne d'Arc à Domremy, proofs and illustrations xcv, p. 143 and note 3. De Beaucourt, Histoire de Charles VII, vol. ii, p. 204.

[342] This appears from the manner in which he reports Jeanne's words.

[343] Trial, vol. ii, pp. 451, 458.

[344] Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 72. Journal du siège, p. 35.

[345] Trial, vol. ii, p. 444. L. Mougenot, Jeanne d'Arc, le Duc de Lorraine et le Sire de Baudricourt, Nancy, 1895, in 8vo.

[346] Trial, vol. i, p. 53.

[347] Ibid., p. 440.

[348] Ibid., p. 423.

[349] Trial, vol. i, pp. 131, 132, 219.

[350] Trial, vol. ii, p. 421, cf. p. 433, "et alii juvenes de ea deridebant," said Colin's son, referring to her piety.

[351] Ibid., vol. i, p. 68.

[352] Report of André d'Epernon in S. Luce, Jeanne d'Arc à Domremy, p. clxvii and proofs and illustrations, pp. 217, 218, 220.

[353] Trial, vol. i, pp. 51, 214; vol. ii, pp. 391-454. S. Luce, Jeanne d'Arc à Domremy, p. clxxvi.

[354] Trial, vol. i, p. 214.

[355] S. Luce, Jeanne d'Arc à Domremy, p. clxxvii.

[356] Trial, vol. i, pp. 51, 214; vol. ii, p. 402.

[357] Ibid., vol. ii, pp. 409, 423, 428, 463.

[358] Ibid., pp. 416, 417.

[359] Monstrelet, vol. iii, p. 314.

[360] Trial, vol. i, p. 51.

[361] S. Luce, Jeanne d'Arc à Domremy, p. clxxvii.

[362] Expilly, Dictionnaire géographique de la France, under the word Neufchâteau.

[363] S.M. de Vernon, Histoire générale et particulière du tiers-ordre de Saint-François, Paris, 1667, 3 vols. in 8vo. Hilarion de Nolay, Histoire du tiers-ordre, Lyon, 1694, in 4to.

[364] Acta Sanctorum, March, vol. i, p. 549.

[365] Wadding, Annales Minorum, vol. v, p. 183.

[366] Jean Morel declares that she was at Neufchâteau four days, and he adds: "What I tell you I know, for I was with the others at Neufchâteau" (Trial, vol. ii, p. 392); Gérard Guillemette speaks of four or five days (Ibid., p. 414); Nicolas Bailly of three or four (Ibid., p. 451). But Jeanne told her judges at Rouen that she stayed a fortnight at Neufchâteau (Ibid., vol. i, p. 51). When she gave her evidence, the event was less remote, and doubtless her recollection of it was more accurate.

[367] Ibid., vol. i, p. 51.

[368] S. Luce, Jeanne d'Arc à Domremy, chs. ix, x, xi. Abbé V. Mourot, Jeanne d'Arc et le tiers-ordre de Saint-François, Saint-Dié, 1886, in 8vo. L. de Kerval, Jeanne d'Arc et les Franciscains, Vanves, 1893, in 18mo. E iera begina, says a correspondent of Morosini, edited by Lefèvre-Pontalis, vol. iii, p. 92 and note 2.

[369] Trial, vol. i, pp. 128, 219. E. Misset, Jeanne d'Arc Champenoise, 1895, in 8vo, p. 28.

[370] Trial, vol. i, p. 219: quibus obediebat in omnibus, nisi in processu Tullensi.

[371] Trial, vol. i, p. 215. Article 9 of the deed of accusation is drawn up as the result of an inquiry made at Neufchâteau.

[372] Trial, vol. ii, p. 396, passim.

[373] S. Luce, Jeanne d'Arc à Domremy, pp. clxxx, 230.

[374] Mistère du siège, v, 497.

[375] Chronique de la Pucelle, chs. xxxiv, xxxv. Jean Chartier, Chronique, chs. xxxii, xxxv; Journal du siège, pp. 2 et seq.

[376] Trial, vol. i, pp. 52, 216.

[377] Ibid., vol. ii, p. 456.

[378] Trial, vol. ii, pp. 428, 434. S. Luce, Jeanne d'Arc à Domremy, p. clxxx. E. de Bouteiller and G. de Braux, Nouvelles recherches, p. xxiii.

[379] Les caquets de l'accouchée, new edition by E. Fournier and Le Roux de Lincy, Paris, 1855, in 16mo, introduction.

[380] Trial, vol. i, p. 53; vol. ii, p. 443.

[381] Ibid., vol. ii, pp. 428, 430, 434.

[382] Ibid., p. 416.

[383] Ibid., p. 431.

[384] Trial, vol. ii, p. 418.

[385] Ibid., p. 419: dixit quod nescivit recessum dictæ Johannæ; quæ testis propter hoc multum flebat, quia eam multum propter suam bonitatem diligebat et quod sua socia erat.

[386] Ibid., vol. ii, p. 436.

[387] S. Luce, Jeanne d'Arc à Domremy, pp. clxviii, 222, 234.

[388] Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 273; La Chronique de Lorraine in Dom Calmet, Histoire de Lorraine, vol. iii, col. vj, gives an amplified version of these words, the authenticity of which is doubtful.

[389] Trial, vol. i, pp. 219, 220. The source is doubtful. Nevertheless the accusation here lays stress on these facts produced by the inquiry. If Jeanne denied having spoken these words, it was because she had forgotten them, or because they had been so changed that she could disavow the form in which they were presented to her.

[390] See ante, page 66.

[391] Trial, vol. ii, p. 446.

[392] Trial, vol. ii, p. 461.

[393] S. Luce, Jeanne d'Arc à Domremy, p. cxcxiv.

[394] Trial, vol. ii, pp. 460, 461 (evidence of Jean le Fumeux in the rehabilitation trial).

[395] Ibid., p. 446.

[396] Ibid., p. 447.

[397] Trial, vol. ii, p. 448.

[398] Quæ puella multum bene loquebatur. Trial, vol. ii, p. 450. S. Luce, Jeanne d'Arc à Domremy, p. 103.

[399] Ibid., vol. v, p. 363; Journal du siège, p. 45. S. Luce, Jeanne d'Arc à Domremy, pp. xcv, cxi, cxxvj. De Beaucourt, Histoire de Charles VII, vol. ii, p. 204, note. E. de Bouteiller and G. de Braux, Nouvelles recherches, pp. xxv et seq.

[400] A sol tournois is the twentieth part of a livre tournois (W.S.).

[401] S. Luce, Jeanne d'Arc à Domremy, pp. cxc, 160, 161.

[402] Trial, vol. ii, pp. 435-457. E. de Bouteiller and G. de Braux, Nouvelles recherches, pp. xxvi, xxvii.

[403] Trial, vol. ii, p. 436. De Beaucourt, Histoire de Charles VII, vol. ii, pp. 396 et seq.

[404] Trial, vol. ii, p. 436. S. Luce, Jeanne d'Arc à Domremy, p. cxci.

[405] Trial, vol. ii, p. 436.

[406] Ibid., p. 436, 437.

[407] Ibid., vol. i, pp. 161, 176, 332. Journal du siège, p. 45. Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 372.

[408] Trial, vol. ii, p. 446.

[409] Voragine, La légende dorée, in the Festival of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross.

[410] Migne, Dictionnaire des sciences occultes, Paris, 2 vols. in large 8vo, under the word Exorcisme.

[411] Trial, vol. ii, p. 446.

[412] Trial, vol. iii, p. 115. Journal du siège, p. 48. Mirouer des femmes vertueuses in the Trial, vol. iv, p. 267.

[413] Extract from the eighth report of Guillaume Charrier, in the Trial, vol. v, pp. 257 et seq.

[414] Trial, vol. ii, p. 447.

[415] Ibid., vol. i, p. 53; vol. ii, pp. 443 et seq.

[416] Ibid., vol. ii, pp. 445-447.

[417] Ibid., pp. 447-457.

[418] Ibid., p. 406. S. Luce, Jeanne d'Arc à Domremy, p. 160, note 6.

[419] Monstrelet, vol. iv, pp. 314, 315. Anonymous poem on the arrival of the Maid, in the Trial, vol. v, p. 30.

[420] Durand Lassois says it cost twelve francs, Jean de Metz, sixteen. "Ce serait aujourd'hui un cheval de cent écus." It would be a horse worth one hundred crowns to-day (L. Champion, Jeanne d'Arc écuyère, 1901, p. 55). According to the reckoning of P. Clément, from 400 to 800 francs (Jacques Cœur et Charles VII, 1873, p. lxvi).

[421] Trial, vol. i, pp. 54, 222; vol. ii, pp. 391, 406, 432, 437, 442-450, 456, 457; vol. iii, pp. 87, 115. Extract from the eighth account of Guillaume Charrier and from the thirteenth account of Hémon Raguier, in the Trial, vol. v, pp. 257 et seq.

[422] Et postquam ipsa Johanna fuit in peregrinacio in Sancto Nicolas et exstitit versus dominum ducem Lotharingiae, says Bertrand de Poulengy, Trial, vol. ii, p. 457. Cf. The Evidence of J. Robert, in E. de Bouteiller and G. de Braux, Nouvelles recherches sur la famille de Jeanne d'Arc, pp. 33, 34. It is impossible to find in the text of the Trial a redundancy such as the evidence of D. Lannois and the woman Le Royer would lead us to expect. A. Renard, Jeanne d'Arc. Examen d'une question de lieu, Orléans, 1861, in 8vo, 16 pages. G. de Braux, Jeanne d'Arc à Saint-Nicolas, Nancy, 1889, in 8vo. De Pimodan, La première étape de Jeanne d'Arc, 1890, in 8vo, with maps.

[423] Le Père Anselme, Histoire généalogique de la maison de France, vol. ii, p. 218. Ludovic Drapeyron, Jeanne d'Arc et Philippe le Bon, in Revue de Géographie, November, 1886, p. 236. S. Luce, Jeanne d'Arc à Domremy, pp. lxvi, cxcix.

[424] Œuvres du Roi René, by Le Comte de Quatrebarbes, Angers, 1845, vol. i, preface, pp. lxxvi et seq. Lecoy de la Marche, Le Roi René, sa vie, son administration, ses travaux artistiques et littéraires, Paris, 1875, 2 vols. in 8vo, and Giry, Review in the Revue critique.

[425] La guerre de la hottée de pommes.

[426] Dom Calmet, Histoire de Lorraine, vol. ii, col. 695, 703.

[427] Trial, vol. iii, p. 93.

[428] S. Luce, Jeanne d'Arc à Domremy, pp. cxcvii, clxxxvii, clxxxviii, and 236. The register of the Archives of La Meuse, B. 1051, bears trace of a regular correspondence between the Duke of Bar and Baudricourt.

[429] Chronique du doyen de Saint-Thibaud, in Dom Calmet, Histoire de Lorraine, proofs and illustrations, vol. ii, col. cxcix. S. Luce, Jeanne d'Arc à Domremy, pp. cxcvii et seq.

[430] Letter from Jean Desch, Secretary of the town of Metz, in the Trial, vol. v, p. 355. Dom Calmet, Histoire de Lorraine, vol. ii, proofs and illustrations, col. cxcix.

[431] S. Luce, Jeanne d'Arc à Domremy, p. cc, note.

[432] Trial, vol. iii, p. 87. Dom Calmet, Histoire de Lorraine, vol. iii, proofs and illustrations, col. vj.

[433] Trial, vol. ii, pp. 391, 444.

[434] Ibid., vol. i, p. 129.

[435] Trial, vol. i, p. 54; vol. ii, pp. 438, 445, 447, 457. Relation du greffier de La Rochelle, in the Revue historique, vol. iv, p. 336.

[436] Relation du greffier de La Rochelle, in the Revue historique, ibid.

[437] Trial, vol. ii, pp. 406, 432, 442, 457; vol. iii, p. 209. S. Luce, Jeanne d'Arc à Domremy, pp. xcv, 143 note 3. G. de Braux and E. de Bouteiller, Nouvelles recherches, pp. xxix et seq.

[438] Les routiers en Lorraine, in the Journal de la Société archéologique de Lorraine, 1866, p. 161. Dr. A. Lapierre, La guerre de cent ans dans l'Argonne et le Rethélois, Sedan, 1900, in 8vo.

[439] Journal du siège (interpolation); Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 272 (a document of doubtful authority owing to its hagiographical character).

[440] Trial, vol. i, p. 54; vol. ii, p. 437. Chronique du Mont-Saint-Michel, vol. i, p. 30. De Boismarmin, Mémoire sur la date de l'arrivée de Jeanne d'Arc à Chinon, in the Bulletin du comité des travaux historiques et scientifiques, 1892, pp. 350-359. Ulysse Chevalier, L'abjuration de Jeanne d'Arc, p. 10, note 1. Jeanne had returned to Vaucouleurs about the first Sunday in Lent, the 13th of February, 1429 (Trial, vol. iii, p. 437). Bertrand de Poulengy says that the journey to Chinon (6th March) lasted eleven days, and that sometimes they travelled by night only (ibid.). It is difficult to admit that they started from Vaucouleurs on the 23rd of February, and that about 660 kilometres were traversed in eleven days.

[441] Trial, vol. ii, pp. 431, 446.

[442] Ibid., p. 449.

[443] Ibid., vol. i, p. 55.

[444] De Pimodan, La première étape de Jeanne d'Arc, Paris, 1891, in 8vo, with maps.

[445] Trial, vol. i, p. 54.

[446] Jolibois, Dictionnaire historique de la Haute-Marne, p. 492.

[447] De Pimodan, La première étape de Jeanne d'Arc, loc. cit.

[448] Trial, vol. i, pp. 54, 55.

[449] Ibid., vol. iii, p. 437. According to the somewhat improbable testimony of Bertrand de Poulengy. See ante, p. 96, note 6.

[450] Trial, vol. ii, p. 457.

[451] Ibid., pp. 437, 438.

[452] Ibid., vol. iii, p. 199.

[453] Ibid., vol. ii, p. 458.

[454] Trial, vol. ii, p. 438.

[455] Ibid., vol. i, p. 54; vol. ii, p. 437.

[456] Ibid., vol. ii, pp. 406, 432, 445, 448, 457.

[457] Monstrelet, vol. v, p. 269. Th. Basin, vol. i, p. 44. Bueil, Le jouvencel, introduction. Royal Pardons, in E. Boutaric, Institutions militaires de la France avant les armées permanentes.... 1863, in 8vo, p. 266. Récit du prieur de Droillet, ed. Quicherat, in Bibliothèque de l'École des Chartes, fourth series, vol. iii, p. 359. Mantellier, Histoire de la communauté des marchands fréquentant la rivière de Loire, vol. i, p. 195. Le P. H. Denifle, La désolation des églises, monastères, hôpitaux en France, vers le milieu du XVe siècle, Mâcon, in 8vo.

[458] Trial, vol. iii, p. 203.

[459] Abbé J.-J. Bourassé, Les miracles de Madame Sainte Katerine de Fierboys en Touraine, d'après un manuscrit de la Bibliothèque Impériale, Paris, in 12mo, 1858, p. 28.

[460] I have here interwoven the account given by Seguin, Trial, vol. iii, p. 203, with that of Touroulde, Trial, vol. iii, pp. 86, 87. It seems to me the same incident reported summarily by the former, inexactly by the latter.

[461] Trial, vol. i, pp. 56, 75; vol. iii, pp. 3, 21; vol. v, p. 378.

[462] That Saint Catherine was known in the west shortly before the Crusades is possible, but not that her worship should date back to Charles Martel; at any rate it flourished in the days of Jeanne d'Arc. Cf. H. Moranvillé, Un pèlerinage en Terre sainte et au Sinai au XVe siècle, in the Bibliothèque de l'École des Chartes, vol. lxvi (1905), pp. 70 et seq.

[463] Les miracles de Madame Sainte Katerine, passim. G. Launay, Article in Bull. soc. archéol. du Vendômois, 1880, vol. xix, pp. 23-25.

[464] G. Lefèvre-Pontalis, La guerre des partisans dans la Haute Normandie (1424-1429), in Bibliothèque de l'École des Chartes (1893-1896).

[465] Les miracles de Madame Sainte Katerine, passim.

[466] Trial, vol. i, p. 75.

[467] Journal d'un bourgeois de Paris, p. 190. Alain Chartier, L'espérance ou consolation des trois vertus, in Œuvres, p. 271. Jean Chartier, Chronique, vol. i, p. 14.

[468] Mistère du siège, line 497.

[469] Perceval de Cagny, pp. 21, 22.

[470] Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 255. Chronique de l'établissement de la fête in the Trial, vol. v, p. 286. Le Maire, Histoire et antiquités de la ville et duché d'Orléans, Orléans, 1645, in 4to, pp. 129 et seq. Lottin, Recherches historiques sur la ville d'Orléans, Orléans, 1836-1845 (7 vols. in 8vo), vol. i, p. 197.

[471] Joseph Stevenson, Letters and Papers, Introduction, vol. i, p. xlvii. De Beaucourt, Histoire de Charles VII, vol. ii, p. 17.

[472] Rymer, Fœdera, vol. iv, part iv, p. 135. Mademoiselle A. de Villaret, Campagne des Anglais dans l'Orléanais, la Beauce chartraine et le Gâtinais (1421-1428), Orléans, 1893, in 8vo, original documents, p. 134. Stevenson, Letters and Papers, vol. i, pp. 403 et seq.

[473] Monstrelet, vol. iv, p. 300.

[474] L. Jarry, Le compte de l'armée anglaise au siège d'Orléans, 1428-1429, Orléans, 1892, in 8vo, pp. 59 et seq.

[475] Monstrelet, vol. iv, p. 293. Rymer, Fœdera, vol. iv, part iv, pp. 132, 135, 138.

[476] L. Jarry, Le compte de l'armée anglaise, pp. 26, 27.

[477] Monstrelet, vol. iv, p. 294. Stevenson, Letters and Papers, p. lxii.

[478] Boucher de Molandon and A. de Beaucorps, L'armée anglaise vaincue par Jeanne d'Arc sous les murs d'Orléans, Orléans, 1892, in 8vo, p. 61. L. Jarry, loc. cit.

[479] Le Maire, Antiquités, p. 29.

[480] Astesan in Paris et ses historiens, by Le Roux de Lincy and Tisserand, pp. 528 et seq. Le Maire, Antiquités, ch. xix, pp. 75 et seq. P. Mantellier, Histoire du siège d'Orléans, in 18mo, pp. 22, 24. E. Fournier, Le Conteur orléanais, p. 111. C. Cuissard, Étude sur la musique dans l'Orléanais, Orléans, 1886, p. 50. Jodocius Sincere, Itirerarium Galliae, Amstelodami, 1655, pp. 24, 25. Paul Charpentier et Cuissard, Histoire du siège d'Orléans, mémoire inédite de M. l'Abbé Dubois, Orléans, 1894, in 8vo, p. 129. De Buzonnière, Histoire architecturale de la ville d'Orléans, 1849 (2 vols. in 8vo), vol. i, p. 76.

[481] Jollois, Histoire du siège d'Orléans, Paris, 1833, in 4to, with plans. Lottin, Recherches, vol. i, pp. 183 et seq.

[482] Jollois, Lettre à Messieurs les membres de la Société des Antiquaires de France, sur l'emplacement du fort des Tourelles de l'ancien pont d'Orléans, Paris, 1834, in folio with illustrations. Abbé Dubois, Histoire du siège, dissertation, v. Lottin, Recherches, vol. i, pp. 15-18. Vergniaud Romagnési, Des différentes enceintes de la ville d'Orléans, pp. 17-19. A. Collin, Le Pont des Tourelles à Orléans, Orléans, 1895, in 8vo. Morosini, vol. iii, p. 13, note 2.

[483] For some unknown reason modern historians have named the little island to the right of Saint-Laurent l'Île Charlemagne, which causes it to be confused with the Île Charlemagne lying to the East of l'Île-aux-Bœufs. On the accompanying plan we indicate the little island just below Biche-d'Orge by the name of Petite Île Charlemagne. Jollois, Histoire du siège, engraving 1. Abbé Dubois, Histoire du siège, pp. 193, 199. Boucher de Molandon, Première expédition de Jeanne d'Arc, p. 16. Manuscript of M. A. Cagnieul, librarian at Orléans.

[484] Symphorien Guyon, Histoire de l'église et diocèse d'Orléans, Orléans, 1647, vol. i, preface. Le Maire, Antiquités, p. 36.

[485] Journal du siège, pp. 13, 15. Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 270. Hubert, Antiquités historiques de l'église royale d'Orléans, Orléans, 1661, in 8vo. Le Maire, Antiquités, p. 284. Abbé Dubois, Histoire du siège, pp. 133, 205, 277, passim. Jollois, Histoire du siège, p. 21. H. Baraude, Le siège d'Orléans et Jeanne d'Arc, Paris, 1906, pp. 10 et seq.

[486] Le Maire, Antiquités, p. 43.

[487] Abbé Dubois, Histoire du siège, p. 296. Boucher de Molandon, Première expédition de Jeanne d'Arc, le ravitaillement d'Orléans, nouveaux documents, Orléans, 1874, in large 8vo, with topographical plan: Orléans, la Loire et ses îles en 1429.

[488] Abbé Dubois, Histoire du siège, pp. 391, 399. Jollois, Histoire du siège, pp. 41, 44. P. Mantellier, Histoire du siège, Orléans, 1867, in 8vo, p. 24. Lottin, Recherches sur Orléans, vol. i, p. 141.

[489] Le Roux de Lincy, Chants historiques et populaires du temps de Charles VII, Paris, 1862, in 18mo, p. 28.

[490] Journal d'un bourgeois de Paris, pp. 225, 226. Geste des nobles, p. 202. Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 251. Jean Chartier, Chronique, vol. i, p. 59. Jarry, Le compte de l'armée anglaise, pp. 107, 112.

[491] Lottin, Recherches, vol. i, pp. 164, 171. P. Mantellier, Histoire du siège, p. 25.

[492] The Monk of Dunfermline, in Trial, vol. v, p. 341. Le Maire, Antiquités, pp. 283 et seq. Lottin, Recherches, vol. i, pp. 160, 161.

[493] Jollois, Histoire du siège, p. 6. Lottin, Recherches, vol. i, pp. 202-205.

[494] An arrow shot from the long-bow, the feathers of the arrow were spirally arranged to produce a spinning movement in its flight (W.S.).

[495] The accounts of the fortresses, in Journal du siège, pp. 301 et seq. Jollois, Histoire du siège, p. 12. P. Mantellier, Histoire du siège, pp. 15-17. Loiseleur, Comptes des dépenses faites par Charles VII pour secourir Orléans pendant le siège de 1428, Orléans, 1868, in 8vo, p. 113. Boucher de Molandon et de Beaucorps, L'armée anglaise vaincue par Jeanne d'Arc, p. 81.

[496] Accounts of Hémon Raguier, Bibl. Nat. Fr. 7858, fol. 41. Loiseleur, Comptes des dépenses, p. 65. Pallet, Nouvelle histoire du Berry, vol. iii, pp. 78-80. Vallet de Viriville, in Bulletin de la Société d'histoire de France. Cabinet historique, vol. v, part ii, p. 107. P. Mantellier, Histoire du siège, p. 15.

[497] A. Thomas, Le siège d'Orléans, Jeanne d'Arc et les capitouls de Toulouse, in Annales du Midi, April, 1889, p. 232. M. Boudet, Villandrando et les écorcheurs à Saint-Flour, pp. 18, 19. A. de Villaret, Campagne des Anglais, p. 61.

[498] The monk of Dunfermline in the Trial, vol. v, p. 341.

[499] Journal du siège, p. 51. Chronique de la fête in the Trial, vol. v, p. 296. Lottin, Recherches, vol. i, pp. 27-31.

[500] Hubert, Antiquitez historiques de l'église royale de Saint-Aignan d'Orléans, 1661, in 8vo, pp. 1-15.

[501] Trial, vol. iii, p. 32. Journal du siège, p. 14. Hubert, loc. cit., chs. iii, iv. Lottin, Recherches, vol. i, pp. 82, 83.

[502] A livre varied in weight from province to province; generally it was about seventeen ounces (W.S.).

[503] Le Maire, Antiquités, p. 285. P. Mantellier, Histoire du siège, p. 16.

[504] Chronique de la Pucelle, pp. 257, 258. Journal du siège, pp. 6, 7. Lottin, Recherches, vol. i, p. 204. J. Devaux, Le Gâtinais au temps de Jeanne d'Arc, in Ann. Soc. hist. et arch. du Gâtinais, vol. v, 1887, p. 220.

[505] Journal du siège, p. 92.

[506] Geste des Nobles, p. 204. Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 256. Letter from Salisbury to the Commons of London, in Delpit, Collection de documents français qui se trouvent en Angleterre, pp. 236, 237. Jarry, Le compte de l'armée anglaise, pp. 79-89.

[507] Abbé Dubois, Histoire du siège, p. 11. Jarry, Le compte de l'armée anglaise, p. 82. Boucher de Molandon, Les comptes de ville d'Orléans des quatorzième et quinzième siècles, Orléans, 1880, in 8vo, pp. 91 et seq.

[508] Lottin, Recherches, vol. i, p. 205. P. Mantellier, Histoire du siège, p. 17.

[509] Journal du siège, p. 4.

[510] Journal du siège, pp. 2-4. Boucher de Molandon et de Beaucorps, L'armée anglaise vaincue par Jeanne d'Arc, p. 129.

[511] L. Jarry, Le compte de l'armée anglaise, pp. 26, 28, 29. Boucher de Molandon and de Beaucorps, L'armée anglaise vaincue par Jeanne d'Arc, pp. 50 et seq. Mademoiselle A. de Villaret, Campagne des anglais, ch. iv, pp. 39, 53; Accounts of the siege, nos. 30, 31, p. 214. Lottin, Recherches, vol. i, p. 205.

[512] L. Jarry, Le compte de l'armée anglaise, p. 61.

[513] Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 258. Jean Chartier, Chronique, p. 66. Jean Raoulet in Chartier, Chronique, vol. iii, p. 198. Journal du siège, pp. 1, 2. Abbé Dubois, Histoire du siège, p. 246. P. Mantellier, Histoire du siège, p. 27. H. Baraude, Le siège d'Orléans et Jeanne d'Arc, p. 31.

[514] Journal du siège, p. 4.

[515] Ibid., pp. 7-8. Lottin, Recherches, vol. i, pp. 208, 210.

[516] Journal du siège, pp. 5-8.

[517] Journal du siège, pp. 10, 12. Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 264. Monstrelet, vol. iv, p. 298. Jean Chartier, Chronique, vol. i, p. 63. Mistère d'Orléans, line 3104 et seq. Chronique de la fête in Trial, vol. v, p. 288. Morosini, vol. iii, p. 131. Lorenzo Buonincontro in Muratori, Rerum Italicarum Scriptores, vol. xxi, col. 136. Jarry, Le compte de l'armée anglaise, pp. 85, 86.

[518] Trial, vol. iv, p. 345. Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 263. Journal du siège, p. 10. Vallet de Viriville, Histoire de Charles VII, vol. ii, p. 32.

[519] L. Jarry, Deux chansons normandes, Orléans, 1894, in 8vo, p. 11.

[520] The text published by M. Jarry has mielux.

[521] Certes that wise man the Duke of Bedford, will keep himself in a fortress with his wife as snug as may be. He will drink good hypocras (a kind of wine). He looks after himself, leaves warfare and the poor and rich to rot in the ground.

[522] Vallet de Viriville, Histoire de Charles VII, vol. i, p. 25; vol. ii, p. 389.

[523] Monstrelet, vol. iv, pp. 273, 274. Chronique de la Pucelle, pp. 243, 247. Jean Chartier, Chronique, vol. i, p. 54. Journal d'un bourgeois de Paris, p. 221. Cronique Martiniane, p. 7.

[524] Jean Chartier, Chronique, vol. ii, p. 105.

[525] Mathieu d'Escouchy, Chronique, ed. Beaucourt, Paris, 1863, vol. i, p. 186. De Beaucourt, Histoire de Charles VII, vol. ii, p. 236.

[526] Journal du siège, pp. 10, 12. Cronique Martiniane, p. 8. Le jouvencel, p. 277. Loiseleur, Comptes des dépenses, pp. 90, 91.

[527] Journal du siège, pp. 12, 13. Abbé Dubois, Histoire du siège, p. 245. Boucher de Molandon et de Beaucorps, L'armée anglaise vaincue par Jeanne d'Arc, pp. 92, 111. Jean de Bueil, Le jouvencel, passim.

[528] Journal du siège, p. 7.

[529] Le jouvencel, vol. i, p. 142.

[530] Journal du siège, p. 19. Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 270. Jean Chartier, Chronique, vol. i, p. 61. Le P. Denifle, La désolation des églises de France, petition C.

[531] Journal du siège, pp. 16, 17.

[532] Ibid., p. 17. J.L. Micqueau, Histoire du siège d'Orléans par les Anglais, translated by Du Breton, Paris, 1631, p. 27. Abbé Dubois, Histoire du siège, p. 287. Lottin, Recherches, vol. i, pp. 209, 210.

[533] Livre, if it were of Paris, was equivalent to one shilling, if of Tours, to ten pence (W.S.).

[534] Journal du siège, p. 18. S. Luce, Jeanne d'Arc à Domremy, p. clxxxv. Loiseleur, Compte des dépenses faites par Charles VII pour secourir Orléans, in Mém. Soc. Arch. de l'Orléanais, vol. xi, pp. 114, 186.

[535] Journal du siège, p. 28. Lottin, Recherches, vol. i, p. 214.

[536] Loiseleur, Comptes, p. 114. P. Mantellier, Histoire du siège, p. 33.

[537] Journal du siège, pp. 15, 18.

[538] To the number of 2500. Journal du siège, p. 20. Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 265. Abbé Dubois, Histoire du siège, p. 252. Jollois, Histoire du siège, pp. 26, 27.

[539] Cf. ante, p. 112, note 1. On the plan this island is called Petite Île Charlemagne.

[540] G. Girault's report in the Trial, vol. iv, p. 283. Morosini, vol. iii, p. 16, note 5; vol. iv, supplement xiii.

[541] Journal du siège, pp. 22, 23, 24, 25, 27, 34.

[542] Boucher de Molandon and A. de Beaucorps, L'armée anglaise vaincue par Jeanne d'Arc, pp. 3 et seq. Jarry, Le compte de l'armée anglaise, proofs and illustrations v, p. 233.

[543] Jan. 1, 2. Journal du siège, pp. 21, 22, 30.

[544] 4-27 Jan. Journal du siège, pp. 21, 22, 30.

[545] 17 Jan. Ibid., p. 26.

[546] Ibid., p. 32.

[547] Gallia Christiana, vol. ii, p. 732. Vallet de Viriville, Histoire de Charles VII, vol. i, p. 213; vol. ii, p. 6, note 2. S. Luce, Jeanne d'Arc à Domremy, p. ccxcv.

[548] Journal du siège, pp. 21, 36-38. The accounts of Hémon Raguier, Bibl. Nat. Fr. 7858, fol. 41. Loiseleur, Comptes des dépenses de Charles VII pour secourir Orléans, loc. cit.

[549] Journal du siège, p. 37.

[550] Journal d'un bourgeois de Paris, p. 231. Chronique de la Pucelle, pp. 266, 267. Journal du siège, pp. 37, 38.

[551] Journal du siège, pp. 38, 39. Chronique de la Pucelle, pp. 267, 268. Mistère du siège, line 8867. Dom Plancher, Histoire de Bourgogne, vol. iv, p. 127.

[552] Monstrelet, vol. iv, p. 312. Journal du siège, p. 43. Chastellain, ed. Kervyn de Lettenhove, vol. ii, p. 164.

[553] Monstrelet, vol. iv, p. 311. Journal du siège, p. 39. Journal d'un bourgeois de Paris, p. 232. Chronique de la Pucelle, pp. 267, 268. Perceval de Cagny, pp. 137, 139.

[554] Journal du siège, pp. 40, 41.

[555] Ibid., p. 43. Journal d'un bourgeois de Paris, p. 232.

[556] Journal du siège, p. 43. Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 269. Monstrelet, vol. iv, p. 313.

[557] Journal du siège, p. 42. Jean Chartier, Chronique, vol. i, p. 63.

[558] Journal du siège, p. 44.

[559] Ibid., pp. 43, 44.

[560] Journal d'un bourgeois de Paris, pp. 230-233. Monstrelet, vol. iv, p. 313. Jean Chartier, Chronique, vol. ii, p. 62. Symphorien Guyon, Histoire de la ville d'Orléans, vol. ii, p. 195. Vallet de Viriville, Histoire de Charles VII, vol. ii, p. 37.

[561] 18 Feb. Journal du siège, pp. 50, 52.

[562] Ibid., p. 51.

[563] 16 March. Ibid., p. 59.

[564] Thaumas de la Thaumassière, Histoire du Berry, Bourges, 1689, in fol., pp. 648-656.

[565] Journal du siège, p. 52.

[566] Monstrelet, vol. iv, p. 317. Journal du siège, p. 52. Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 269. Jean Chartier, Chronique, vol. i, p. 65. Morosini, pp. 16, 17, vol. iv, supplement xiv. Du Tillet, Recueil des traités, p. 221.

[567] 3 March. Journal du siège, p. 54.

[568] Trial, vol. iii, pp. 21, 23. Journal du siège, pp. 46 et seq. Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 278.

[569] La Curne, under the word Pucelle; Du Cange, ad. v. Pucella.

Je laisse cent sols de deniers
A ceulx qui boivent voluntiers
Et s'ay laissié a mon curé
Ma pucelle quand je mourrai,

says Eustache Deschamps (quoted by La Curne); Du Cange cites a will of 1274: "afterwards I leave to Laurence ma pucelle and twelve livres of Paris."

[570] Relation contemporaine du combat de Montendre, in Bulletin de la Société de l'Histoire de France, 1834, pp. 109-113.

[571] Trial, vol. iii, pp. 3, 125, 215. Journal du siège, pp. 5, 6, 31, 44. Nouvelle biographie générale, articles by Vallet de Viriville.

[572] Trial, vol. i, pp. 56, 75.

[573] Ibid., p. 56.

[574] Bueil, Le jouvencel, vol. i, p. 32, and Tringant, xv; Jean Chartier, Chronique, ch. cxxxviii.

[575] Vallet de Viriville, Isabeau de Bavière, 1859, in 8vo, and Notes sur l'état civil des princes et princesses nés d'Isabeau de Bavière in the Bibliothèque de l'École des Chartes, vol. xix, pp. 473-482.

[576] Th. Basin, Histoire de Charles VII et de Louis XI, vol. i, p. 312. Chastellain, ed. Kervyn de Lettenhove, vol. ii, p. 178.

[577] Chronique du religieux de Saint-Denis, vol. i, pp. 28, 43. Docteur A. Chevreau, De la maladie de Charles VI, roi de France, et des médecins qui ont soigné ce prince, in l'Union Médicale, February, March, 1862. De Beaucourt, Histoire de Charles VII, vol. i, p. 4, note.

[578] Monstrelet, vol. iii, p. 347.

[579] Gruel, ed. Le Vavasseur, pp. 46 et seq. Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 239. Berry, p. 374. Pierre de Fénin, Mémoires, ed. Mademoiselle Dupont, pp. 222, 223. Vallet de Viriville, Histoire de Charles VII, vol. i, p. 453. De Beaucourt, Histoire de Charles VII, vol. ii, p. 432.

[580] Gruel, pp. 53, 193. Geste des nobles, p. 200. Jean Chartier, Chronique, vol. i, pp. 23, 24, 54. De Beaucourt, Histoire de Charles VII, vol. ii, p. 132. E. Cosneau, Le connétable de Richemont, Paris, 1886, in 8vo, p. 131.

[581] Gruel, p. 231. Chronique de la Pucelle, pp. 200, 248. Jean Chartier, Chronique, vol. i, p. 54; vol. iii, p. 189. De Beaucourt, Histoire de Charles VII, vol. ii, p. 142. E. Cosneau, Le connétable de Richemont, p. 140.

[582] De Beaucourt, op. cit., vol. ii, pp. 143, 144 et seq. E. Cosneau, op. cit., pp. 142 et seq.

[583] Dom Morice, Preuves de l'histoire de Bretagne, vol. ii, col. 1199. De Beaucourt, op. cit., vol. ii, p. 150. E. Cosneau, op. cit., p. 144.

[584] P. de Fénin, Mémoires, p. 222. De Beaucourt, Histoire de Charles VII, Introduction. E. Charles, Le caractère de Charles VII, in Revue contemporaine, vol. xxii, pp. 300-328.

[585] Le doyen de Saint-Thibaud, Tableau des rois de France, in Trial, vol. iv, p. 325.

[586] Martial d'Auvergne, Les vigiles de Charles VII, ed. Coustelier, 1724 (2 vols. in 12mo), vol. i, p. 56.

[587] L. Drapeyron, Jeanne d'Arc et Philippe le Bon, in Revue de géographie, November, 1886, p. 331.

[588] Taille, so called from a notched stick (Eng. tally), used by the tax-collector, the number of notches indicating the amount of the tax due. There were two tailles: la taille seigneuriale, a contribution paid by serfs to their lord; and la taille royale, paid by the third estate to the King. The latter was first levied by Philippe le Bel (1285-1314), but was only an occasional tax until the reign of Charles VII, who converted it into a regular impost. But although collected at stated intervals its amount varied from reign to reign, becoming intolerably burdensome under the spendthrift kings, while wise rulers, like Henri IV, considerably reduced it. It was not abolished until the Revolution (W.S.).

[589] Recueil des ordonnances, vol. xiii, p. xcix, and the index of this volume under the word Impôts. Loiseleur, Compte des dépenses, pp. 51 et seq. A. Thomas, Les états généraux sous Charles VII in the Cabinet historique, vol. xxiv, 1878. Les états provinciaux de la France centrale sous Charles VII, Paris, 1879, 2 vols. in 8vo, passim.

[590] Jean Chartier, Chronique, vol. iii, p. 318. Vallet de Viriville, Histoire de Charles VII, vol. i, p. 390. De Beaucourt, Histoire de Charles VII, vol. i, p. 428; vol. ii, pp. 646 et seq.

[591] Le jouvencel, vol. i, Introduction, pp. xix, xx.

[592] Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 237. Loiseleur, Compte des dépenses, p. 61. Vallet de Viriville, Mémoire sur les institutions de Charles VII, in Bibliothèque de l'École des Chartes, vol. xxxiii, p. 37.

[593] Dom Vaissette, Histoire du Languedoc, vol. iv, p. 471.

[594] De Beaucourt, Histoire de Charles VII, vol. ii, p. 167.

[595] Dom Vaissette, Histoire du Languedoc, vol. iv, p. 471. A. Thomas, Les états généraux sous Charles VII, pp. 49, 50.

[596] Dom Vaissette, Histoire du Languedoc, vol. iv, p. 472. Raynal, Histoire du Berry, vol. iii, p. 20. Loiseleur, Comptes des dépenses, pp. 63 et seq. De Beaucourt, Histoire de Charles VII, vol. ii, pp. 170 et seq.

[597] Th. Basin, Histoire de Charles VII, Bk. II, ch. vi. Antoine Loysel, Mémoires des pays, villes, comtés et comtes de Beauvais et Beauvoisis, Paris, 1618, p. 229. P. Mantellier, Histoire de la communauté des marchands fréquentant la rivière de Loire, vol. i, p. 195.

[598] Dom Morice, Preuves de l'histoire de Bretagne, vol. ii, cols. 1145, 1194. Ordonnances, vol. xv, p. 147.

[599] Vallet de Viriville, Histoire de Charles VII, vol. i, p. 373. De Beaucourt, Histoire de Charles VII, vol. ii, p. 175. Duc de la Trémoïlle, Chartier de Thouars, Documents historiques et généalogiques, p. 17. Les La Trémoïlle pendant cinq siècles, vol. i, p. 175.

[600] De Beaucourt, Histoire de Charles VII, vol. ii, p. 632.

[601] Jean Chartier, Chronique, vol. iii. Accounts, p. 316. Cabinet historique, June, 1858, p. 176.

[602] Cabinet historique, September and October, 1858, p. 263.

[603] Vallet de Viriville, Histoire de Charles VII, vol. i, p. 374.

[604] De Beaucourt, Histoire de Charles VII, vol. ii, p. 632.

[605] Loiseleur, Compte des dépenses, p. 57.

[606] De Beaucourt, Histoire de Charles VII, vol. ii, p. 634.

[607] Vuitry, Les monnaies sous les trois premiers Valois, Paris, 1881, in 8vo, pp. 29 et seq. Loiseleur, Compte des dépenses, p. 47. Vallet de Viriville, Histoire de Charles VII, vol. i, p. 243. De Beaucourt, Histoire de Charles VII, vol. ii, pp. 620 et seq.

[608] Clairambault, Titres, Scellés, vol. 205, pp. 8769, 8771, 8773, passim. De Beaucourt, Histoire de Charles VII, vol. ii, p. 293.

[609] Archives nationales, J. 183, no. 142. Duc de La Trémoïlle, Les La Trémoïlle pendant cinq siècles, vol. i, p. 177. De Beaucourt, Histoire de Charles VII, vol. ii, p. 198.

[610] Le P. Anselme, Histoire généalogique et chronologique de la maison de France, vol. vi, p. 399. Vallet de Viriville, in Nouvelle biographie générale. De Beaucourt, Histoire de Charles VII, vol. i, p. 63.

[611] Marquis de Gaucourt, Le Sire de Gaucourt, Orléans, 1855, in 8vo.

[612] Le P. Anselme, Histoire généalogique et chronologique de la maison de France, vol. vi, p. 339. Gallia Christiana, vol. ix, col. 135. Hermant, Histoire ecclésiastique de Beauvais (Bibl. nat. fr. 8581), fol. 15 et seq. Article by Vallet de Viriville, in Nouvelle biographie générale and Histoire de Charles VII, vol. ii, pp. 160 et seq.

[613] Le P. Denifle, Cartularium Universitatis Parisiensis, vol. iv, p. 275.

[614] Journal d'un bourgeois de Paris, p. 109. In 1411 the Butchers of Paris, led by Jean-Simonnet Caboche, rose in favour of the Duke of Burgundy (W.S.).

[615] Le P. Denifle, La désolation des églises, vol. i, pp. 594, 595. Garnier, Documents relatifs à la surprise de Paris par les Bourguignons en Mai, 1418, in Bulletin de la Société de l'Histoire de Paris, 1877, p. 51.

[616] De Beaucourt, Histoire de Charles VII, vol. i, pp. 268, 276, 339. P. Champion, Guillaume de Flavy, p. 4, and proofs and illustrations, lxxj.

[617] Le P. Denifle, La désolation des églises, loc. cit. According to a "legitimist" fiction he pleads the service he had rendered to King Charles VI, and his son the Dauphin "... tam propter sue persone debililitatem, quam etiam propter assidua viagia et ambassiatas, que ipse serviendo Carolo Francorum regi et Carolo, ejusdem regis unigenito filio, dalphino Viennensi...."

[618] Vallet de Viriville, Nouvelle biographie générale. De Beaucourt, Histoire de Charles VII, vol. i, pp. 64 et seq.

[619] F. Duchesne, Histoire des chanceliers et gardes des sceaux de France, 1680, in fol., p. 483.

[620] The livre of Tours was worth ten pence, while that of Paris was worth one shilling (W.S.). National Archives, p. 2298.

[621] De Beaucourt, Histoire de Charles VII, vol. ii, p. 632.

[622] Le P. Anselme, Histoire généalogique de la maison de France, vol. i, p. 407.

[623] Journal du siège, p. 51.

[624] Le P. Denifle, La désolation des églises, introduction. Cf. the collection of official receipts in the National Library, fr. 20,887, original documents 693, Clairambault, deeds, seals, vol. 29.

[625] F. Duchesne, Histoire des chanceliers et garde des sceaux de France, p. 487.

[626] Trial, vol. i, p. 56.

[627] Ibid., vol. ii, pp. 394, 462.

[628] Isaiah, ch. 66, verse 10 (W.S.).

[629] Trial, vol. i, p. 143.

[630] La vie de saint Harenc glorieux martir et comment il fut pesché en la mer et porté à Dieppe, in Recueil des poésies françaises des XVe et XVIe siècles, by A. de Montaiglon, vol. ii, pp. 325-332.

[631] Still if Jeanne were the age she is said to have been, about eighteen, she was under no obligation to fast, but only to be abstinent. Nevertheless, when imprisoned at Rouen, she fasted during Lent; but we do not know how old her judges considered her to be.

[632] Trial, vol. i, p. 143.

[633] G. de Cougny, Notice archéologique et historique sur le château de Chinon, Chinon, 1860, in 8vo.

[634] La légende dorée, translated by Gustave Brunet, 1846, pp. 259, 264. Douhet, Dictionnaire des légendes, pp. 426, 436.

[635] Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 273. Journal du siège, pp. 46, 47.

[636] Epître de Jouvenel des Ursins, in De Beaucourt, Histoire de Charles VII vol. v, p. 206, note 1.

[637] Vallet de Viriville, Histoire de Charles VII, vol. ii, p. x.

[638] Acta sanctorum, vol. iii, March, p. 742. Abbé Pétin, Dictionnaire hagiographique, 1850, vol. ii, p. 1516.

[639] Froissart, Chroniques, Bk. IV, ch. xliii et seq.

[640] Trial, vol. iii, p. 83, note 2. Vallet de Viriville, Procès de condamnation de Jeanne d'Arc, Paris, 1867, in 8vo, pp. xxxi et seq.

[641] Le songe du vieil Pélerin, by Philippe de Maizières (Bibl. Nat. French collection, no. 22,542).

[642] Chastellain, ed. Buchon, pp. 114, 116. Acta Sanctorum Junii, vol. 1, p. 648. Le P. De Buck, Le bienheureux Jean de Gand, Brussels, 1862, in 8vo, 40 pages. Le P. Chapotin, La guerre de cent ans; Jeanne d'Arc et les Dominicains, Évreux, 1888, in 8vo, p. 89.

[643] Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 273. Journal du siège, p. 46.

[644] Parvus Thalamus, ed. Archæological Society of Montpellier, p. 464. Th. de Bèze, Histoire ecclésiastique, 1580, vol. i, p. 217. A. Germain, Catherine Suave, Montpellier, 1853, in 4to, 16 pages. H.C. Lea, A History of the Inquisition in the Middle Ages (1906), vol. ii, p. 157. Vallet de Viriville, Histoire de Charles VII, vol. ii, p. x.

[645] Jean Nider, Formicarium, in the Trial, vol. iv, p. 502.

[646] Trial, vol. iii, p. 22. These facts were known at Lyons on the 22nd of April, 1429. (Clerk of the Chambre des Comptes of Brabant, in Trial, vol. iv, p. 426.)

[647] S. Luce, Chronique des quatre premiers Valois, Paris, 1861, in 8vo, pp. 46, 48.

[648] Trial, vol. iii, p. 115. Thomassin, Registre Delphinal, in the Trial, vol. iv, p. 304. Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 273. Journal du siège, p. 47.

[649] Gallia Christiana, vol. iii, col. 1089.

[650] Le R.P. Marcellin Fornier, Histoire générale des Alpes Maritimes ou Cottiennes, ed. by the Abbé Paul Guillaume, Paris, 1890-1892 (3 vols. in 8vo), vol. ii, pp. 313 et seq.

[651] The Monk of Dunfermline, in the Trial, vol. v, p. 340. Vallet de Viriville, Histoire de Charles VII, vol. i, pp. 265 et seq. De Beaucourt, Histoire de Charles VII, vol. i, p. 243.

[652] Simon de Phares, Recueil des plus célèbres astrologues, fr. ms. 1357. Vallet de Viriville, Histoire de Charles VII, vol. i, p. 306; vol. ii, p. 345, note. De Beaucourt, Histoire de Charles VII, vol. vi, p. 399.

[653] Chastellain, vol. iii, p. 446.

[654] Vallet de Viriville, Histoire de Charles VII, vol. i, p. 173.

[655] I here correct the text of Simon de Phares (Trial, vol. iv, p. 536) according to the written opinion of M. Camille Flammarion.

[656] Trial, vol. iv, p. 536.

[657] Ibid., vol. iii, p. 341.

[658] Recueil de Simon de Phares, in the Trial, vol. v, p. 32, note.

[659] Ibid., vol. i, p. 143.

[660] The kerb was removed during the Second Empire. Moreover it is admitted that no faith should be put in such traditions. G. de Cougny, Charles VII et Jeanne d'Arc à Chinon, Tours, 1877, in 8vo.

[661] Trial, vol. i, p. 75; vol. iii, p. 115. Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 273. Journal du siège, pp. 46, 47. Th. Basin, Histoire de Charles VII et de Louis XI, vol. i, p. 68.

[662] Trial, vol. i, pp. 75, 141.

[663] Le Curial, in Les œuvres de Maistre Alain Chartier, ed. Du Chesne, Paris, 1642, in 4to, p. 398.

[664] According to Jeanne there were present La Trémoïlle and the Archbishop of Reims, but she also mentions the Duke of Alençon, who was certainly not there.

[665] Trial, vol. iii, p. 115.

[666] Ibid., pp. 102-103.

[667] Ibid., p. 219. Chronique de la Pucelle, in Trial, vol. iv, p. 205. Mathieu Thomassin, ibid., p. 304. Chronique de Lorraine, ibid., p. 330. Philippe de Bergame, ibid., p. 523.

[668] Relation du greffier de La Rochelle, in the Revue historique, vol. iv, p. 336.

[669] St. Paul, Second Epistle to the Corinthians. Labbe, Collection des conciles, vol. vii, p. 978. Saumaise, Epistola ad Andream Colvium super cap. xi, I ad Corynth. de cæsarie virorum et mulierum coma. Lugd-Batavor ex off. Elz. 1644, in 12mo. Quelques notes d'archéologie sur la chevelure féminine, in Comptes rendus de l'Académie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres, 1888, vol. xvi, pp. 419, 425.

[670] Trial, vol. i, p. 75; vol. iii, pp. 17, 92, 115. Jean Chartier, Chronique, vol. i, p. 67. Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 273. Journal du siège, p. 46.

[671] De Beaucourt, Histoire de Charles VII, vol. ii, p. 195.

[672] Th. Basin, vol. i, p. 312. Chastellain, vol. ii, p. 178. Portrait historique du roi Charles VII, by Henri Baude, published by Vallet de Viriville in Nouvelles recherches sur Henri Baude, p. 6. De Beaucourt, Histoire de Charles VII, p. 83.

[673] As in the miniature painted by Jean Fouquet, more than ten years later. Gruyer, Les Quarante Fouquet de Chantilly, Paris, 1897, in 4to.

[674] Note sur un ancien portrait de Charles VII, conservé au Louvre, in the Bulletin de la Société des Antiquaires de France, 1862, pp. 67 et seq.

[675] Trial, vol. ii, p. 103. Relation du greffier de La Rochelle, p. 337. Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 273. Jean Chartier, Chronique, vol. i, pp. 67, 68.

[676] Trial, vol. iii, p. 103 (evidence of Brother Pasquerel).

[677] The Abridger of the Trial, in Trial, vol. iv, pp. 258, 259. Basin, Histoire de Charles VII et de Louis XI, vol. i, p. 67. Journal du siège, p. 48.

[678] Trial, vol. iii, p. 116 (evidence of S. Charles). S. Luce, Jeanne d'Arc à Domremy, p. lxi.

[679] Trial, vol. iii, pp. 17, 209. As early as April the promised deliverance of Orléans and coronation at Reims had been heard of at Lyons (Trial, vol. iv, p. 426).

[680] Pasquerel alone of the witnesses mentions this (Trial, vol. iii, p. 103). Cf. the anecdote of the Sire de Boissy related by P. Sala in his collection, Les hardiesses des grands rois et empereurs (Trial, vol. iv, p. 278).

[681] Trial, vol. iii, p. 209.

[682] Ibid., p. 66.

[683] G. de Cougny, Charles VII et Jeanne d'Arc à Chinon, Tours, 1877, p. 40.

[684] Trial, vol. iii, p. 17.

[685] Ibid., pp. 65, 73. Mademoiselle A. de Villaret, Louis de Coutes, page de Jeanne d'Arc, Orléans, 1890, in 8vo.

[686] Trial, vol. iii, p. 17.

[687] Ibid., p. 66.

[688] Chronique de la Pucelle, pp. 274 et seq. Jean Chartier, Chronique, p. 68.

[689] Trial, vol. i, p. 68.

[690] Ibid., vol. iii, pp. 133, 340. Thomassin, in Trial, vol. iv, p. 395. Walter Bower, in Trial, vol. iv, p. 489. Christine de Pisan, in Trial, vol. v, p. 12. La Borderie, Les véritables prophéties de Merlin, examen des poèmes bretons attribués à ce barde, in the Revue de Bretagne, 1883, vol. liii.

[691] Cuvelier, Le poème de Du Guesclin, l. 3285. Francisque-Michel and Th. Wright, Vie de Merlin attribuée à Geoffroy de Monmouth, suivie des prophéties de ce barde tirées de l'histoire des Bretons, Paris, 1837, in 8vo, pp. 67 et seq. La Villemarqué, Myrdhin ou Merlin l'Enchanteur, son histoire, ses œuvres, son influence, n. ed., Paris, 1862, in 12mo. D'Arbois de Jubainville, Merlin est-il un personnage réel? in the Revue des questions historiques, 1868, pp. 559-568. Lefèvre-Pontalis, Morosini, vol. iv, supplement xvi. "[Geoffrey of Monmouth] represented Merlin as having prophesied all the events of the history of Britain until the year 1135 in which he wrote. The Historia Regum was very popular in the ecclesiastical world. Its legends were held to be facts. The exactness with which its prognostications had been fulfilled down to 1135 was marvelled at, and an attempt was made to interpret the prophecies relating to subsequent times." Gaston Paris, La littérature française au moyen age, 1890, pp. 86-104.

[692] Le Baud, Histoire de Bretagne, Paris, 1638, in fol., p. 451.

[693] Trial, vol. iii, pp. 340-342.

[694] Morosini, vol. iv, p. 324.

[695] Pierre Migiet weaves the two prophecies into one, which he says he has read in a book, Trial, vol. iii, p. 133.

[696] Adopting the emendation made by M. Germain Lefèvre-Pontalis in his Chronique d'Antonio Morosini, vol. iii, pp. 126, 127; vol. iv, pp. 316 et seq.

[697] The Complete Works of the Venerable Bede, ed. Giles, London, 1843-1844, 12 vols., in 8vo, in Patres Ecclesiæ Anglicanæ.

[698] Christine de Pisan, in Trial, vol. v, p. 12. Morosini, vol. iii, p. 126. The Dean of Saint Thibaud, in Trial, vol. iv, p. 423. Herman Korner, in Le P. Ayroles, La vraie Jeanne d'Arc, pp. 279 et seq. Walter Bower, in Trial, vol. iv, p. 481.

[699] Buchon, Math. d'Escouchy, etc., p. 537. G. Lefèvre-Pontalis, Eberhard Windecke, pp. 21-31. A Latin text of this prophecy is to be found on the fly-leaf of the Cartulary of Thérouanne.

[700] Trial, vol. iii, pp. 393-407; vol. v, p. 473. Marcellin Fornier, Histoire des Alpes-Maritimes ou Cottiennes, vol. ii, pp. 313, 314.

[701] [In the original French garce.] The text has grace, which is not possible. I have conjectured that the word should be garce.

[702] M. Fornier, Histoire des Alpes-Maritimes ou Cottiennes, vol. ii, pp. 313, 314.

[703] Clerk of the Town Hall of Albi, in Trial, vol. iv, p. 300.

[704] Thomassin, in Trial, vol. iv, p. 304.

[705] Sandal or cendal, a silk bearing some resemblance to taffetas. Cf. Godefroy, Lexique de l'ancien français (W.S.).

[706] Du Cange, Glossaire, under the word auriflamma. Le Roux de Lincy and Tisserand, Paris et ses historiens, pp. 150, 251, 257, 259. [Histoire générale de Paris.]

[707] Perceval de Cagny, p. 136. Chronique de la Pucelle, pp. 224, 249.

[708] Trial, vol. iii, p. 91.

[709] Vallet de Viriville, Histoire de Charles VII, vol. iii, pp. 408, 409. De Beaucourt, Histoire de Charles VII, vol. vi, pp. 43, 44.

[710] Trial, vol. iii, p. 91.

[711] Ibid., pp. 91, 92. Eberhard Windecke, pp. 152 et seq.

[712] Trial, vol. iii, p. 92.

[713] Perceval de Cagny, p. 148.

[714] Trial, vol. iii, p. 96.

[715] Perceval de Cagny, p. 151, passim.

[716] Monstrelet, vol. iv, p. 240.

[717] Cf. 1 Kings xiii, 4 (W.S.). P. Dupuy, Procès de Jean II, duc d'Alençon, 1458-1474, 1658, in 4to. Michelet, Histoire de France, vol. v, p. 382. Docteur Chereau, Médecins du quinzième siècle, in l'Union Médicale, vol. xiv, August, 1862. Joseph Guibert, Jean II duc d'Alençon, in Les positions de l'École des Chartes, 1893.

[718] Trial, vol. iii, pp. 116, 209.

[719] Bélisaire Ledain, Jeanne d'Arc à Poitiers, Saint-Maixent, 1891, in 8vo, 15 pages. Neuville, Le Parlement royal à Poitiers, in the Revue historique, vol. vi, p. 284.

[720] Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 275. Journal du siège, p. 48. Monstrelet, vol. iv, p. 316.

[721] Neuville, Le Parlement royal à Poitiers, in the Revue historique, vol. vi, p. 18. De Beaucourt, Histoire de Charles VII, vol. ii, pp. 571 et seq.

[722] Louis Battifol, Jean Jouvenel, prévot des marchands de la ville de Paris, Paris, 1894, in 8vo. Juvénal des Ursins, Histoire de Charles VI, pp. 359, 360.

[723] Trial, vol. iii, p. 92. Gallia Christiana, vol. ii, col. 1198.

[724] Trial, vol. iii, p. 92. Le P. Ayroles, La Pucelle devant l'Église de son temps, p. 6.

[725] Trial, vol. iii, pp. 203, 204.

[726] Ibid., pp. 19, 203.

[727] Ibid., pp. 74, 75. Launoy, Historia Collegii Navarrici, lib. ii, passim.

[728] Trial, vol. iii, pp. 92, 102.

[729] Ibid., pp. 74, 75.

[730] Ibid., pp. 74, 92, 102.

[731] Ibid., vol. ii, p. 203.

[732] Ibid., vol. iii, pp. 27, 28.

[733] Ibid., pp. 19, 74, 92, 203. Gallia Christiana, vol. iii, col. 1128.

[734] Trial, vol. iii, p. 203. Gallia Christiana, vol. iii, col. 1129.

[735] Trial, vol. iii, p. 92.

[736] Ibid., pp. 19, 83, 203.

[737] Ibid., pp. 19, 203. Le P. Chapotin, La guerre de cent ans; Jeanne d'Arc et les Dominicains, p. 132.

[738] Canon Dunand, La légende anglaise de Jeanne, Paris, 1903, in 8vo, p. 118.

[739] O. Raguenet de Saint-Albin, Les juges de Jeanne d'Arc à Poitiers, membres du Parlement ou gens d'Église, Orléans, 1894, in 8vo, 46 pages.

[740] See ante, pp. 153, 154.

[741] Judith, xvi, 7 (W.S.).

[742] Trial, vol. iii, pp. 19, 74, 82, 203. Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 275. B. Ledain, Jeanne d'Arc à Poitiers, Saint-Maixent, 1891, in 8vo.

[743] Nevertheless see Le mistère du siège, pp. 397-406.

[744] There can be no reason for suspecting this lady of not living up to her reputation, for nothing is known of her, not even whether she were Maître Jean Rabateau's first or second wife, for he had two. The first was the daughter of Benoît Pidelet. Cf. B. Ledain, La maison de Jeanne d'Arc à Poitiers, Maître Jean Rabateau (Revue du Bas-Poitou, April, 1891, pp. 48, 66). A. Barbier, Jeanne d'Arc et l'hôtellerie de la Rose, Poitiers, 1892, in 8vo.

[745] Trial, vol. iii, p. 82.

[746] Voragine, La légende dorée (Vie de Sainte Catherine).

[747] Trial, vol. iii, p. 204 (evidence of Brother Seguin).

[748] Ibid., pp. 203, 204.

[749] Ibid., p. 74.

[750] Trial, vol. iii, p. 92.

[751] Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 275.

[752] Trial, vol. iii, p. 74 (evidence of Gobert Thibault).

[753] Trial, vol. iii, p. 74. Boucher de Molandon and A. de Beaucorps, L'armée anglaise, p. 111. La Poule, as he is called here, is identical with Suffort, and is none other than William Pole, Earl of Suffolk, unless John Pole, William's brother, be intended, but he was not one of the three organisers of the siege. As for Clasdas or Glasdale, as the French called him, he served under the orders of the Commander of Les Tourelles. These errors may have been Jeanne's, or possibly they were made by the witness. They do not recur in the letter to the English.

[754] Trial, vol. iii, p. 83.

[755] Ibid., p. 75.

[756] Lettres de Gérard Machet, Bibl. nat. Latin documents, no. 8577. Launoy, Regii Navarræ Gymnasii Parisiensis historia, Paris, 1682 (2 vols. in 4to), vol. ii, pp. 533, 557. Du Boulay, Hist. Univ. Parisiensis, vol. v, p. 875. Vallet de Viriville, in Nouvelle biographie générale.

[757] De Beaucourt, Extrait du catalogue des actes de Charles VII, p. 18.

[758] Trial, vol. i, pp. 71, 72, 73, 171.

[759] Labbe, Sacro-Sancta Consilia (1671), vol. ii, pp. 413, 434.

[760] Surius, Vitæ S.S. (1618), vol. i, pp. 21-24. Gabriel Brosse, Histoire abrégée de la vie et de la translation de Sainte Euphrosine, Vierge d'Alexandrie, patronne de l'abbaye de Beaulieu-lès-Compiègne, Paris, 1649, in 8vo.

[761] Trial, vol. iii, p. 20.

[762] It may be noticed that during the consultation of the doctors, according to the report of it given by Thomassin in Le registre Delphinal, Charles of Valois is designated alike by the title of King and by that of Dauphin (Trial, vol. iv, p. 303).

[763] Trial, vol. iii, p. 86.

[764] Le Père Didon, Vie de Jésus, vol. i, Preface.

[765] Juvénal des Ursins, Histoire de Charles VI, p. 359.

[766] Trial, vol. iii, p. 204.

[767] It seems to have been the fate of the inhabitants of Limousin to be jeered at by the French of Champagne and of l'Île de France. After Brother Seguin we have the student from Limousin to whom Pantagruel says: "Thou art Limousin to the bone and yet here thou wilt pass thyself off as a Parisian." It is the lot of M. de Pourceaugnac. La Fontaine, in 1663, writes from Limoges to his wife that the people of Limousin are by no means afflicted; neither do they labour under Heaven's displeasure "as the folk of our provinces imagine." But he adds that he does not like their habits. It would seem that at first Brother Seguin was annoyed by Jeanne's mocking vivacious repartees. But he cherished no ill-will against her. "The Limousin's good nature does not permit the endurance of any unfriendly feeling," says Abel Hugo in La France pittoresque: Haute-Vienne. Cf. A. Précicou, Rabelais et les Limousins, Limoges, 1906, in 8vo.

[768] Trial, vol. iii, p. 205.

[769] Judges, ch. vi. (W.S.).

[770] Trial, vol. iii, p. 20.

[771] Ibid., pp. 20, 205. Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 278. Journal du siège, p. 49.

[772] Trial, vol. iii, pp. 19, 20.

[773] Ibid., vol. i, p. 95; vol. iii, p. 209.

[774] Mary Darmesteter, Froissart, Paris, 1894, in 12mo, p. 96.

[775] Jean Philippe de Lignan, Rome, 1481 (not paginated), leaf 10 and the following. For the comparison of Jeanne d'Arc to the ancient Sibyl, see the Clerk of Spire, Sibylla Francica, in the Trial, vol. iii, p. 422. Christine de Pisano in the Trial, vol. v, p. 12. Lanéry d'Arc, Mémoires et consultations en faveur de Jeanne d'Arc, pp. 8-10. Barbier de Montault, Iconographie des Sibylles, in the Revue de l'art chrétien, xiii-xiv (1869-1870). Barraud, Notice sur les attributs avec lesquelles on représente les Sibylles aux XVe et XVIe siècles, in the Bulletin archéologique de la Commission historique des arts mon., vol. iv (1848). Cf. Morosini, vol. iv, supplement xiv, p. 319.

[776] Voragine, La légende dorée (Assomption de la Vierge).

[777] Le Curé de Saint-Sulpice, Notre Dame de France ou histoire du culte de la Sainte Vierge en France, Paris, 1862, 7 vols. in 8vo. Abbé Mignard, La Sainte Vierge, Paris, 1877, in 8vo, pp. 382 et seq.

[778] De l'unicorne qu'une jeune fille séduit, in the Bestiaire of R. de Fournival (Paulin Paris, Manuscrits français, vol. iv, p. 25). Berger de Xivrey, Traditions tératologiques, p. 559. J. Doublet, Histoire de l'abbaye de Saint-Denys, vol. i, p. 320. Vallet de Viriville, Nouvelles recherches sur Agnès Sorel, in Bulletin de la Société des Antiquaires de Picardie, vol. vi, p. 621. A. Maury, Croyances et légendes du moyen âge, pp. 262 et seq.

[779] Leber, Des cérémonies du sacre, Paris, 1825, in 8vo, p. 459.

[780] L. Tanon, Histoire des tribunaux de l'inquisition en France, Paris, 1893, in 8vo, p. 293.

[781] Germain, Catherine Sauve, in Académie des sciences et lettres de Montpellier, Lettres, vol. i, 1854, in 4to, pp. 539-552.

[782] Du Cange, Glossaire, under the word Matrimonium.

[783] Pierre Le Loyer, Livre des spectres, 1586, in 4to, pp. 527, 551.

[784] Trial, vol. iii, p. 102. Vallet de Viriville, article Le Maçon, in Nouvelle biographie générale.

[785] Trial, vol. iii, p. 210. Eberhard Windecke, p. 157. Morosini, p. 99.

[786] Trial, vol. iii, p. 82.

[787] Siméon Luce, Jeanne d'Arc à Domremy, p. cxliii. Trial, vol. ii, p. 397.

[788] Letter from Perceval de Boulainvilliers to the Duke of Milan, in the Trial, vol. v, pp. 115, 121. Journal d'un bourgeois de Paris, p. 237.

[789] Journal du siège, p. 48. Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 275.

[790] The word seules in the text is doubtful.

[791] Trial, vol. iii, pp. 391, 392.

[792] Eberhard Windecke, pp. 32, 41.

[793] The conclusions of the Poitiers commission were circulated everywhere. Traces of them are to be found in Brittany (Buchon and Chronique de Morosini), in Flanders (Chronique de Tournai and Chronique de Morosini), in Germany (Eb. Windecke), in Dauphiné (Buchon).

[794] "Altra santa Catarina" (Morosini, vol. iii, p. 52). There is no doubt that here she is compared to Saint Catherine of Alexandria and not to Saint Catherine of Sienna.

[795] Morosini, vol. iii, p. 101.

[796] Trial, vol. iii, pp. 66, 210.

[797] Jean Bouchet, Annales d'Aquitaine, in the Trial, vol. iv, pp· 536, 537.

[798] Guilbert, Histoire des villes de France, vol. iv, Poitiers. Cf. B. Ledain, La Maison de Jeanne d'Arc à Poitiers, Saint-Maixent, 1892, in 8vo. According to M. Ledain the Hôtel de la Rose was on the spot now occupied by a house, number 13 in La Rue Notre-Dame-la-Petite.

[799] Trial, vol. iii, p. 66.

[800] Vallet de Viriville, Notices et extraits de chartes et de manuscrits appartenant au British Museum de Londres, in the Bibliothèque de l'École des Chartes, vol. viii, pp. 139, 140.

[801] De Beaucourt, Histoire de Charles VII, vol. ii, p. 77.

[802] Vallet de Viriville, Analyse et fragments tirés des Archives municipales de Tours in Cabinet historique, vol. v, pp. 102-121.

[803] Quicherat, Rodrigue de Villandrando, Paris, 1879, in 8vo, pp. 14 et seq.

[804] Le Jouvencel, vol. i, Introduction, p. xxii, note 1.

[805] Trial, vol. iii, p. 101.

[806] Francisque Mandet, Histoire du Velay, Le Puy, 1860-1862 (7 vols. in 12mo), vol. i, pp. 590 et seq. S. Luce, Jeanne d'Arc à Domremy, ch. xii.

[807] Jean Juvénal des Ursins, 1407.

[808] Nicole de Savigni, Notes sur les exploits de Jeanne d'Arc et sur divers évènements de son temps, in the Bulletin de la Société de l'Histoire de Paris, 1, 1874, p. 43. Chanoine Lucot, Jeanne d'Arc en Champagne, Châlons, 1880, pp. 12, 13.

[809] Trial, vol. i, p. 191; vol. ii, p. 74, note. La Romée may have received her surname for an entirely different reason. Most of our knowledge of Jeanne's mother is derived from documents of very doubtful authenticity.

[810] Francis C. Lowell considers the idea of La Romée's pilgrimage to Puy as a "characteristic example of the madness" of Siméon Luce (Joan of Arc, Boston, 1896, in 8vo, p. 72, note). Nevertheless, after considerable hesitation, I, like Luce, have rejected the corrections proposed by Lebrun de Charmettes and Quicherat, and adopted unamended the text of the Trial.

[811] Trial, vol. iii, p. 101. For the meaning of Lector, professor of theology, cf. Du Cange.

[812] Trial, vol. iii, pp. 101 et seq.

[813] E. Giraudet, Histoire de la ville de Tours, Tours, 1874, 2 vols. in 8vo, passim.

[814] Trial, vol. iii, pp. 67, 94, 210; vol. iv, pp. 3, 301, 363.

[815] J. Quicherat, Histoire du costume en France, Paris, 1875, large 8vo, pp. 270, 271.

[816] Trial, vol. iii, pp. 67, 94, 210. Relation du greffier de La Rochelle, p. 60. "The white armour of fifteenth century soldiers, simple as it was, was expensive; it cost about ten thousand francs of our present money. But the complete horse's armour was included in this" (Maurice Maindron, Pour l'histoire de l'armure, in Le monde moderne, 1896). According to the calculation of P. Clément (Jacques Cœur et Charles VII, 1873, p. lxvi), 100 livres would be equal to 4000 francs of present money.

[817] Trial, vol. i, p. 76. Letter from Perceval de Boulainvilliers, ibid., vol. v, p. 120. Greffier de la Chambre des comptes of Brabant, ibid., vol. iv, p. 428. Le Fèvre de Saint-Rémy, ibid., p. 439.

[818] Anonymous poem in the Trial, vol. v, p. 38 and note.

[819] Capitaine Champion, Jeanne d'Arc écuyère, pp. 146 et seq.

[820] Trial, vol. i, pp. 56, 75, 76, 77.

[821] Abbé Bourassé, Les miracles de madame sainte Katerine de Fierboys en Touraine (1375-1446), Tours, 1858, in 8vo, passim.

[822] Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 277. Jean Chartier, Chronique, vol. i, p. 69.

[823] Trial, vol. i, p. 77. Les miracles de madame sainte Katerine, passim.

[824] Trial, vol. i, pp. 76, 234, 236. Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 277. Journal du siège, p. 49. Jean Chartier, Chronique, vol. i, pp. 69, 70. Guerneri Berni, in the Trial, vol. iv, p. 519. Journal d'un bourgeois de Paris, p. 267. Morosini, vol. iii, p. 109. Relation du greffier de La Rochelle, pp. 337, 338. Chronique Messine, edition Bouteiller, 1878, Orléans, in 8vo, 26 pages.

[825] Trial, vol. i, pp. 75, 235.

[826] Ibid., p. 76.

[827] Morosini, vol. iii, pp. 108, 109. Chronique de Lorraine, in the Trial, vol. iv, p. 332. Eberhard Windecke, p. 101. Cf. Journal du siège, p. 49.

[828] Jean Chartier, vol. i, p. 122.

[829] Trial, vol. i, pp. 77, 179, 236; vol. iii, p. 103.

[830] Ibid., pp. 78, 117.

[831] Ibid., pp. 78, 117, 181, 300. Relation du greffier de La Rochelle, p. 338. Morosini, vol. iii, p. 110; vol. iv, supplement, xv, pp. 313, 315.

[832] Perceval de Cagny, p. 150. Journal du siège, p. 76. Relation du greffier d'Albi, in the Trial, vol. iv, p. 301. Relation du greffier de La Rochelle, p. 338. Chronique du doyen de Saint-Thibaud de Metz, in the Trial, vol. iv, p. 322. Extract from the thirteenth account of Hémon Raguier, in the Trial, vol. v, p. 258.

[833] Vallet de Viriville, Histoire de Charles VII, vol. ii, p. 65; Un épisode de la vie de Jeanne d'Arc, in Bibliothèque de l'École des Chartes, vol. iv, first series, p. 488.

[834] In Beaudouin de Sebourg (xx, 249) is the passage:

Il est cousin au conte
Il en fait estandart

quoted by Godefroy. Cf. La Curne and Littré.

[835] "Pourquoy la Hire, Poton et plusieurs autres vaillants hommes qui moult enviz s'en alloient ainsi honteusement," Journal du siège, p. 42.

[836] The hospital of Orléans, close to the cathedral.

[837] 9 March. Journal du siège, pp. 56, 57.

[838] Journal du siège, p. 64.

[839] Boucher de Molandon, L'armée anglaise vaincue par Jeanne d'Arc, ch. ii. Jarry, Le compte de l'armée anglaise, pp. 60, 107, 110, 112.

[840] Journal du siège, pp. 57, 58. Abbé Dubois, Histoire du siège, dissertation vi.

[841] Chronique de la Pucelle, pp. 265, 267. Morosini, vol. iv, supplement xiii.

[842] Journal du siège, p. 58.

[843] Le Jouvencel, vol. i, p. xxii; vol. ii, p. 44.

[844] Journal du siège, pp. 56, 62.

[845] Jarry, Le compte de l'armée anglaise, pp. 50, 58.

[846] Pierre Sureau's account in Jarry, Le compte de l'armée anglaise, proofs and illustrations, no. vi, pp. 45, 46.

[847] Journal d'un bourgeois de Paris, pp. 221, 222 et seq.

[848] Shakespeare, Henry VI, part i, act i, scene ii. According to M. G. Duval the first part of this play was adapted from one of Shakespeare's predecessors.

[849] Jean Chartier, Chronique, vol. i, p. 65.

[850] Journal du siège, pp. 69, 70. Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 270. Monstrelet, vol. iv, pp. 317 et seq. Morosini, vol. iii, pp. 19, 20, 21; vol. iv, supplement xiv, p. 311. Jarry, Le compte de l'armée anglaise, pp. 68 et seq. Boucher de Molandon, L'armée anglaise vaincue par Jeanne d'Arc, p. 145.

[851] Journal du siège, p. 70.

[852] Jollois, Histoire du siège, part vi, ch. i. Abbé Dubois, Histoire du siège, dissertation ix. Loiseleur, Compte des dépenses de Charles VII, ch. v. Lottin, Recherches historiques sur la ville d'Orléans, vol. ii, p. 205. Morosini, vol. iii, p. 25, note 2.

[853] Journal du siège, p. 64.

[854] Ibid., p. 59.

[855] Charles d'Orléans, Poésies, edited by A. Champollion-Figeac, Paris, 1842, in 8vo, p. 176.

[856] Miniature in the MS. of the poems of Charles d'Orléans, in the British Museum, Royal 16 F. ii, fol. 73 vo.

[857] Journal du siège, p. 43. Symphorien Guyon, Histoire de la ville d'Orléans, vol. ii, p. 43.

[858] Chronique de la fête, in the Trial, vol. v, p. 297.

[859] Accounts of the Commune, passim, in Journal du siège, pp. 210 et seq.

[860] Mistère du siège, lines 6964 et seq.

[861] Aug. Theiner, Saint Aignan ou le siège d'Orléans par Attila, notice historique suivie de la vie de ce saint, tirée des MSS. de la Bibliothèque du Roi, Paris, 1832, in 8vo.

[862] Journal du siège, p. 46. Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 278. Jean Chartier, Chronique, p. 66.

[863] Journal du siège, pp. 47, 48. P. Mantellier, Histoire du siège, pp. 61 et seq.

[864] Journal du siège, p. 77.

[865] Trial, vol. iii, p. 93. Geste des nobles, in La chronique de la Pucelle, p. 250. The Accounts of fortresses (1428-1430), in Boucher de Molandon, Première expédition de Jeanne d'Arc, pp. 30 et seq.

[866] Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 287. Journal du siège, p. 81. Boucher de Molandon, Première expédition de Jeanne d'Arc, pp. 28, 29. P. Mantellier, Histoire du siège, p. 230.

[867] The name by which the town councillors of Toulouse were called.

[868] Le siège d'Orléans, Jeanne d'Arc et les capitouls de Toulouse, by A. Thomas, in Annales du Midi, 1889, p. 232. It would appear that Saint-Flour, although solicited, did not contribute: it had enough to do to defend itself from the freebooters who were constantly hovering round. Cf. Villandrando et les écorcheurs à Saint-Flour by M. Boudet, Clermont-Ferrand, 1895, in 8vo, pp. 18 et seq.

[869] Receipts of the town of Orléans in 1429, in Boucher de Molandon, Première expédition de Jeanne d'Arc, p. 36.

[870] Florent d'Illiers, descended from an old family of the Chartres country, had married Jeanne, daughter of Jean de Coutes and sister of the little page whom the Sire de Gaucourt had given the Maid (A. de Villaret).

[871] Journal du siège, p. 73. Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 278.

[872] Le Jouvencel, vol. ii, p. 44.

[873] Jarry, Le compte de l'armée anglaise, pp. 75 et seq.

[874] Trial, vol. iii, p. 4.

[875] Journal du siège, passim. Chronique de Tournai, ed. Smedt (vol. iii, in the Recueil des chroniques de Flandre), p. 409.

[876] Trial, vol. iii, p. 93.

[877] Wavrin, in the Trial, vol. iv, p. 407. Monstrelet, vol. iv, p. 316. Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 278. Jean Chartier, Chronique, p. 68. Mistère du siège, lines 11,431 et seq. Abbé Bossard, Gilles de Rais, Maréchal de France, dit Barbe-Bleue (1404-1440), Paris, 1886, 8vo, pp. 31, 106.

[878] Trial, vol. iii, p. 74.

[879] Jeanne says (in her Trial) from 10,000 to 12,000 men; Monstrelet says, 7000; Eberhard Windecke, 3000; Morosini, 12,000.

[880] "Car vous ne trouverez nulz marchans qu'ils se mettent en ceste peine ne en ce danger, s'ilz n'ont l'argent contant." ("For you will find no merchants who will take that trouble, and run that risk, unless they are paid ready money.") Le Jouvencel, vol. i, p. 184.

[881] Trial, vol. iii, p. 74.

[882] There are eight ancient texts of this letter: (1) the text used in the Rouen trial (Trial, i, p. 240); (2) a text probably written by a Knight of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem; the original document has been lost, but there are two copies dating from the 18th century (Ibid., v, p. 95); (3) the text contained in Le journal du siège (Ibid., iv, p. 139); (4) the text in La chronique de la Pucelle (Ibid., iv, p. 215); (5) the text in Thomassin's Registre Delphinal (Ibid., iv, p. 306); (6) the text of the Greffier de La Rochelle (Revue historique, vol. iv); (7) the text of the Tournai Chronicle (Recueil des chroniques de Flandre, vol. iii, p. 407); (8) the text in Le mistère du siège. There may be mentioned also a German contemporary translation by Eberhard Windecke.

The text from the Trial is the one quoted here. It is a reproduction of the original. The others differ from it and from original too widely for it to be possible to indicate the differences except by giving the whole of each text. And after all these variations are of no great importance.

[883] The King of France himself designated as good such of his towns as he wished to honour.

[884] Compare: "Et ardirent la ville et violèrent l'abbaye." ("And burnt the town and violated the abbey.") Froissart, quoted by Littré. As early as Le chanson de Roland we find: "Les castels pris, les cités violées." ("The castles taken, the cities violated.")

[885] The deliverance of the Duke of Orléans. Réclamer in the French. M. S. Reinach proposes to substitute relever, which is plausible (cf. Trial, vol. ii, p. 421).

[886] Le journal du siège omits the word France and thus renders the phrase unintelligible. This omission proceeds from a text of great antiquity on which are based notably La chronique de la Pucelle and the account of the Greffier de La Rochelle whom this mangled phrase visibly embarrassed.

[887] Gentle is here in opposition to villein. Gentle and otherwise: nobles and villeins. Here we must interpret the terms comrades and gentle according to their true meaning and not consider them as used ironically, as in the following passage from Froissart: "Il (le duc de Lancastre) entendit comme il pourroit estre saisy de quatre gentils compaignons qui estranglé avoyent son oncle, le duc de Glocestre, au chasteau de Calais." "He (the Duke of Lancaster) realised how he might be seized by the four gentle comrades who had strangled his uncle, the Duke of Gloucester, in the Castle of Calais." (Froissart in La Curne.)

[888] French. Attendez les nouvelles de la Pucelle and further on: Si vous ne voulés croire lez nouvelles de par Dieu de la Pucelle.... This word Nouvelles then as now meant tidings, but it also had a sense of marvels as in the following phrase: "En celle année apparurent maintes nouvelles à Rosay en Brie; le vin fut mué en sang et le pain en chair sensiblement ou (au) sacrement de l'autel." ("In that year many marvels were wrought at Rosay in Brie; the wine was turned to blood and the bread to flesh visibly at the sacrament of the altar.") (Chroniques de Saint Denys, in La Curne.)

[889] Trial, vol. i, pp. 55, 84, 240.

[890] Ibid., pp. 55, 56, 84.

[891] Morosini, vol. iii, pp. 64, 82 et seq. Christine de Pisan, in the Trial, vol. v, p. 16. Concerning the subject of the Crusade, cf. N. Jorga, Philippe de Mezières, 1896, in 8vo: Notes et extraits pour servir à l'histoire des Croisades au XVe siècle, Paris, 1899-1902, 3 vols. in 8vo (taken from La revue de l'Orient Latin).

[892] Pii Secundi commentarii, 1614 edition, p. 440. Wadding, Annales Minorum, vol. v, pp. 130 et seq.

[893] Journal d'un bourgeois de Paris, p. 233. S. Luce, Jeanne d'Arc à Domremy, pp. xv, ccxxxvii. See the pictures in the numerous fifteenth century little popular books concerning Antichrist. (Brunet, Manuel du libraire, vol. i, col. 316.)

[894] Félix Rabbe, Jeanne d'Arc en Angleterre, Paris, 1891, p. 12.

[895] Monstrelet, vol. iv, p. 112. Vallet de Viriville, Histoire de Charles VII, vol. i, p. 340.

[896] Le P. Marcellin Fornier, Histoire des Alpes, Maritimes ou Cottiennes, vol. ii, pp. 315 et seq.

[897] In all extant copies of the Letter to the English, except that of the Trial, at the passage "you may come" [Encore que pourrez venir] the text is completely illegible.

[898] Per unam litteram suo materno idiomate confectam, verbis bene simplicibus, Trial, vol. iv, p. 7, evidence of the Bastard of Orléans. Mathieu Thomassin, Registre Delphinal, in the Trial, vol. iv, p. 306.

[899] On the contrary it contains forms which would never have been penned by a native of Picardy, Burgundy, Lorraine, or Champagne, such as the participle envoyée. Both the grammar and the writing are those of a French clerk. (Contributed by M. E. Langlois.)

[900] Trial, vol. v, p. 252. E. de Bouteiller and G. de Braux, Nouvelles recherches sur la famille de Jeanne d'Arc, pp. xx, 9, 10. [Document of very doubtful authenticity.]

[901] Trial, vol. iii, p. 101.

[902] Ibid., pp. 65, 67, 124. Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 277. A. de Villaret, Louis de Coutes, page de Jeanne d'Arc, Orléans, 1890, 8vo.

[903] Trial, vol. iii, pp. 26, 27.

[904] Extracts from the Accounts of Hémon Raguier, Trial, vol. v, pp. 257, 258.

[905] Trial, vol. iii, p. 211. D'Aulon had seen her at Poitiers.

[906] Ibid., p. 15. De Beaucourt, Histoire de Charles VII, vol. ii, p. 292, note 3. The loans mentioned occurred later, but there is no reason to believe that they were the first. Duc de La Tremoïlle, Les La Trémouille pendant cinq siècles, Guy VI et Georges (1346-1446), Nantes, 1890, pp. 196, 201.

[907] Juvénal des Ursins, year 1396.

[908] Ordonnances des rois de France, vol. xi, p. 105; vol. xiii, p. 247. S. de Bouillerie, La répression du blasphème dans l'ancienne législation, in the Revue historique et archéologique du Maine, 1884, pp. 369 et seq. De Beaucourt, Histoire de Charles VII, vol. i, p. 370; vol. ii, p. 189. A. Longnon, Paris pendant la domination anglaise, Paris, 1878, in 8vo, pp. 11, 56.

[909] Trial, vol. iii, pp. 78, 104, 105. Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 283. Very early she was mentioned in connection with La Hire, the most valiant of the French, and it was imagined that she taught him to confess and to cease swearing. These are pretty stories (Trial, vol. iii, p. 32; vol. iv, p. 327).

[910] Trial, vol. iii, p. 103. Boucher de Molandon, Première expédition de Jeanne d'Arc, p. 47. L.A. Bossebœuf, Jeanne d'Arc en Touraine, Tours, 1899, pp. 34 et seq.

[911] Le P. Denifle, La désolation des églises, monastères, hôpitaux, en France, vers le milieu du XVe siècle, Mâcon, 1897, in 8vo, introduction.

[912] Trial, vol. iv, p. 327. Tringant, Le Jouvencel, vol. ii, p. 277, merely says that few soldiers went willingly to the relief of Orléans, which is not strictly accurate.

[913] Trial, vol. iii, p. 104 (Brother Pasquerel's evidence). Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 281. Morosini, vol. iii, pp. 110, 111; vol. iv, pp. 313-315. G. Martin, L'étendard de Jeanne d'Arc, in Notes d'art et d'arch., 1834, pp. 65-71, 81-88, illustrated.

[914] Trial, vol. iii, p. 93. Chronique du doyen de Saint-Thibaud, in Trial, vol. iv, p. 327.

[915] Trial, vol. iii, pp. 5, 67, 78, 105, 212. Martial d'Auvergne, ibid., vol. v, p. 53. Chronique de la fête, ibid., p. 290. Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 281. Jean Chartier, Chronique, vol. i, p. 71. Boucher de Molandon, Première expédition de Jeanne d'Arc, pp. 38 et seq.

[916] The 28th of April, according to Eberhard Windecke, p. 165. The 27th, if, as Pasquerel says, the army spent two nights on the march.

[917] Trial, vol. iii, p. 105.

[918] Eberhard Windecke, p. 167.

[919] Trial, vol. iii, p. 104 (Brother Pasquerel's evidence).

[920] Ibid., p. 67 (evidence of Louis de Coutes).

[921] Ibid., p. 67. Pasquerel says (vol. iii, p. 105) that the soldiers of fortune were permitted to join the congregation if they had confessed.

[922] Trial, vol. iii, pp. 4, 5. Boucher de Molandon, Bulletin de la Société archéologique de l'Orléanais, vol. iv, p. 427; vol. ix, p. 73. The same author, Première expédition de Jeanne d'Arc, pp. 41 et seq. Mistère du siège, lines 11,480 et seq. Chronique de l'établissement de la fête, in Trial, vol. v, p. 289.

[923] Journal du siège, p. 75. Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 283.

[924] "Et cuidoit bien qu'ils deussent passer par devers les bastides du siège devers la Beausse." Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 281.

[925] Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 285 (the Chronicle here amplifies the evidence of Dunois, vol. iii, p. 67).

[926] Trial, vol. iii, pp. 5, 6.

[927] Trial, vol. iii, pp. 5, 6. Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 284. Boucher de Molandon, Première expédition de Jeanne d'Arc, p. 49.

[928] Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 273.

[929] Opinion of Martin Berruyer, in Lanéry d'Arc, Mémoires et consultations, ch. vii.

[930] Trial, vol. iii, pp. 78, 214.

[931] Trial, vol. iii, p. 16.

[932] Ibid., p. 78. Journal du siège, pp. 74, 75. Chronique de la fête, in Trial, vol. v, p. 290.

[933] Trial, vol. iii, p. 105. Chronique du la Pucelle, p. 284.

[934] Boucher de Molandon, La délivrance d'Orléans et l'institution de la fête du 8 mai, Chronique anonyme du XVe siècle, Orléans, 1883, in 8vo, pp. 28, 29.

[935] Trial, vol. iii, p. 6. Journal du siège, p. 75.

[936] Chronique de la fête, in the Trial, vol. v, p. 290. Morosini, vol. iii, p. 23, note 5. Boucher de Molandon, Première expédition de Jeanne d'Arc, pp. 52-56.

[937] Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 285. This document very untrustworthy as a whole is in certain passages a better authority than Le journal du siège.

[938] Trial, vol. iii, pp. 104, 105 (Pasquerel's evidence).

[939] Chronique de la Pucelle, pp. 284, 285.

[940] "Ex tunc dictus deponens habuit bonam spem de ea et plus quam ante," Trial, vol. iii, p. 6.

[941] Timens ne recedere vellent et quod opus remaneret imperfectum, Trial, vol. iii, p. 78. Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 286. Chronique de la fête, in the Trial, vol. v, p. 285. Boucher de Molandon, Première expédition de Jeanne d'Arc, pp. 61, 62.

[942] Trial, vol. iii, p. 105. Mistère du siège, line 11,616.

[943] Boucher de Molandon, Première expédition de Jeanne d'Arc, pp. 62, 99, note xiv, and in Bulletin de la Société archéologique de l'Orléanais, vol. iv, p. 429; vol. ix, p. 73.

[944] Journal du siège, p. 75. Ch. du Lys, Traité sommaire tant du nom et des armes que de la naissance et parenté de la Pucelle d'Orléans et de ses frères, Paris, 1628, in 4to, p. 50. Abbé Dubois, Histoire du siège, p. 344. P. Mantellier, Histoire du siège, p. 86. Boucher de Molandon, Première expédition de Jeanne d'Arc, p. 65, proofs and illustrations, note xv.

[945] Journal du siège, pp. 75, 76.

[946] Boucher de Molandon, Première expédition de Jeanne d'Arc, p. 68.

[947] Chronique de la Fête, in Trial, vol. v, p. 290.

[948] Journal du siège, pp. 74, 75. Jean Chartier, Chronique, vol. i, p. 69. Chronique de la Pucelle, pp. 284, 285.

[949] Boucher de Molandon, Première expédition de Jeanne d'Arc, pp. 51 et seq.

[950] Journal du siège, p. 75.

[951] Ibid., p. 76.

[952] Journal du siège, pp. 74, 75.

[953] And even now trumpeters ride white horses (Histoire de Jeanne d'Arc, by Lebrun de Charmettes, 1817, in 8vo, vol. ii, p. 21).

[954] Trial, vol. iii, p. 7. Journal du siège, p. 76. Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 287. Jean Chartier, Chronique, vol. i, p. 72. Morosini, vol. iii, pp. 28, 30.

[955] "Comme se ilz veissent Dieu descendre entre eulx," says Le journal du siège, p. 76. Luillier (Trial, vol. iii, p. 24) calls her "the angel of the Lord" (l'ange de Dieu).

[956] Journal du siège, pp. 76, 77.

[957] Chronique de l'établissement de la fête, p. 28.

[958] Trial, vol. i, p. 101; vol. iii, pp. 34, 68, 124 et seq., 211. Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 285. Boucher de Molandon, Jacques Boucher, sieur de Guilleville, trésorier général du district d'Orléans.... in Mémoires de la Société archéologique de l'Orléanais, vol. xxii, 1889, p. 373. Boucher de Molandon, Première expédition de Jeanne d'Arc, p. 101, note xvi; proofs and illustrations, p. 108.

[959] Jean Chartier, Chronique, vol. i, p. 73. Chronique de la Pucelle, ed. Vallet de Viriville, p. 20. [Note on G. Cousinot the Chancellor.] Cf. Nouvelle biographie générale. Vallet de Viriville, Essais critiques sur les historiens originaux du règne de Charles VII, in Bibliothèque de l'École des Chartes, 1857, fourth series, vol. iii, pp. 11-14, 105-111.

[960] Trial, vol. i, p. 101; vol. iii, pp. 68, 124 et seq.; vol. iv, pp. 153, 219, 227. Journal du siège, pp. 77, 78. Boucher de Molandon, Première expédition de Jeanne d'Arc, pp. 69, 107, note xvi.

[961] G. Lefèvre-Pontalis (Chronique d'Antonio Morosini, vol. iii, p. 101, note) discovers in La chronique de la Pucelle (xliv, p. 285) a wrong use of an incident cited by Dunois in his evidence, which must be allowed to have happened on the 7th of May, as Dunois cited it (Trial, vol. iii, p. 9).

[962] Trial, vol. iii, pp. 34, 68.

[963] Franklin, La vie privée d'autrefois, vols. ii, xix, passim. H. Havard, Dictionnaire de l'ameublement, under the word lit.

[964] Accounts of the fortress in Trial, vol. v, pp. 259, 260.

[965] Journal du siège, pp. 43, 44.

[966] Ibid., pp. 78, 79.

[967] See the evidence of S. Charles (vol. iii, pp. 116, 117) and certain details in La chronique de la Pucelle.

[968] Trial, vol. iii, pp. 7, 211; vol. iv, pp. 221, 222. Chronique de la Pucelle, pp. 250, 251, 287. Jean Chartier, Chronique, vol. i, pp. 74, 75.

[969] Journal du siège, pp. 78, 79.

[970] Ibid., p. 78. Chronique de la fête, in Trial, vol. v, pp. 291, 292. Cf. Letter written from Germany, in Trial, vol. v, p. 349.

[971] Trial, vol. iii, pp. 27, 108. Journal du siège, p. 79.

[972] Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 284. Trial, vol. iii, pp. 26, 27.

[973] Martial de Paris, called d'Auvergne, Vigiles de Charles VII, ed. Coustelier, 1724, vol. i, p. 98.

[974] La Curne, under the word Periapt. Shakespeare, Henry VI, part i, act v, sc. iii.

[975] Shakespeare, Henry VI, part i, act iii, sc. i.

[976] Vallet de Viriville, Histoire de Charles VII, vol. i, p. 306. Carlier, Histoire du Valois, vol. ii, p. 442.

[977] Jarry, Le compte de l'armée anglaise, p. 61.

[978] Shakespeare, Henry VI, part i, act i, sc. ii.

[979] Trial, vol. iii, p. 27. Journal du siège, p. 79. Chronique de la Pucelle, pp. 285, 286.

[980] Journal du siège, p. 79. Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 290.

[981] Trial, vol. iii, p. 7. Journal du siège, p. 79.

[982] Trial, vol. iii, p. 211.

[983] Journal du siège, p. 80. P. Mantellier, Histoire du siège, pp. 92, 95.

[984] 1 May. Journal du siège, p. 80.

[985] Trial, vol. iii, p. 68 (evidence of Louis de Coutes).

[986] Extracts from fortress accounts, in the Trial, vol. v, p. 259.

[987] Trial, vol. i, p. 64.

[988] Ibid., vol. iii, pp. 9, 15, 18, 22, 60; vol. v, p. 120. Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 285. Morosini, p. 101. Relation du greffier de La Rochelle, p. 337.

[989] Journal du siège, p. 80. P. Mantellier, Histoire du siège, p. 95.

[990] Charles Cuissard, Notes chronologiques sur Jean de Mâcon, in Mémoires de la Société archéologique de l'Orléanais, vol. xi, 1897, pp. 529, 545.

[991] Chronique de la fête, in Trial, vol. v, p. 291. Lottin, Recherches, vol. i, p. 30.

[992] Note by Guill. Girault, notary in the Trial, vol. iv, p. 282. Journal du siège, p. 135.

[993] Trial, vol. v, pp. 112, 113.

[994] Ibid., vol. iii, p. 24. Cf. Ibid., pp. 7, 8 (the evidence of Dunois amounts to much the same).

[995] Chronique de la fête, in Trial, vol. v, p. 291.

[996] Chronique de la fête, in Trial, vol. v, p. 291.

[997] Journal du siège, pp. 51, 52.

[998] Beaucroix, in his evidence, says it was Jean d'Aulon (Trial, vol. iii, p. 79); but, according to his own testimony, d'Aulon was then following the Bastard (Ibid., vol. iii, p. 210).

[999] Ibid., vol. iii, p. 79. Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 286. P. Mantellier, Histoire du siège, p. 85.

[1000] Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 287.

[1001] Ibid., p. 287. Journal du siège, p. 81. Abbé Dubois, Histoire du siège, dissertation ix. Lottin, Recherches, vol. i, p. 205. Loiseleur, Comptes des dépenses, ch. vii.

[1002] On the 4th of May, as on the 29th of April, the corn was brought down the Loire. Indeed there exists a bill which makes mention of "sailors who brought the corn which came from Blois on the 4th day of May," "nottoniers qui amenèrent les blés qui furent amenés de Blois le iiije jour de may" (Boucher de Molandon, Première expédition de Jeanne d'Arc, pp. 58, 59).

[1003] The 4th of May, Trial, vol. iii, pp. 105, 211. Journal du siège, p. 81. Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 287.

[1004] Trial, vol. iii, p. 212 (Jean d'Aulon's evidence).

[1005] Ibid., p. 212.

[1006] Ibid., p. 212. Journal du siège, p. 78.

[1007] I have followed the account of Jean Chartier, vol. i, p. 73 (amplified in La chronique de la Pucelle, p. 288), which is more plausible than that of Le journal du siège.

[1008] Trial, vol. iii, pp. 212, 213 (Jean d'Aulon's evidence).

[1009] Ibid., vol. iii, p. 106.

[1010] Trial, vol. iii, p. 68 (evidence of Louis de Coutes).

[1011] Ibid., p. 69.

[1012] Ibid., p. 212.

[1013] Ibid., pp. 212, 213 (Jean d'Aulon's evidence).

[1014] Trial, vol. iii, p. 213.

[1015] Gruel, Chronique d'Arthur de Richemont, p. 72.

[1016] Journal du siège, p. 75.

[1017] Trial, vol. iii, pp. 124, 126. Abbé Dubois, Histoire du siège, dissertation vi. Morosini, vol. iv, supplement xiii. Journal du siège, pp. 83, 84. Jean Chartier, Chronique, vol. i, p. 72.

[1018] Robert Blondel, De reductione Normanniæ, in Trial, vol. iv, p. 347. Journal du siège, p. 13. Chronique de la fête, in Trial, vol. v, pp. 286 et seq.

[1019] Trial, vol. iii, pp. 109, 127. Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 295. Clerk of the Chambre des Comptes de Brabant, in Trial, vol. iv, p. 426. Eberhard Windecke, p. 172.

[1020] Perceval de Cagny says: "Soon after [the arrival of the Maid on the edge of the entrenchments] those in the fort wished to surrender to her: she would not take them for ransom and said she would capture them in any event, and redoubled the attack. And straightway the fort was taken and almost all put to death." This is hard to believe. The English would sooner have surrendered to the humblest menial in the Armagnac host than to the Maid: and it is not likely that she would have refused to hold them as prisoners for ransom. Besides, Perceval de Cagny has not the remotest idea of what happened on the 4th of May. For example, he believes that the Maid opened the attack. Perceval de Cagny, pp. 144 et seq. Journal du siège, p. 82. Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 289. Chronique de la fête, in Trial, vol. v, p. 294.

[1021] Trial, vol. iii, p. 106.

[1022] Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 289.

[1023] Trial, vol. iii, p. 106.

[1024] At the capture of the Saint-Loup bastion:

  Number of French engaged. Number of French slain.
Journal du Siège 1,500 without counting nobles.  
Letter of Charles VII   2
Morosini's correspondent 3,500  
Eberhard Windecke   2

 

  Number of English engaged. Number of English slain.
Brother Pasquerel 100 picked men 100 slain or taken
Jean d'Aulon   all killed or taken
G. Girault   120 killed or taken
Charles VII's letter   all killed or taken
Journal du siège   114 killed, 40 taken
Relation de la fête du 8 Mai From 120 to 140 all killed or taken
Perceval de Cagny 3,000 all killed or taken
Chronique de la Pucelle   160 killed
Monstrelet From 300 to 400 all killed or taken
Eberhard Windecke   170 killed, 1,300 taken
Les Vigiles de Charles VII   60 killed, 22 taken

[1025] The accounts of the fortress in Journal du siège, p. 284.

[1026] Trial, vol. iii, p. 107. Chronique de la Pucelle, pp. 289, 290.

[1027] Trial, vol. iii, pp. 34, 35 (evidence of the widow Huré).

[1028] May 5th. Quicherat is mistaken when he says (Trial, vol. iv, p. 57, note) that this council was held at Jacques Boucher's. Cf. Journal du siège, p. 83. Jean Chartier, Chronique, p. 73. Boucher de Molandon in Mémoires de la Société archéologique de l'Orléanais, vol. xxii, p. 373.

[1029] By the little island without a name which is marked on the plan as Petite Île Charlemagne. The English had fortified it. See plan.

[1030] Jean Chartier, Chronique, vol. i, p. 74.

[1031] Ibid., pp. 74, 75. These statements are very doubtful.

[1032] Jean Chartier, Chronique, vol. i, pp. 74, 75. Very doubtful.

[1033] Ibid., p. 75. Journal du siège, pp. 82, 83. Cf. the evidence of S. Charles (Trial, vol. iii, pp. 116, 117).

[1034] May 5th. Trial, vol. iii, p. 107 (Pasquerel's evidence).

[1035] Ibid., p. 108.

[1036] Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 286. Journal du siège, p. 79, gives a different account of this episode.

[1037] Trial, vol. iii, p. 108 (Pasquerel's evidence).

[1038] Ibid., pp. 116, 117. Evidence of S. Charles. P. Mantellier, Histoire du siège, p. 105.

[1039] Journal du siège, pp. 83, 84. Abbé Dubois, Histoire du siège, p. 535. Jollois, Histoire du siège, p. 39.

[1040] Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 290.

[1041] Jean Chartier, Chronique, vol. i, p. 76. Journal du siège, pp. 84, 85.

[1042] "Et les rebouterent ils par maintes fois et tresbucherent de hault en bas." Journal du siège, p. 85.

[1043] Trial, vol. iii, pp. 214, 215 (Jean d'Aulon's evidence).

[1044] Trial, vol. iii, p. 215 (Jean d'Aulon's evidence).

[1045] Ibid., p. 78 (evidence of Beaucroix). Journal du siège, p. 86.

[1046] Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 291. Jean Chartier, Chronique, vol. i, p. 72. Journal du siège, pp. 84, 85. Of doubtful authenticity.

[1047] Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 291.

[1048] Perceval de Cagny, p. 146.

[1049] Trial, vol. iii, p. 79 (evidence of Beaucroix).

[1050] Ibid., p. 70. Chronique de la fête, p. 33.

[1051] Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 291.

[1052] Trial, vol. iii, p. 108.

[1053] The council is mentioned in La chronique de la Pucelle, p. 292; but this document is a mere echo of Brother Pasquerel's evidence.

[1054] Trial, vol. iii, pp. 108, 109. Brother Pasquerel, whom I follow here, reports Jeanne's saying in the following terms: Exibit crastina die sanguis a corpore meo supra mammam. I suspect him of having added to the prophecy. He was too fond of miracles and prophecies. On the 28th of April the Maid says that the wind will change, and it changed. Brother Pasquerel is not satisfied with so moderate a marvel. He relates that Jeanne raised the waters of the Loire. We know on other authority that the Loire was high. It cannot be denied that long before this Jeanne had foretold that she would be wounded. This fact, stated in a letter from Lyon, dated the 22nd of April, 1429, was recorded in a register of La Cour des Comptes of Brabant. But she did not specify the day. Dixit ... quod ipsa ante Aureliam in conflictu telo vulnerabitur (Trial, vol. iv, p. 426).

[1055] Journal du siège, p. 84.

[1056] Trial, vol. iii, p. 109. Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 295.

[1057] Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 292. Trial, vol. iii, p. 215. Journal du siège, pp. 84, 85.

[1058] Chronique de la fête, in Trial, vol. v, p. 293.

[1059] "Par l'accord et consentement des bourgeois d'Orléans mais contre l'opinion et volonté de tous les chefs et capitaines," Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 292.

[1060] Chronique de l'établissement de la fête, in Trial, vol. v, p. 293. Le Roux de Lincy, Proverbes, vol. ii, p. 395.

[1061] Trial, vol. iii, p. 124 (evidence of the woman P. Milet). Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 292.

[1062] Berry, in Trial, vol. iv, pp. 43, 44.

[1063] Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 292. Journal du siège, p. 284, passim.

[1064] Journal du siège, p. 87. Letter from Charles VII to the people of Narbonne (10 May, 1429), in Trial, vol. v, pp. 101 et seq. Chronique de la fête, in Trial, vol. v, p. 294. Jean Chartier, Chronique, vol. i, p. 77. Morosini, vol. iii, p. 32, note 1.

[1065] Jarry, Le compte de l'armée anglaise, pp. 94, 95, 136, 206. Boucher de Molandon, L'armée anglaise, pp. 94 et seq.

[1066] They were employed chiefly in carrying munitions of war. Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 292.

[1067] Trial, vol. iii, p. 5.

[1068] Journal du siège, p. 85. Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 293. Jean Chartier, Chronique, vol. i, p. 77. Morosini, vol. iii, pp. 31 et seq.

[1069] Accounts of fortresses in Journal du siège, pp. 296, 300. Vergniaud-Romagnési, Notice historique sur le fort des Tourelles, Paris, in 8vo, 1832, p. 50.

[1070] Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 293.

[1071] "Post prandium," says Brother Pasquerel (Trial, vol. iii, p. 108). Cf. the evidence of Dunois (Ibid., p. 8).

[1072] Trial, vol. i, p. 79. Eberhard Windecke, p. 172.

[1073] Trial, vol. iii, p. 109.

[1074] Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 292. Clerk of La Chambre des Comptes of Brabant, in Trial, vol. iv, p. 426.

[1075] Trial, vol. iii, p. 109. Chronique de la Pucelle, pp. 292, 293.

[1076] Trial, vol. iii, p. 109 (Pasquerel's evidence).

[1077] Ibid., vol. i, p. 79; vol. iii, p. 110.

[1078] Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 293.

[1079] Trial, vol. iii, p. 216 (Jean d'Aulon's evidence), p. 25; (evidence of J. Luillier). Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 293.

[1080] Trial, vol. iii, p. 25. Journal du siège, pp. 85, 86. Eberhard Windecke, p. 173.

[1081] Trial, vol. iii, p. 8 (evidence of Dunois). I emphatically reject the facts alleged by Charles du Lys, concerning Guy de Cailly, who is said to have accompanied Jeanne into the vineyard and seen the angels coming down to her. Guy de Cailly's patent of nobility is apocryphal. Charles du Lys, Traité sommaire, pp. 50, 52.

[1082] Trial, vol. i, pp. 52, 62, 153, 480; vol. ii, pp. 420, 424.

[1083] Ibid., vol. iii, p. 216. The Count Couret, Un fragment inédit des anciens registres de la Prévoté d'Orléans, Orléans, 1897, pp. 12, 20, 21, passim.

[1084] Trial, vol. iii, p. 216.

[1085] Journal du siège, p. 86.

[1086] Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 293.

[1087] Trial, vol. iii, pp. 216, 217.

[1088] Journal du siège, p. 86. Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 293.

[1089] Chronique de la fête, in the Trial, vol. v, p. 294.

[1090] Journal du siège, p. 87.

[1091] Letter from Charles VII to the inhabitants of Narbonne, 10 May, 1429, in Trial, vol. v, p. 103. Monstrelet, in Trial, vol. iv, p. 365.

[1092] Trial, vol. iii, p. 110 (Pasquerel's evidence).

[1093] Chronique de la Pucelle, pp. 293, 294. Morosini, vol. iii, p. 31.

[1094] Journal du siège, p. 17. Jollois, Histoire du siège, p. 12.

[1095] Journal du siège, p. 87. Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 294. Chronique de la fête, in Trial, vol. v, p. 294.

[1096] Trial, vol. iii, pp. 9, 25, 80. Chronique de l'établissement de la fête, in Trial, vol. v, p. 294. Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 294. Journal du siège, pp. 87, 88. Jean Chartier, Chronique, vol. i, p. 78. Perceval de Cagny, p. 145. Eberhard Windecke, p. 173. Monstrelet, vol. iv, p. 321. Morosini, vol. iii, pp. 31 et seq.

[1097] Trial, vol. iii, p. 110 (Pasquerel's evidence).

[1098] Journal du siège, p. 87.

[1099] The number of the English who defended Les Tourelles is given in Le journal du siège as 400 or 500; in Charles VII's letter as 600; in La relation de la fête du 8 mai as 800; in La chronique de la Pucelle as 500. It is impossible to fix exactly the number of the French, but they were more than ten times as many as the English.

The English losses, by Guillaume Girault, are said to have been 300 slain and taken; by Berry, 400 or 500 slain and taken; by Jean Chartier, about 400 slain, the rest taken; by La chronique de la Pucelle, 300 slain, 200 taken; by Le journal du siège, 400 or 500 slain besides a few taken. By Monstrelet, in the MSS., 600 or 800 slain or taken; in the printed editions, 1000; by Bower, 600 and more slain.

The losses of the French are said by Perceval de Cagny to have been 16 to 20 slain; by Eberhard Windecke, 5 slain and a few wounded; by Monstrelet, about 100. The Maid estimated that in the various engagements at Orléans in which she took part "one hundred and even more" of the French were wounded.

[1100] Journal du siège, p. 88.

[1101] Perceval de Cagny, p. 147. Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 295.

[1102] Journal du siège, p. 88. Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 295. Jean Chartier, Chronique, vol. i, p. 78.

[1103] Chronique de l'établissement de la fête, in Trial, vol. v, pp. 294 et seq.

[1104] Trial, vol. iv, p. 163.

[1105] Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 295.

[1106] Journal du siège, p. 89. Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 296. Jean Chartier, Chronique, vol. i, pp. 78, 79. Le Jouvencel, vol. i, p. 208. The passage beginning with the words, "The Sire of Rocquencourt said," must be taken as historical.

[1107] Trial, vol. iii, p. 9 (evidence of Dunois).

[1108] Ibid., p. 29 (evidence of J. de Champeaux).

[1109] Journal du siège, p. 89.

[1110] Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 296.

[1111] Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 296.

[1112] Chronique de l'établissement de la fête, in Trial, vol. v, pp. 294, 295. Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 296.

[1113] Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 296.

[1114] Trial, vol. iii, pp. 71, 97, 110. Journal du siège, p. 89. Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 297. Morosini, vol. iii, p. 34. Walter Bower, Scotichronicon, in Trial, vol. iv, pp. 478, 479. Eberhard Windecke, p. 177.

[1115] Charles VII's letter to the people of Narbonne, in the Trial, vol. v, p. 101. Monstrelet, vol. iv, p. 323.

[1116] Journal du siège, pp. 209 et seq.

[1117] Ibid., p. 216. Chronique de la fête, in Trial, vol. v, p. 295.

[1118] Trial, vol. iii, p. 110. Journal du siège, p. 92.

[1119] Journal du siège, p. 91. G. Met-Gaubert, Notice sur Florent d'Illiers, Chartres, 1864, in 8vo.

[1120] Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 298.

[1121] Journal du siège, pp. 91, 92. Jean Chartier, Chronique, vol. i, p. 71.

[1122] Charles VII's Letter to the Inhabitants of Narbonne, in Trial, vol. v, pp. 101, 104. Arcère, Histoire de La Rochelle, vol. i, p. 271 (1756). Moynès, Inventaire des archives de l'Aude, supplement, p. 390. Procession d'actions de grâces à Brignoles (Var) en l'honneur de la délivrance d'Orléans par Jeanne d'Arc (1429). Communication made to the Congress of learned Societies at the Sorbonne (April, 1893) by F. Mireur, Draguignan, 1894, in 8vo, p. 175.

[1123] Trial, vol. iii, p. 80. Journal du siège, p. 91.

[1124] Ibid., vol. iii, pp. 72, 76, 80.

[1125] Trial, vol. iii, p. 116 (evidence of S. Charles). Eberhard Windecke, p. 177, and Chronique de Tournai, edition Smedt, pp. 407 et seq. (vol. iii of Les chroniques de Flandre).

[1126] Trial, vol. iii, pp. 394, 407; vol. v, p. 413. Le P. Marcellin Fornier, Histoire des Alpes-Maritimes ou Cottiennes, vol. ii, p. 320. Le P. Ayroles, La Pucelle devant l'Église de son temps, pp. 39, 52.

[1127] L. Paris, Notice sur le dédale ou labyrinthe de l'église de Reims, in Ann. des Inst. provinc., 1857, vol. ix, p. 233.

[1128] Bibl. Nat. Latin Collection, no. 6199, folio 36. Trial, vol. iii, pp. 395-410. Lanéry d'Arc, Mémoires et consultations, pp. 365 et seq. Le P. Ayroles, La Pucelle devant l'Église de son temps, pp. 31-52.

[1129] Launoy, Historia Navarrici Gymasii, book iv, ch. v. J.B. Lecuy, Essai sur la vie de Jean Gerson, chancelier de l'église et de l'université de Paris, sur sa doctrine, sur ses écrits.... Paris, 1832, 2 vols. in 8vo. Vallet de Viriville, Histoire de Charles VII, vol. ii, p. 94. A.L. Masson, Jean Gerson, sa vie, son temps, ses œuvres, Lyon, 1894, 8vo.

[1130] Par une cruauté miséricordieuse. Du Boulay, Historia Universitatis Parisiensis, vol. iv, p. 270.

[1131] Gerson, Opera, vol. iv, pp. 668-678.

[1132] Gerson, Adversus corruptionem Juventutis. A. Lafontaine, De Johanne Gersonio puerorum adulescentiumque institutore.... La Chapelle-Montligeon, 1902, in 8vo.

[1133] Gallia Christiana, vol. vii, col. 142. Jean Juvénal des Ursins, year 1406.

[1134] Exodus, xv, 20, 21 (W.S.).

[1135] Œuvres de Gerson, ed. Ellies Dupin, Paris, 1706, in folio, vol. iv, p. 864. Trial, vol. iii, p. 298; vol. v, p. 412. Le P. Ayroles, La Pucelle devant l'Église de son temps, p. 24.

[1136] Trial, vol. iii, pp. 12, 72, 76, 80. Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 298. Journal du siège, p. 93. Chronique de la fête, in Trial, vol. v, p. 299. Letter written by the agents of a German town, in Trial, vol. v, p. 349. Chronique de Tournai (Recueil des chroniques de Flandre, vol. iii, p. 412). Eberhard Windecke, p. 177. De Beaucourt, Histoire de Charles VII, vol. ii, p. 215.

[1137] De Beaucourt, Histoire de Charles VII, pp. 634 et seq.

[1138] Loiseleur, Compte des dépenses, pp. 147 et seq.

[1139] Trial, vol. v, pp. 256 et seq., and taken from the Commune and Fortress Accounts in Journal du siège. A. de Villaret, loc. cit. p. 61. Couret, Un fragment inédit des anciens registres de la Prévôté d'Orléans.

[1140] Morosini, vol. iii, p. 61.

[1141] Trial, vol. iii, pp. 9, 10.

[1142] Journal du siège, p. 93. Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 300.

[1143] Trial, vol. iii, p. 99.

[1144] Ibid., p. 99 (evidence of the Duke of Alençon).

[1145] Trial, vol. iii, p. 12. Journal du siège, p. 93. Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 299.

[1146] Trial, vol. iii, p. 12 (evidence of Dunois).

[1147] Ibid., p. 12.

[1148] Ibid., p. 116, vol. iv, p. 245.

[1149] Trial, vol. iii, p. 84.

[1150] Ibid., vol. i, p. 102.

[1151] Ibid., pp. 290, 291. A. Forgeais, Collection de plombs historiés trouvés dans la Seine, Paris, 1869 (5 vol. in 8vo), vol. ii, iv, and passim. Vallet de Viriville, Notes sur deux médailles de plomb relatives à Jeanne d'Arc, Paris, 1861, in 8vo, 30 p. [Taken from La revue archéologique] N. Valois, Un nouveau témoignage sur Jeanne d'Arc, pp. 8, 13. Cf. Appendix iv.

[1152] Trial, vol. v, p. 104. I read in se sperantes.

[1153] Trial, vol. v, p. 104. Lanéry d'Arc, Le culte de Jeanne d'Arc au XVe siècle, 1886, in 8vo.

[1154] A. Thomas, Le siège d'Orléans, Jeanne d'Arc et les capitouls de Toulouse, in Annales du Midi, 1889, pp. 235, 236.

[1155] Letter from the Lavals, in Trial, vol. v, p. 109. Bertrand de Broussillon, La maison de Laval, les Montfort-Laval, Paris, 1900, in 8vo, vol. iii, p. 75. Quicherat is mistaken when (Trial, vol. v, p. 105) he gives the name of Anne to Du Guesclin's widow and calls the mother of Guy and of André Jeanne.

[1156] Cuvelier, Poème de Duguesclin, line 2325 et seq.

[1157] Bertrand de Broussillon, La maison de Laval in 8vo, 1900, vol. iii, loc. cit.

[1158] Letter from Gui de Laval, in Trial, vol. v, p. 105. Lucien Jeny and P. Lanéry d'Arc, Jeanne d'Arc en Berry, Paris, s.d. in 8vo, p. 53.

[1159] Fortress accounts in Trial, vol. v, p. 262.

[1160] Ibid., vol. iii, pp. 3, 9, 15, 18, 22, 69, 219, passim.

[1161] Ibid., vol. v, under the words Confession and Communion. The Duke of Alençon says twice a week (Ibid., vol. iii, p. 100).

[1162] Ibid., vol. iii, p. 14; vol. ii, pp. 420, 424.

[1163] Ibid., vol. i, pp. 220, 253; vol. ii, pp. 294, 438. Relation du greffier de La Rochelle, p. 60. Analysis of a letter from Regnault de Chartres in Rogier (Trial, vol. v, pp. 168-169). Martin le Franc, Le champion des dames, in Trial, vol. v, p. 48.

[1164] Trial, vol. i, pp. 61, 62, 481.

[1165] P. Blavignac, La cloche, Geneva, 1877, in 8vo. L. Morillot, Étude sur l'emploi des clochettes, in Bulletin hist. archéolog. du diocèse de Dijon, 1887, in 8vo.

[1166] Trial, vol. i, pp. 52, 64, 153, passim.

[1167] Ibid., p. 130.

[1168] Ibid., p. 186.

[1169] Ibid., pp. 72, 75.

[1170] Trial, vol. iii, pp. 219, 220.

[1171] Ibid., vol. i, p. 57.

[1172] Ibid., vol. v, p. 342. Guy de Cailly's patent of nobility cannot be regarded as authentic. Vallet de Viriville, Petit traité.... p. 92.

[1173] Trial, vol. iii, p. 112.

[1174] Trial, vol. iii, p. 112. Poésies de Charles d'Orléans, ed. A. Champollion-Figeac, p. 174.

[1175] Trial, vol. iii, pp. 108, 109.

[1176] Ibid., vol. i, pp. 78, 117, 182.

[1177] Ibid., pp. 117, 300; vol. v, p. 227.

[1178] Letter written from Germany, in Trial, vol. v, p. 351. Morosini, vol. iii, pp. 33, 46, 62.

[1179] Letter from Gui and André de Laval to the Ladies de Laval, in Trial, vol. v, p. 106. L. Jeny and Lanéry d'Arc, Jeanne D'Arc en Berry, Paris, 1892, in 8vo, p. 54.

[1180] Bertrand de Broussillon, La maison de Laval, vol. iii, p. 21.

[1181] Letter from Gui and André de Laval, in Trial, vol. v, pp. 106 et seq.

[1182] N. Villiaumé, Histoire de Jeanne d'Arc, p. 88.

[1183] Recommandation in French. The esteem in which she was held. Compare Froissart cited by La Curne, Glossary, ad v. "Six bourgeois de la ville de Calais et de plus grande recommandation." ("Six citizens of Calais and of the highest reputation.")

[1184] Letter from Gui and André de Laval, in Trial, vol. v, pp. 106, 107.

[1185] Trial, vol. iii, p. 94; vol. iv, p. 12.

[1186] Mistère du siège, line 15,761. Journal du siège, p. 95. Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 299. Jean Chartier, Chronique, vol. i, p. 81. Monstrelet, vol. iii, p. 338.

[1187] See ante, p. 211. A. Duveau, Le jugement du duc d'Alençon, in Bull. soc. archéol. du Vendômois (1874), vol. xiii, pp. 132 et seq.

[1188] Loiseleur, Compte des dépenses faites par Charles VII pour secourir Orléans, p. 158.

[1189] Journal du siège, p. 97.

[1190] Taken from the Book of Accounts, in Trial, vol. v, pp. 262, 263. A. de Villaret, Campagnes de Jeanne d'Arc sur la Loire, pp. 77-80. Loiseleur, Compte des dépenses, p. 149.

[1191] Trial, vol. v, p. 261.

[1192] Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 258.

[1193] Berry, in the Trial, vol. iv, p. 45.

[1194] Journal du siège, p. 96. Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 299. Chronique de la fête, in Trial, vol. v, p. 295. Jean Chartier, Chronique, vol. i, p. 82. Berry, in Trial, vol. iv, p. 44. Monstrelet, vol. iv, p. 325.

[1195] Trial, vol. iii, p. 94. Perceval de Cagny, pp. 150, 151.

[1196] Journal du siège, Chronique de la Pucelle, Berry, Jean Chartier, loc. cit. Wavrin du Forestel, Anciennes chroniques, vol. i, p. 284. Falconbridge, in Trial, vol. iv, p. 452.

[1197] Perceval de Cagny, p. 148, passim. Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 300.

[1198] Trial, vol. iii, p. 95.

[1199] The night of Friday, the 10th to 11th of June.

[1200] Trial, vol. iii, p. 95.

[1201] Ibid. Journal du siège, p. 97.

[1202] Perceval de Cagny, p. 150.

[1203] Ibid.

[1204] Trial, vol. i, pp. 79, 95.

[1205] S. Luce, Jeanne d'Arc à Domremy, p. clxviii.

[1206] Journal du siège, Chronique de la Pucelle, J. Chartier, Monstrelet, loc. cit.

[1207] Trial, vol. iii, p. 95.

[1208] Ibid., vol. i, pp. 79-80, 234.

[1209] Ibid., vol. iii, p. 97. Perceval de Cagny, pp. 150-151.

[1210] Trial, vol. iii, pp. 95-96.

[1211] Ibid., pp. 96, 97. Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 301. Journal du siège, p. 97.

[1212] Trial, vol. iii, p. 97.

[1213] Journal du siège, p. 100.

[1214] Trial, vol. iii, p. 97. Journal du siège, p. 98. Chronique de la Pucelle, pp. 301-302. Perceval de Cagny, pp. 150-151.

[1215] Journal du siège, p. 99. Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 302. Jean Chartier, Chronique, vol. i, p. 82. Berry, in Trial, vol. iv, p. 65.

[1216] Fragment of a letter concerning the wonders which happened in Poitou, in Trial, vol. v, p. 122.

[1217] Relation du greffier de La Rochelle, p. 340. Morosini, vol. iii, p. 70. Trial, vol. v, pp. 121-122.

[1218] Trial, vol. iii, p. 72. Perceval de Cagny, p. 151. Journal du siège, p. 99. Monstrelet, vol. iv, p. 328. Morosini, vol. iii, pp. 128, 129.

[1219] Journal du siège, p. 99.

[1220] Perceval de Cagny, p. 151. Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 302. Jean Chartier, Chronique, vol. i, pp. 82, 83. Berry, in Trial, vol. iv, p. 65.

[1221] Accounts of the town of Orléans at the end of Le Journal du siège, ed. Charpentier and Cuissard, p. 229. Le R.P. Chapotin, La guerre de cent ans, Jeanne d'Arc et les Dominicains, Paris, 1889, 8vo, p. 82.

[1222] A. de Villaret, Campagne des Anglais, proofs and illustrations, p. 51.

[1223] Trial, vol. v, pp. 112-113.

[1224] Ibid., vol. iii, p. 23.

[1225] Ibid., vol. v, p. 306.

[1226] Ibid., pp. 112, 114.

[1227] Accounts of the Fortress, in Trial, vol. v, p. 259.

[1228] Trial, vol. v, pp. 106, 259. Catalogue des Arch. de Joursanvault, vol. i, p. 129, nos. 603, 607, 619, 645, 772. Dambreville, Abrégé de l'histoire des ordres de chevalerie, p. 167. P. Mantellier, Histoire du siège, p. 92.

[1229] Trial, vol. i, p. 55, 258.

[1230] Ibid., p. 254.

[1231] Ibid., p. 133.

[1232] Ibid., pp. 133, 254.

[1233] Ibid., p. 258.

[1234] Ibid., p. 55.

[1235] Bibliothèque Nationale, ms. fr. 966, fol. 1.

[1236] Les poésies de Charles d'Orléans, ed. Guichard, 1842, in 12mo, p. 145.

[1237] A. Champollion-Figeac, Louis et Charles, ducs d'Orléans, leur influence sur les arts, la littérature et l'ésprit de leur siècle, Paris, 1844, 1 vol. in 8vo, with an atlas, pp. 300-337.

[1238] Les poésies de Charles d'Orléans, ed. A. Champollion-Figeac, Paris, 1842, 8vo. Pierre Champion, Le manuscrit autographe des poésies de Charles d'Orléans, Paris, 1907, 8vo.

[1239] L. Delisle, Recherches sur la librairie de Charles V (1907), vol. i, p. 140.

[1240] Le Roux de Lincy, La bibliothèque de Charles d'Orléans à son château de Blois, en 1427, Paris, 1843, 8vo, pp. 5-7. Comte de Laborde, Les ducs de Bourgogne, études sur les lettres, les arts et l'industrie pendant le XVe siècle, Paris, 1852, vol. iii, pp. 235 et seq.Inventaires et documents relatifs aux joyaux et tapisseries des princes d'Orléans-Valois, Paris, 1894, 8vo.

[1241] Chronique de la Pucelle, Introduction by Vallet de Viriville, pp. 8, 19 et seq.

[1242] With regard to the year 1433, this is well established (Poésies complètes de Charles d'Orléans, ed. Charles d'Héricault, Paris, 1874, 2 vols. 8vo, introduction).

[1243] Poésies de Charles d'Orléans, ed. A. Champollion-Figeac, pp. 175-176.

[1244] For him every treaty of peace was a good treaty, even that of 1420, the Treaty of Troyes (Pierre Champion, Le manuscrit autographe des poésies de Charles d'Orléans, Paris, 1907, 8vo, p. 32).

[1245] Perceval de Cagny, p. 152: "Je veux demain, après dîner, aller voir ceux de Meung." ["To-morrow after dinner I will go to the people of Meung."] The turn of expression which this chronicle attributes to Jeanne is really that of the clerk who wrote it.

[1246] Trial, vol. iii, pp. 71, 97, 110. Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 305. Journal du siège, p. 101. Berry, in Trial, vol. iv, p. 44. Walter Bower, Scotichronicon, in Trial, vol. iv, p. 479. Eberhard Windecke, p. 176.

[1247] Trial, vol. iii, p. 97.

[1248] Ibid., pp. 97, 98.

[1249] Journal du siège, p. 101. Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 304. Jean Chartier, Chronique, vol. i, p. 83.

[1250] Trial, vol. iii, pp. 97, 98. Gruel, Chronique de Richemont, p. 70.

[1251] E. Cosneau, Le connétable de Richemont, pp. 93 et seq.

[1252] Trial, vol. iii, pp. 315, 516. Jean Chartier, Chronique, vol. i, p. 84. Journal du siège, pp. 101, 102. Perceval de Cagny, p. 153.

[1253] Trial, vol. iii, p. 98. E. Cosneau, Le connétable de Richemont, p. 168.

[1254] Gruel, Chronique de Richemont, pp. 70 et seq.

[1255] Trial, vol. iii, p. 98.

[1256] Gruel, Chronique de Richemont, p. 71. Cf. E. Cosneau, Le connétable de Richemont, pp. 169, 583. See a drawing in the Gaignières collection reproduced by J. Lair, Essai sur la bataille de Formigny, 1903, 8vo.

[1257] Lors le saluèrent et le vinrent accoller par les jambes. (Then they saluted him and embraced his knees.) J. de Bueil, Le Jouvencel, vol. i, p. 191.

[1258] Gruel, Chronique de Richemont, pp. 71-72. I have here followed Gruel, who is not generally very trustworthy, but whose account in this particular seems probable, at least he is no mere hagiographer.

[1259] Ibid., p. 228.

[1260] Ibid., p. 72. E. Cosneau, Le connétable de Richemont, p. 170.

[1261] Journal du siège, p. 97. Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 301.

[1262] A. de Villaret, Campagne des Anglais, pp. 87-88, and proofs and illustrations, pp. 153, 158.

[1263] Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 305. Journal du siège, p. 102. Jean Chartier, Chronique, vol. i, p. 84. Wavrin du Forestel, Anciennes chroniques, vol. i, pp. 279, 282. Monstrelet, vol. iii, pp. 325 et seq.

[1264] Gruel, Chronique de Richemont, p. 72.

[1265] Wavrin du Forestel, Anciennes chroniques, vol. i, p. 279.

[1266] Trial, vol. iii, p. 98.

[1267] Wavrin du Forestel, Anciennes chroniques, ed. Dupont, vol. i, p. 281. Berry, in Trial, vol. iv, p. 44. Jean Chartier, Chronique, vol. i, p. 85. Journal du siège, pp. 102, 103. Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 306. Gruel, Chronique de Richemont, p. 72. Falconbridge, in Trial, vol. iv, p. 452. Morosini, vol. iii, pp. 71-73.

[1268] Monstrelet, vol. iv, p. 331. Wavrin du Forestel, Anciennes chroniques, vol. i, pp. 283 et seq.

[1269] Chronique de la Pucelle, J. Chartier, Gruel, Morosini, Berry, Monstrelet, Wavrin, loc. cit. Lettre de Jacques de Bourbon, Comte de la Marche à Guill. de Champeaux, évêque de Laon, according to a Vienna MS. by Bougenot, in Bull. du Com. des travaux hist. et scientif. hist. et phil., 1892, pp. 56-65. (French translation by S. Luce, in La revue bleue, February 13, 1892, pp. 201-204.)

[1270] Trial, vol. iii, p. 120. Monstrelet, vol. iv, p. 328. The clerk who wrote down Thibault de Termes' evidence, being ill-informed, described these words as having been uttered at the Battle of Patay. At Patay, Jeanne and La Hire were not near each other.

[1271] Wavrin du Forestel, Anciennes chroniques, vol. i, p. 286.

[1272] Trial, vol. iii, p. 11. Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 307. It is clear that this passage from Dunois' evidence and from La chronique de la Pucelle cannot refer to the battle of June 18th, as has been thought. "All the English divisions," says Dunois, "united into one army. We thought they were going to offer us battle." He is evidently referring to what happened on the 17th of June. The Duke of Alençon's evidence confuses everything. How could the Maid have said of the English: "God sends them against us," when they were fleeing?

[1273] Those who would attribute this saying to the Maid have misunderstood Wavrin. Anciennes chroniques, vol. i, p. 287.

[1274] Wavrin du Forestel, Anciennes chroniques, vol. i, p. 287. Monstrelet, vol. iv, pp. 326 et seq.

[1275] Chronique de la Pucelle, Journal du siège, Gruel, J. Chartier, Berry, loc. cit.

[1276] Wavrin du Forestel, Anciennes chroniques, vol. i, p. 289. Fauché-Prunelle, Lettres tirées des archives de l'évêché de Grenoble, in Bull. acad. Delph., vol. ii, 1847, pp. 458 et seq. Letter from Charles VII to the town of Tours, in Trial, vol. v, pp. 262, 263.

[1277] Wavrin du Forestel, Anciennes chroniques, vol. i, p. 289. The herald Berry, Le livre de la description des pays, ed. Hamy.

[1278] Trial, vol. iii, pp. 98, 99. Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 306. Chronique normande, ch. xlviii, ed. Vallet de Viriville. Monstrelet, vol. iii, pp. 325 et seq. Morosini, vol. iii, pp. 72-73. Wavrin du Forestel, Anciennes chroniques, vol. i, pp. 289-290. These words are said to have been uttered when the English had been discovered, but then they would have been meaningless.

[1279] Trial, vol. iii, p. 99 (the Duke of Alençon's evidence).

[1280] Ibid., p. 71 (evidence of Louis de Coutes). Letter from Jacques de Bourbon in La revue bleue, February 13, 1892, pp. 201-204. Monstrelet, vol. iv, p. 327. Wavrin du Forestel, Anciennes chroniques, p. 289.

[1281] Trial, vol. iii, p. 71. Journal du siège, p. 140. Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 307. Deux documents sur Jeanne d'Arc in La revue bleue, February 13, 1892.

[1282] Trial, vol. iii, pp. 11, 71, 98. Chronique de la Pucelle, pp. 306 et seq. Journal du siège, pp. 103 et seq. Jean Chartier, Chronique, vol. i, p. 85. Le Comte de Vassal, La bataille de Patay, Orléans, 1890.

[1283] Monstrelet, vol. iv, p. 328.

[1284] Wavrin du Forestel, Anciennes chroniques, vol. i, p. 291.

[1285] Ibid., pp. 291-292.

[1286] Monstrelet, vol. iv, p. 329.

[1287] Wavrin du Forestel, Anciennes chroniques, vol. i, p. 292. Monstrelet, vol. iii, pp. 329, 350.

[1288] "In the neighbourhood of Lignerolles there have been found horse-shoes, a javelin-point, the iron pieces of carts, and bullets." P. Mantellier, Histoire du siège, Orléans, 1867, 12mo, p. 139.

[1289] Trial, vol. iii, p. 11. Gruel, Chronique de Richemont, pp. 73-74. Perceval de Cagny, pp. 154 et seq. Chronique normande, in Trial, vol. iv, p. 340. Eberhard Windecke, p. 180. Lefèvre de Saint-Rémy, vol. ii, pp. 144, 145. Falconbridge, in Trial, vol. iv, p. 452. Commentaires de Pie II, in Trial, vol. iv, p. 512. Morosini, vol. iii, pp. 72-75. Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 306. Jean Chartier, Chronique, vol. i, p. 86. Monstrelet, vol. iv, pp. 330-333. Wavrin du Forestel, Anciennes chroniques, vol. i, p. 293. Letter from J. de Bourbon in La revue bleue, February 13, 1892. Letter from Charles VII to Tours and the people of Dauphiné, in Trial, vol. v, pp. 345, 346.

[1290] Trial, vol. iii, p. 120; vol. v, p. 120.

[1291] "Et habuit l'avant garde La Hire de quo ipsa Johanna fuit multum irata, quia ipsa multum affectabat habere onus de l'avant garde La Hire qui conducebat l'avant garde percussit super Anglicos," Trial, vol. iii, p. 71 (evidence of Louis de Coutes).

[1292] "Habebat magnam pietatem de tanta occisione," Trial, vol. iii, p. 71.

[1293] After an examination of the documents I have concluded that Louis de Coutes' narrative refers to Patay.

[1294] Trial, vol. iii, p. 99.

[1295] Boucher de Molandon, Janville, son donjon, son château, ses souvenirs du XVe siècle, Orléans, 1886, 8vo.

[1296] Journal du siège, p. 105; Chronique de la Pucelle, pp. 307, 308.

[1297] Chronique de la Pucelle, pp. 307-308. Journal du siège, p. 105.

[1298] De Beaucourt, Histoire de Charles VII, vol. ii, p. 222 et seq.; E. Cosneau, Le connétable de Richemont, p. 172.

[1299] Trial, vol. iii, p. 116 (evidence of S. Charles). "Et audivit ipse loquens ex ore regis multa bona de ea ... rex habuit pietatem de ea et de poena quam portabat."

[1300] Trial, vol. iii, pp. 76, 116.

[1301] Letter from Charles VII to the people of Dauphiné, published by Fauché-Prunelle, in Bull. de l'Acad. Delphinale, vol. ii, p. 459; to the inhabitants of Tours (Archives de Tours, Registre des comptes XXIV), in Cabinet historique, I, C. p. 109; to those of Poitiers, Redet, in Les mémoires de la Société des Antiquaires de l'Ouest, vol. iii, p. 406; Relation du greffier de la Rochelle in Revue historique, vol. iv, p. 459.

[1302] Journal du siège, pp. 106, 108; Jean Chartier, Chronique, vol. i, p. 89; Gruel, Chronique de Richemont, p. 74; Monstrelet, vol. iv, pp. 344, 347; E. Cosneau, Le connétable de Richemont, pp. 181, 182.

[1303] 1431, 8th of May. A decree condemning André de Beaumont to suffer capital punishment as being guilty of high treason. (Arch. nat. J. 366.) For a complete copy of this document I am indebted to Monsieur Pierre Champion.

[1304] Monstrelet, vol. iv, p. 30; De Beaucourt, Histoire de Charles VII, vol. i, pp. 202 et seq.

[1305] Dom Morice, Histoire de Bretagne, vol. ii, col. 1135-6; De Beaucourt, loc. cit., vol. ii, chap. vii.

[1306] Bellier-Dumaine, L'administration du duché de Bretagne sous le règne de Jean V (1399-1442) in Les annales de Bretagne, vol. xiv-xvi (1898-99) passim, and 3rd part, Jean V and commerce, industry, agriculture, public education (vol. xvi, p. 246), and 4th part, chap. iii, Jean V and towns, rural parishes (vol. xvi, p. 495).

[1307] Eberhard Windecke, p. 179.

[1308] Eberhard Windecke, pp. 178, 179.

[1309] Trial, vol. v, p. 264. Eberhard Windecke, pp. 68-70, 179. Morosini, vol. iii, p. 90. Dom Lobineau, Histoire de Bretagne, vol. i, p. 587. Dom Morice, Histoire de Bretagne, vol. i, pp. 508, 580.

[1310] L. Delisle, Un nouveau témoignage relatif à la mission de Jeanne d'Arc in Bibliothèque de l'École des Chartes, vol. xlvi, pp. 649, 668. Le P. Ayroles, La Pucelle devant l'Église de son temps, pp. 53, 60.

[1311] Cathédrale du Puy. E.F. Corpet, Portraits des arts libéraux d'après les écrivains du moyen âge, in Annales archéologiques, 1857, vol. xvii, pp. 89, 103. Em. Male, Les Arts libéraux dans la statuaire du moyen âge, in Revue archéologique, 1891.

[1312] Another name for Dauphiné (W.S.).

[1313] Trial, vol. iii, pp. 411-421. Le P. Ayroles, La Pucelle devant l'Église de son temps, vol. i, pp. 61-68.

[1314] Le P. Ayroles, vol. iv, La vierge guerrière, pp. 240 et seq.

[1315] "Sed dicta puella semper fuit opinionis quod opportebat ire Remis." Trial, vol. iii, p. 12 (evidence of Dunois).

[1316] Trial, vol. iii, p. 20. Journal du siège, pp. 93, 94.

[1317] See ante, pp. 53 et seq.

[1318] Falconbridge, in Trial, vol. iv, p. 451. Journal d'un bourgeois de Paris, p. 239. Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 291. De Barante, Histoire des ducs de Bourgogne, vol. iii, p. 323.

[1319] Le P. Denifle, La désolation des églises, introduction.

[1320] Those of Louis XI were of a like mind: "One should fear risking a great battle if one be not constrained to it." Philippe de Comynes, ed. Mdlle. Dupont, vol. i, p. 146.

[1321] Trial, vol. iii, pp. 12, 13. Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 300. Perceval de Cagny, p. 170. Jean Chartier, Chronique, p. 87. Morosini, vol. iii, p. 63, note 2.

[1322] Wallon, Jeanne d'Arc, 1875, vol. i, p. 213.

[1323] Rymer, Fœdera, 18 June, 1429. Morosini, vol. iii, pp. 132-133; vol. iv, supplement, xvii. G. Lefèvre-Pontalis, La panique anglaise en mai 1429, Paris, 1894, in 8vo.

[1324] G. Lefèvre-Pontalis, La guerre des partisans dans la Haute Normandie (1424-1429), in the Bibliothèque de l'École des Chartes since 1893.

[1325] "The King had no great sums of money with which to pay his army." Perceval de Cagny, pp. 149, 157.

[1326] Ibid.

[1327] Perceval de Cagny, p. 170.

[1328] Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 310.

[1329] E. Cosneau, Le connétable de Richemont, pp. 179 et seq.

[1330] Even after the coronation Regnault de Chartres would not "suffer the Maid and the Duke of Alençon to be together nor that he should recover her." Perceval de Cagny, p. 171.

[1331] Le P. Denifle, La désolation des églises, introduction.

[1332] See ante, pp. 153-159.

[1333] Morosini, vol. iv, supplement, xvii.

[1334] Trial, vol. iii, pp. 20, 300. Chronique de la Pucelle, pp. 322, 323. Journal du siège, pp. 93, 114. "And although the King had not money wherewith to pay his army, all knights, squires, men-at-arms, and the commonalty refused not to serve the King in this journey in company with the Maid." Perceval de Cagny, p. 157.

[1335] Le Maire, Antiquités d'Orléans, ch. xxv, p. 100.

[1336] Pius II, Commentarii, in Trial, vol. iv, pp. 513-514. Pierre des Gros, Jardin des nobles in P. Paris, Manuscrits français de la bibliothèque du roi, vol. ii, p. 149, and Trial, vol. iv, pp. 533, 534.

[1337] William of Worcester [1415-1482, or Botoner, chronicler and traveller, secretary to Sir John Fastolf, disputed with John Paston concerning some land near Norwich, and frequently referred to in the Paston Letters. W.S.] in Trial, vol. iv, p. 475. In 1430 it was the intention of the English to take their King to Reims "for which cause all the subjects of the kingdom would be more inclined to him" (advice given by Philippe le Bon to Henry VI, as cited by H. de Lannoy, in P. Champion, G. de Flavy, p. 156). There was an English project for carrying off the holy Ampulla from Reims. Pius II, Commentarii in Trial, vol. iv, p. 513.

[1338] Voyages du héraut Berry, Bibl. Nat. ms. fr. 5873, fol. 7.

[1339] Jean Rogier in Trial, vol. iv, pp. 284-285.

[1340] Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 312. Jean Chartier, Chronique, pp. 93-94. Journal du siège, p. 108. Cagny, p. 157. Morosini, pp. 84-85. Loiseleur, Compte des dépenses, pp. 90, 91.

[1341] "Gens de guerre et de commun," says Perceval de Cagny, p. 157.

[1342] Eustache Deschamps ed. Queux de Saint-Hilaire and G. Raynaud, vol. i, p. 159, passim. Th. Basin, Histoire de Charles VII et de Louis XI, vol. i, p. 44. Letter from Nicholas de Clamanges to Gerson, LIV.

[1343] Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 308. Perceval de Cagny, p. 157. Journal du siège, p. 180. Morosini, vol. iii, p. 85.

[1344] S.J. Morand, Histoire de la Sainte-Chapelle royale du Palais, Paris, 1790, in 4to, p. 77, and passim.

[1345] Le P. J. Doublet, Histoire de l'abbaye de Saint-Denys en France, Paris, 1625, in fol., ch. 1, pp. 373 et seq. Dom Félibien, Histoire de l'abbaye royale de Saint-Denis, 1706, in fol., pp. 203, 275, 543.

[1346] Journal du siège, p. 107. Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 310.

[1347] When the King set out in France, he had his gaiters greased; and the Queen asked him: whither will wend these damoiseaux? Quoted according to La Chronique Messine by Vallet de Viriville, Histoire de Charles VII, vol. i, p. 424, note 1.

[1348] De Beaucourt, Histoire de Charles VII, vol. iv, p. 88.

[1349] See ante, pp. 148-152.

[1350] Perceval de Cagny, p. 157. Jean Chartier, Chronique, vol. i, p. 87. Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 313.

[1351] Trial, vol. v, p. 125. Registre des consaux, extraits analytiques des anciens consaux de la ville de Tournay, ed. H. Vandenbroeck, vol. ii, p. 329. F. Hennebert, Une lettre de Jeanne d'Arc aux Tournaisiens in Arch. hist. et littéraires du nord de la France, 1837, vol. i, p. 525. De Beaucourt, Histoire de Charles VII, vol. iii, p. 516.

[1352] Letter from Charles VII to the people of Dauphiné, published by Fauché-Prunelle, in Bulletin de l'Académie Delphinale, vol. ii, p. 459; to the inhabitants of Tours, in Le Cabinet historique, vol. i, C. p. 109; to those of Poitiers, by Redet, in Les mémoires de la Société des Antiquaires de l'Ouest, vol. iii, p. 106. Relation du greffier de la Rochelle in Revue historique, vol. iv, p. 341.

[1353] This is a mere form of speech. Le Tournésis has always been territory separate from the County of Flanders, the Bishops of which were the former Lords of Tournai. As early as 1187 the King of France nominally held sovereign sway there. In reality the town was divided into two factions: the rich and the merchants were for the Burgundian party, the common folk for the French (De La Grange, Troubles à Tournai, 1422-1430).

[1354] Monstrelet, vol. iv, p. 352.

[1355] Chambre du Roi.

[1356] Morosini, vol. iii, pp. 184-185. Chronique de Tournai, ed. Smedt (Recueil des chroniques de Flandre, vol. iii, passim); Troubles à Tournai (1422-1430) in Mémoires de la Société historique et littéraire de Tournai, vol. xvii (1882). Extraits des anciens registres des consaux, ed. Vandenbroeck, vol. ii, passim. Monstrelet, ch. lxvii, lxix. A. Longnon, Paris sous la domination anglaise, pp. 143, 144.

[1357] The Town Clerk of Albi in Trial, vol. iv, p. 301.

[1358] H. Vandenbroeck, Extraits analytiques des anciens registres des consaux de la ville de Tournai, vol. ii, pp. 328-330.

[1359] Letter from Perceval de Boulainvilliers, in Trial, vol. v, p. 120. Fragment of a letter concerning the marvels which have occurred in Poitou, ibid., p. 122. Morosini, vol. iii, pp. 74-76.

[1360] Hennebert, Archives historiques et littéraires du nord de la France, 1837, vol. i, p. 520. Extraits des anciens registres des consaux, ed. Vandenbroeck, vol. ii, loc. cit.

[1361] Trial, vol. v, p. 127. These letters are now lost. Jeanne alludes to them in her letter of the 17th of July, 1429. "Et à trois sepmaines que je vous avoye escript et envoie bonnes lettres par un héraut...."

[1362] Dom Plancher, Histoire de Bourgogne, vol. iv, pp. lvi, lvii. E. Cosneau, Le connétable de Richemont, pp. 114 et seq.

[1363] Dom Plancher, Histoire de Bourgogne, vol. iv, proofs and illustrations, p. lv.

[1364] De Barante, Histoire des ducs de Bourgogne, vol. v, p. 270. Desplanques, Projet d'assassinat de Philippe le Bon par les Anglais (1424-1426), in Les mémoires couronnées par l'Académie de Bruxelles, xxxiii (1867).

[1365] Journal du siège, p. 70. Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 270. Morosini, vol. iii, pp. 20 et seq.

[1366] Monstrelet, vol. iv, pp. 332, 333. De Beaucourt, Histoire de Charles VII, vol. ii, p. 36, note 7.

[1367] Monstrelet, vol. iv, pp. 308-309. Quenson, Notice sur Philippe le Bon, la Flandre et ses fêtes, Douai, 1840, in 8vo. De Reiffenberg, Les enfants naturels du duc Philippe le Bon, in Bulletin de l'Académie de Bruxelles, vol. xiii (1846).

[1368] According to Perceval de Cagny, p. 157; the 28th of June, according to Chartier, p. 90.

[1369] Trial, vol. iv, p. 286.

[1370] Jean Chartier, Chronique, vol. i, p. 90. Chronique de la Pucelle, pp. 309, 310. Perceval de Cagny, p. 157. Morosini, vol. iii, pp. 142, 143.

[1371] Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 314. Journal du siège, pp. 108, 109. Monstrelet, vol. iv, p. 330. Jean Chartier, Chronique, vol. i, p. 92. Morosini, vol. iii, p. 142, note 2.

[1372] Trial, vol. i, pp. 54, 222.

[1373] Abbé Lebeuf, Histoire ecclésiastique et civile d'Auxerre, vol. ii, p. 251; vol. iii, pp. 302, 506.

[1374] Chardon, Histoire de la ville d'Auxerre, Auxerre, 1834 (2 vols. in 8vo), vol. ii, p. 258.

[1375] Dom Plancher, Histoire de Bourgogne, vol. iv, p. 76. Chardon, Histoire de la ville d'Auxerre, vol. ii, pp. 257 et seq. Vallet de Viriville, Histoire de Charles VII, vol. i, p. 383.

[1376] Jean Chartier, Chronique, vol. i, p. 90. Journal du siège, p. 108. Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 313. Monstrelet, vol. iv, p. 436. Abbé Lebeuf, Histoire ecclésiastique d'Auxerre, vol. ii, p. 51. Chardon, Histoire de la ville d'Auxerre, vol. ii, p. 259.

[1377] Jean Chartier, Chronique, vol. i, p. 90. Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 313. Morosini, vol. iii, p. 149. Monstrelet, vol. iv, p. 336. Gilles de Roye, in Collection des chroniques belges, pp. 206, 207. Chardon, Histoire de la ville d'Auxerre, vol. ii, p. 260.

[1378] "De laquelle chose furent bien mal coutans aucuns seigneurs et cappitaines d'icellui ost et en parloient bien fort." Jean Chartier, vol. i, p. 91.

[1379] In the following manner this march is described by a contemporary: "On the said day (29th of June, 1429), after much discussion, the King set out and took his way for to go straight to the city of Troye in Champaigne, and, as he passed, all the fortresses on the one hand and the other, rendered him allegiance." Perceval de Cagny, p. 157.

[1380] Jean Chartier, vol. i, p. 91.

[1381] J. Rogier, in Trial, vol. iv, p. 287. Monstrelet, vol. iv, p. 336. Journal du siège, p. 109. Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 314. Jean Chartier, Chronique, vol. i, p. 91. Trial, vol. v, pp. 264-265.

[1382] Jean Chartier, vol. i, p. 91.

[1383] Th. Boutiot, Histoire de la ville de Troyes et de la Champagne méridionale, Paris, 1872 (5 vols. in 8vo), vol. ii, p. 482. For the members of this Council see the most ancient register of its deliberations by A. Roserot, in Collection des documents inédits relatifs à la ville de Troyes (1886).

[1384] F. Bourquelot, Les foires de Champagne, Paris, 1865, vol. i, p. 65. Louis Batiffol, Jean Jouvenel, prévôt des marchands, Paris, 1894, in 8vo.

[1385] J. Rogier, in Trial, vol. iv, p. 292.

[1386] Gallia Christiana, vol. xiii, cols. 514-516. Courtalon-Delaistre, Topographie historique du diocèse de Troyes (Troyes, 1783, 3 vols. in 8vo), vol. i, p. 384. Th. Boutiot, Histoire de la ville de Troyes, vol. ii, pp. 477, 478. De Pange, Le pays de Jeanne d'Arc, le fief et l'arrière-fief, Paris, 1902, in 8vo, p. 33.

[1387] Siméon Luce, Jeanne d'Arc à Domremy, p. ccxxii, according to Labbe and Cossart, Sacro-Sancta-Consilia, vol. xii, col. 390.

[1388] S. Luce, Jeanne d'Arc à Domremy, p. ccxx and proofs and illustrations, ccix, pp. 238-239. Robillard de Beaurepaire, Les états de Normandie sous la domination anglaise, Évreux, 1859, in 8vo.

[1389] Labbe and Cossart, Sacro-Sancta-Consilia, vol. xii, col. 392.

[1390] Labbe and Cossart, Sacro-Sancta-Consilia, vol. xii, col. 390, 399.

[1391] De Pange, Le pays de Jeanne d'Arc, le fief et l'arrière-fief, p. 33.

[1392] J. Rogier in Trial, vol. iv, p. 285.

[1393] Th. Boutiot in Histoire de la ville de Troyes, vol. ii, pp. 316 et seq.

[1394] J. Rogier, in Trial, vol. iv, p. 288. Th. Boutiot, Histoire de la ville de Troyes, vol. ii, p. 490. A. Assier, Une cité champenoise au xve siècle, Troyes, 1875, in 12mo.

[1395] Trial, vol. i, pp. 99, 100. Relation du Greffier de La Rochelle, p. 338. Journal du siège, pp. 109-110. Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 315.

[1396] Ed. Richer says his name was Roch Richard and that he was licentiate in theology. Histoire manuscrite de la Pucelle (Bibl. Nat. fr. 10448), book 1, folios 50 et seq. Siméon Luce, Jeanne d'Arc à Domremy (chap. x, Jeanne d'Arc et frère Richard).

[1397] Journal d'un bourgeois de Paris, p. 235. Th. Basin, Histoire de Charles VII et de Louis XI, vol. i, p. 104. Vallet de Viriville, Procès de condamnation de Jeanne d'Arc, 1867. Introduction, Notes sur deux médailles de plomb relatives à Jeanne d'Arc, Paris, 1861, p. 22. S. Luce, Jeanne d'Arc à Domremy, p. ccxxxix.

[1398] Journal du siège, p. 110. Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 315.

[1399] Journal d'un bourgeois de Paris, p. 233. Labbe, Boutiot.

[1400] Journal d'un bourgeois de Paris, p. 234.

[1401] Ibid., p. 235.

[1402] Th. Basin, Histoire des règnes de Charles VII et de Louis XI, vol. iv, pp. 103, 104.

[1403] Journal d'un bourgeois de Paris, p. 236.

[1404] A very high head-dress, fashionable in the fifteenth century (W.S.).

[1405] Cornes, the high-horned head-dress (W.S.).

[1406] Queues, trains (W.S.).

[1407] Journal d'un bourgeois de Paris, pp. 234, 235.

[1408] Journal d'un bourgeois de Paris, p. 236.

[1409] Trial, vol. i, pp. 89, 213. Journal d'un bourgeois de Paris, p. 236.

[1410] Journal d'un bourgeois de Paris, pp. 242, 243. Vallet de Viriville, Notes sur deux médailles de plomb relatives à Jeanne d'Arc, in Revue archéologique, 1861, pp. 429, 433.

[1411] Journal d'un bourgeois de Paris, p. 236.

[1412] Journal d'un bourgeois de Paris, p. 237.

[1413] It is yet to be explained how the author of the diary called Journal d'un bourgeois de Paris avoided being scandalised by them, orthodox university professor as he was; on the contrary he seems to have found the views of the good father edifying. Th. Basin, Histoire des règnes de Charles VII et de Louis XI, vol. iv, p. 104.

[1414] J. Rogier, in Trial, vol. iv, p. 290.

[1415] Trial, vol. i, p. 100, see ante, p. 412.

[1416] Trial, vol. i, p. 100.

[1417] Ibid., vol. ii, p. 446.

[1418] Gruel, Chronique de Richemont, p. 71. Eberhard Windecke, pp. 178, 179.

[1419] Trial, vol. i, p. 100.

[1420] Ibid., pp. 99, 100.

[1421] Relation du greffier de La Rochelle, p. 342.

[1422] Journal d'un bourgeois de Paris, p. 235.

[1423] J. Rogier, in Trial, vol. iv, pp. 287-288.

[1424] It should be Monday, 4th July.

[1425] J. Rogier, in Trial, vol. iv, p. 290.

[1426] Th. Boutiot, Histoire de la ville de Troyes, vol. ii, p. 493.

[1427] J. Rogier, in Trial, vol. iv, pp. 288, 289.

[1428] Ibid., p. 287. Th. Boutiot, Histoire de la ville de Troyes, vol. ii, p. 494.

[1429] Trial, vol. iv, p. 289.

[1430] Ibid., p. 290.

[1431] In the Mystery of the siege of Orléans, the Englishman Falconbridge likewise treats Jeanne as a boaster, lines 12689-90:

'Y nous fault prandre la coquarde,
Qui veult les François gouverner.

"We must capture that braggart who desires to govern the French."

[1432] J. Rogier, in Trial, vol. iv, p. 289.

[1433] Ibid. Th. Boutiot, Histoire de la ville de Troyes, vol. ii, p. 492.

[1434] L. Pigeotte, Étude sur les travaux d'achèvement de la cathédrale de Troyes, p. 9. A. Babeau, Les vues d'ensemble de Troyes, Troyes, 1892, in 8vo, p. 13. A. Assier, Une cité champenoise au XVe siècle, Paris, 1875, in 8vo.

[1435] Ermine (W.S.).

[1436] Comptes de l'argenterie de la reine, in Jean Chartier, Chronique, vol. iii, pp. 236, 237. De Barante, Histoire des ducs de Bourgogne, vol. iii, pp. 122, 125. Vallet de Viriville, Histoire de Charles VII, vol. i, p. 216. Th. Boutiot, Histoire de la ville de Troyes, vol. ii, pp. 418, 419.

[1437] It is impossible to take seriously those protestations of loyalty to the English, addressed to the people of Reims by the townsfolk of Troyes, when the latter were on the point of surrendering to the French King, and especially after the reply they had just sent to King Charles's letters. See J. Rogier, in Trial, vol. iv, p. 289. "Which reply having been made each of them had gone up on to the walls, and assumed his guard with the intent and in the firm resolution that if any attack were made on them, they would resist to the death."

[1438] J. Chartier, vol. i, p. 92. Th. Boutiot, Histoire de la ville de Troyes, vol. ii, pp. 391, 418, 419. A. Assier, Une cité champenoise au XVe siècle, p. 8.

[1439] J. Rogier, in Trial, vol. iv, pp. 289, 290.

[1440] Journal du siège, p. 109. Chronique de la Pucelle, pp. 314, 315. Jean Chartier, Chronique, vol. i, p. 91. Th. Boutiot, Histoire de la ville de Troyes, vol. ii, p. 497.

[1441] Jean Chartier, Chronique, vol. i, p. 92.

[1442] Journal du siège, pp. 109, 110. Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 315.

[1443] Perceval de Cagny, p. 157. Nevertheless see also Morosini, vol. iii, p. 143, note.

[1444] "And always desiring and discussing the submission of this city." Jean Chartier, vol. i, p. 91.

[1445] Trial, vol. iii, p. 13. Evidence of Dunois. Jean Chartier, Chronique, vol. i, p. 92. Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 315. Chartier and the Chronique de la Pucelle put words into the mouths of Regnault de Chartres and Robert le Maçon which are very improbable.

[1446] Trial, vol. iii, p. 13. Evidence of Dunois. Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 317. Journal du siège, p. 110. Jean Chartier, Chronique, vol. i, p. 94.

[1447] Jean Chartier, vol. i, p. 95.

[1448] Trial, vol. iii, pp. 13, 14, 117. Jean Chartier, Chronique, vol. i, p. 96. Journal du siège, p. 111. Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 78. De Beaucourt, Histoire de Charles VII, vol. ii, p. 225.

[1449] Th. Boutiot, Histoire de la ville de Troyes, vol. ii, p. 497, note. A. Assier, Une cité champenoise au XVe siècle, Paris, 1875, in 8vo, p. 26.

[1450] Trial, vol. iii, p. 117. (De Gaucourt's evidence.)

[1451] Ibid., p. 117. Jean Chartier, Chronique, vol. i, p. 96. J. Rogier, in Trial, vol. iv, p. 296.

[1452] J. Rogier, in Trial, vol. iv, p. 295. Trial, pp. 13, 14, 17. Chartier, Journal du siège, Chronique de la Pucelle. Camusat, Mél. hist., part ii, fol. 214.

[1453] Relation du greffier de La Rochelle, in Revue historique, vol. iv, p. 342. Chronique de la Pucelle, Journal du siège, Chartier, loc. cit. Gilles de Roye in Chartier, vol. iii, p. 205.

[1454] J. Rogier in Trial, vol. iv, p. 296.

[1455] Gabelle, word of German origin (gabe), originally applied to all taxes, came to signify only the tax on salt. This tax was first rendered oppressive by Philippe de Valois (1328-1350) who created a monopoly of salt in favour of the crown. He obliged each family to pay a tax on a certain quantity whether they consumed it or not. The Gabelle, which led to several rebellions, was not abolished until the Revolution (1790). (W.S.) Trial, vol. iv, p. 296. Ordonnances des rois de France, vol. xiii, p. 142. Th. Boutiot, Histoire de la ville de Troyes, vol. ii, p. 500. A. Roserot, Le plus ancien registre des délibérations du conseil de la ville de Troyes in Coll. de Doc. inédits sur la ville de Troyes, vol. iii, p. 175.

[1456] J. Rogier, in Trial, vol. iv, pp. 295, 296.

[1457] Relation du greffier de La Rochelle, in Revue historique, vol. iv, p. 342.

[1458] Relation du greffier de La Rochelle, in Revue historique, vol. iv, p. 342.

[1459] J. Rogier, in Trial, vol. iv, pp. 296, 297.

[1460] Trial, vol. iii, pp. 13, 117; vol. iv, pp. 296, 297. Jean Chartier, Chronique, vol. iii, p. 205. Th. Boutiot, Histoire de la ville de Troyes, vol. ii, pp. 499, 500. M. Poinsignon, Histoire générale de la Champagne et de la Brie, Châlons, 1885, vol. i, pp. 352 et seq. A. Assier, Une cité champenoise au XVe siècle, Paris, 1875, in 12mo, pp. 16, 17.

[1461] Trial, vol. i, p. 102. Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 319.

[1462] Chartier, Journal du siège. Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 319.

[1463] Jean Chartier, Chronique, vol. i, pp. 95, 96. Journal du siège, p. 112. Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 319.

[1464] J. Rogier, in Trial, vol. iv, pp. 296, 297.

[1465] Lefèvre de Saint-Rémy, vol. ii, p. 168. S. Luce, Jeanne d'Arc à Domremy, pp. clxxiii, clxxiv. P. Champion, Notes sur Jeanne d'Arc, I. Madame d'Or et Jeanne d'Arc in Le moyen âge, July to August, 1907, pp. 193-199.

[1466] Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 319. Jean Chartier, Chronique, vol. i, p. 96. Journal du siège, p. 112. Un prince de façon, Martial d'Auvergne, Vigiles, vol. i, pp. 106, 107.

[1467] Trial, vol. i, p. 102. Letter from three noblemen of Anjou, in Trial, vol. v, p. 130. Relation du greffier de La Rochelle, p. 342. Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 319. Morosini, vol. iii, p. 176. Th. Boutiot, Histoire de la ville de Troyes, vol. ii, pp. 504 et seq.

[1468] Trial, vol. i, p. 103.

[1469] T. Babeau, Le guet et la milice bourgeoise à Troyes, pp. 4 et seq.

[1470] Relation du greffier de La Rochelle, p. 342. Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 319. Journal du siège, p. 112. Th. Boutiot, Histoire de la ville de Troyes, vol. ii, p. 505. A. Roserot, Le plus ancien registre des délibérations du conseil de Troyes in Coll. des documents inédits de la ville de Troyes, vol. iii, pp. 175 et seq.

[1471] J. Rogier, in Trial, vol. iv, p. 298. Morosini, vol. iii, p. 179. Edition Barthélémy of L'histoire de la ville de Châlons-sur-Marne, proofs and illustrations no. 25, pp. 334, 335.

[1472] J. Rogier, in Trial, vol. iv, pp. 290, 291. Varin, Archives législatives de la ville de Reims, Statuts, vol. 1, pp. 596 et seq. (Coll. des documents inédits sur l'histoire de France, 1845).

[1473] Gallia Christiana, vol. v, col. 891-895. Chronique de la Pucelle, pp. 319-320. Jean Chartier, Chronique, vol. i, p. 96. L. Barbat, Histoire de la ville de Châlons, 1855 (2 vols. in 4to), vol. i, p. 350. S. Luce, Jeanne d'Arc à Domremy, proofs and illustrations no. 33. Morosini, vol. iii, p. 182, note 2.

[1474] J. Rogier, in Trial, vol. iv, p. 298. Letter from three noblemen of Anjou in Trial, vol. v, p. 130. Perceval de Cagny, p. 158. Jean Chartier, Chronique, vol. i, pp. 96, 97. Chronique des Cordeliers, fol. 85, v. E. de Barthélémy, Châlons pendant l'invasion anglaise, Châlons, 1851, p. 16.

[1475] Trial, vol. ii, pp. 391, 392 (Jean Morel's evidence).

[1476] French compère, gossip or fellow godfather, sometimes a close friend. Cf. Chaucer, Prologue to Canterbury Tales:

"With hym ther was a gentil Pardoner
Of Rouncivale, his freend and his compeer" (W.S.).

[1477] Commère, fellow godmother (W.S.).

[1478] Trial, vol. ii, p. 423 (evidence of Gérardin of Épinal).

[1479] "In as much as he is the prince of the greatest discretion, understanding, and valour that has long been seen in the noble house of France." J. Rogier, in Trial, vol. iv, p. 296. Varin, Archives de Reims, Statuts, vol. i, p. 601. H. Jadart, Jeanne d'Arc à Reims, pp. 13 et seq.

[1480] J. Rogier, loc. cit. Varin, p. 599.

[1481] J. Rogier, in Trial, vol. iv, pp. 286 et seq. Varin, pp. 600 et seq.

[1482] H. Jadart, Jeanne d'Arc à Reims, p. 18. Dom Marlot, Hist. metrop. Remensis, vol. ii, pp. 709 et seq.

[1483] J. Rogier, in Trial, vol. iv, pp. 291-292.

[1484] J. Rogier, in Trial, vol. iv, p. 291.

[1485] Ibid., p. 292. H. Jadart, Jeanne d'Arc à Reims, pp. 17 et seq.

[1486] J. Rogier, in Trial, vol. iv, pp. 292, 293. Varin, Archives de Reims, pp. 910, 912. H. Jadart, Jeanne d'Arc à Reims, p. 18.

[1487] J. Rogier, in Trial, vol. iv, p. 295. H. Jadart, Jeanne d'Arc à Reims, pp. 18, 19.

[1488] Falconbridge, in Trial, vol. iv, p. 451. Jean Chartier, Chronique, vol. i, pp. 101, 102. Journal du siège, p. 118. Rymer, Fœdera, vol. x, p. 424. S. Bougenot, Notices et extraits des manuscrits intéressants l'histoire de France conservés à la Bibliothèque impériale de Vienne, p. 62. Raynaldi, Annales ecclesiastici, vol. ix, pp. 77, 78. Morosini, vol. iv, supplement, xvii.

[1489] J. Rogier, in Trial, vol. iv, pp. 295, 298.

[1490] Ibid., p. 297. L. Paris, Cabinet historique, 1865, p. 77.

[1491] H. Jadart, Jeanne d'Arc à Reims, p. 19.

[1492] Perceval de Cagny, p. 159. Jean Chartier, Chronique, p. 97; Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 320. Chronique des Cordeliers, fol. 85, vo. Journal du siège, p. 112. Bergier, Poème sur la tapisserie de Jeanne d'Arc, p. 112. H. Jadart, Jeanne d'Arc à Reims, pp. 20, 21. F. Pinon, Notice sur Sept-Saulx, in Travaux de l'académie de Reims, vol. vi, p. 328.

[1493] J. Rogier, in Trial, pp. 298 et seq. Dom Marlot, Histoire de la ville de Reims, vol. iv, Reims, 1846 (4 vol. in 4to), vol. iii, p. 174.

[1494] H. Jadart, Jeanne d'Arc à Reims, p. 23.

[1495] Chronique de la Pucelle, pp. 322, 323, note. "This ritual dates back certainly as far as the 13th century. It is preserved in the library at Reims in a MS. which appears to have been written about 1274." Communicated by M. H. Jadart. Varin, Archives de Reims, vol. i, p. 522. Dom Marlot, Histoire de la ville de Reims, vol. iii, p. 566, and vol. iv, proofs and illustrations no. 142. H. Jadart, Jeanne d'Arc à Reims, p. 7.

[1496] Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 321. Perceval de Cagny, p. 159. Letter from three noblemen of Anjou, in Trial, vol. v, p. 128.

[1497] Pro evitando onus armatorum, Trial, vol. i, p. 91.

[1498] Thirion, Les frais du sacre in Travaux de l'académie de Reims, 1894. See Varin, Archives de Reims, table of contents under the word, Sacre. Dom Marlot, Histoire de la ville de Reims, vol. iii, pp. 461, 566, 640, 651, 819; vol. iv, pp. 25, 31, 45.

[1499] Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 322, note 1. C. Leber, Des cérémonies du sacre ou Recherches historiques et antiques sur les mœurs, les coutumes, les institutions et le droit public des Français dans l'ancienne monarchie, Paris-Reims, 1825, in 8vo. A. Lenoble, Histoire du sacre et du couronnement des rois et des reines de France, Paris, 1825, in 8vo.

[1500] "Et si ipse expectasset habuisset unam coronam millesies ditiorem," Trial, vol. i, p. 91. Varin, Archives de Reims, vol. iii, pp. 559 et seq.

[1501] Journal du siège, p. 113. Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 321. Varin, Archives de Reims, vol. ii, p. 569; vol. iii, p. 555.

[1502] Trial, vol. v, p. 129. In 1483, when Louis XI was dying, he had it brought from Reims to Plessis, "and it was upon his sideboard at the very time of his death, and his intent was to receive the same anointing he had received at his coronation, wherefore many believed that he wished to anoint his whole body, which would have been impossible, for the said Ampulla is very small and contains little. I see it at this moment." Commynes, bk. vi, ch. 9.

[1503] Flodoard, Hist. ecclesiae Remensis, in Coll. Guizot, vol. v, pp. 41 et seq. Eustache Deschamps, Ballade 172, vol. i, p. 305; vol. ii, p. 104. Dom Marlot, Histoire de la ville de Reims, vol. ii, p. 48, note 1. Vertot, in Académie des Inscriptions, vol. ii.

[1504] Froissart, book ii, ch. lxxiv.

[1505] Letters from three noblemen of Anjou, in Trial, vol. v, pp. 127, 129. Monstrelet, vol. iv, ch. lxiv. Perceval de Cagny, p. 159. Relation du greffier de La Rochelle, p. 343. Chronique de Tournai (vol. iii of the Recueil des chroniques de Flandre), p. 414. Gallia Christiana, vol. ix, col. 551; vol. xi, col. 698.

[1506] Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 322, note 1.

[1507] Perceval de Cagny, p. 159. Journal du siège, p. 114. Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 322. Jean Chartier, Chronique, vol. i, p. 97.

[1508] Chifletius, De ampula Remensi nova et acurata disquisitio, Antwerp, 1651, in 4to.

[1509] The first book of Kings according to the Vulgate (W.S.).

[1510] Letter from three noblemen of Anjou, in Trial, vol. v, p. 129. F. Boyer, Variante inédite d'un document sur le sacre de Charles VII, Clermont and Orléans, 1881.

[1511] Trial, vol. i, pp. 104, 300. Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 322. Letter from three noblemen of Anjou, in Trial, vol. v, p. 129. Varin, D. Marlot, H. Jadart, loc. cit.

[1512] Trial, vol. i, p. 91.

[1513] See post, vol. i, p. 476.

[1514] Letter from three noblemen of Anjou, in Trial, vol. v, p. 129.

[1515] Morosini, vol. iii, p. 181. Letter from three noblemen, loc. cit.

[1516] Chronique de la Pucelle, pp. 322, 323. Journal du siège, p. 114.

[1517] Dom Marlot, Histoire de la ville de Reims, vol. iv, p. 175. H. Jadart, Jeanne d'Arc à Reims, p. 107.

[1518] Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 322. Journal du siège, p. 114. Perceval de Cagny, p. 159. Letter of three noblemen of Anjou, in Trial, vol. v, p. 129. Jean Chartier, Chronique, vol. i, p. 97. Vallet de Viriville, Histoire de Charles VII, vol. ii, p. 99, note 2.

[1519] Monstrelet, vol. iv, p. 339. H. Jadart, Jeanne d'Arc à Reims, p. 32.

[1520] Thirion, Les frais du sacre, in Travaux de l'Académie de Reims, 1894. Dom Marlot, Histoire de la ville de Reims, vol. iv, p. 45, n. 1. Varin, Arch. adm. de la ville de Reims, vol. iii, p. 39.

[1521] Trial, vol. iii, p. 198; vol. v, pp. 141, 266. H. Jadart, Jeanne d'Arc à Reims, pp. 47, 48. L'abbé Cerf, Le vieux Reims, 1875, pp. 35 and 110.

[1522] Trial, vol. ii, p. 445.

[1523] Ibid., vol. iii, p. 198.

[1524] S. Luce, Jeanne d'Arc à Domremy, pp. 1 et seq.; proofs and illustrations no. li, pp. 97, 100; supplement, pp. 359, 362. Boucher de Molandon, Jacques d'Arc, père de la Pucelle, sa notabilité personnelle, Orléans, 1885, in 8vo.

[1525] Trial, vol. v, pp. 137, 139. In the royal records this privilege is described as having been granted at Jeanne's request; in such a request we cannot fail to discern the influence of her father.

[1526] Ibid., pp. 141, 266, 267.

[1527] Ibid., p. 103.

[1528] Du Cange, Glossarium, under the words Auriacum, electrum, and leto. Vallet de Viriville, Les anneaux de Jeanne d'Arc, in Mémoires de la Société des Antiquaires de France, vol. xxx, January, 1867.

[1529] Trial, vol. i, pp. 185, 238. Walter Bower, ibid., vol. iv, p. 480.

[1530] Sanctissimæ virginis Coletæ vita, Paris, in 8vo, black letter, undated, leaf 8 on the reverse side. Bollandistes, Acta sanctorum, March, vol. i, p. 611.

[1531] Trial, vol. i, pp. 86, 87.

[1532] Ibid., p. 104. H. Jadart, Jeanne d'Arc à Reims, p. 37.

[1533] "These figures (Goliath and David) must have been sculptured at the end of the 13th century." (L. Demaison, Notice historique sur la cathédrale de Reims, s.d. in 4to, p. 44.) The date of the rose window is 1280 (H. Jadart, Jeanne d'Arc à Reims, p. 44).

[1534] According to the Vulgate. First book of Samuel according to the Authorized Version (W.S.).

[1535] 1 Samuel xvii. Where the author quotes direct from the Vulgate the translator has followed the Douai version (W.S.).

[1536] See the coronation of David and that of Louis XII by an unknown painter, about 1498, in the Cluny Museum. H. Bouchot, L'exposition des primitifs français. La peinture en France sous les Valois, book ii, figure C.

[1537] Trial, vol. v, pp. 126-127. Hennebert, Une lettre de Jeanne d'Arc aux Tournaisiens in Arch. hist. et litt. du nord de la France et du midi de la Belgique, nouv. série, vol. i, 1837, p. 525. Facsimile in l'Album des archives départementales, no. 123.

[1538] Morosini, vol. iii, pp. 82, 83. Eberhard Windecke, p. 61, note 9, p. 108. Christine de Pisan, in Trial, vol. v, p. 416. Jorga, Notes et extraits pour servir à l'histoire des croisades au XVe siècle, Paris, 1889-1902. 3 vols. in 8vo.

[1539] Mémoires du Pape Pie II, in Trial, vol. iv, pp. 514, 515. Morosini, vol. iii, p. 190.

[1540] Trial, vol. iv, pp. 514, 515. Monstrelet, vol. iv, p. 340. Relation du greffier de La Rochelle, p. 37. Letter from three noblemen of Anjou, in Trial, vol. v, p. 130. Third account of Jean Abonnel in De Beaucourt, Histoire de Charles VII, vol. ii, p. 404, no. 3.

[1541] Letter from three noblemen of Anjou, in Trial, vol. v, p. 130.

[1542] The 20th or 21st. Monstrelet, vol. iv, pp. 348 et seq. De Beaucourt, Histoire de Charles VII, vol. II, pp. 404 et seq.

[1543] Falconbridge, in Trial, vol. iv, p. 455. Journal d'un bourgeois de Paris, pp. 240, 241. Stevenson, Letters and papers, vol. ii, pp. 101 et seq. Rymer, Fœdera, vol. iv, part iv, p. 150.

[1544] Archives de Reims, Municipal Accounts, vol. i, years 1428-29. Trial, vol. v, p. 141. Monstrelet, vol. iv, p. 339. H. Jadart, Jeanne d'Arc à Reims, p. 51.

[1545] Trial, vol. iii, p. 199. Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 323. Jean Chartier, Chronique, vol. i, p. 97. Journal du siège, p. 114. Martial d'Auvergne, Vigiles, vol. i, p. 111.

[1546] Gallia Christ: ix, pp, 239, 51. Le Poulle, Notice sur Corbeny, son prieuré, et le pèlerinage de Saint-Marcoul, Soissons, 1883, 8vo. E. de Barthélèmy, Notice historique sur le pèlerinage de Saint-Marcoul et Corbeny, in Ann. Soc. Acad. de Saint-Quentin, 1878.

[1547] A. Du Laurent, De mirabili strumas sanandi vi solis regibus Galliarum christianissimis divinitus concessa liber, Paris, 1607, 8vo. Cerf, Du toucher des écrouelles par le roi de France, in Trav. Acad. de Reims, 1865-1867. Dom Marlot, Histoire de la ville de Reims, vol. iii, pp. 196 et seq.

[1548] Perceval de Cagny, p. 160. Chronique de la Pucelle, pp. 323, 324. Jean Chartier, Chronique, vol. i, p. 98. Journal du siège, p. 115. Chronique des Cordeliers, fol. 486 ro. Morosini, iii, p. 182, note 3.

[1549] Bréhal, in Trial, vol. iii, p. 345.

[1550] Journal du siège, pp. 16, 88. Chronique de l'établissement de la fête, in Trial, vol. v, p. 296. Lottin, Récits historiques sur Orléans, vol. i, p. 279.

[1551] Trial, vol. iv, pp. 282, 283.

[1552] Tidings of the Deliverance of Orléans sent from Bruges to Venice the 10th of May (Morosini, vol. iii, pp. 23, 24).

[1553] Trial, vol. v, pp. 123, 139, 145, 147, 156, 159, 161.

[1554] Morosini, vol. iii, pp. 60, 61.

[1555] Saint Vincent Ferrier; and Saint Bernardino of Siena.

[1556] See ante, p. 64.

[1557] Trial, vol. iii, p. 88.

[1558] Eberhard Windecke, pp. 52-53. See ante, p. 184.

[1559] L. Delisle, Un nouveau témoignage relatif à la mission de Jeanne d'Arc, in Bibliothèque de l'École des Chartes, vol. xlvi, p. 649. Le P. Ayroles, La Pucelle devant l'Église de son temps, pp. 57, 58.

[1560] Letter written by the agents of a town or of a prince of Germany, in Trial, vol. v, p. 351.

[1561] Morosini, vol. iii, pp. 38, 46, 61.

[1562] Morosini, vol. iii, pp. 64, 65.

[1563] Ibid., pp. 144 et seq.

[1564] Morosini, vol. iii, pp. 150, 153.

[1565] Ibid., pp. 166, 167.

[1566] Fragment of a letter on the marvels in Poitou, in Trial, vol. v, pp. 121, 122. Relation du greffier de La Rochelle, op. cit., p. 343.

[1567] Morosini, vol. iii, p. 78, note 1. Eberhard Windecke, passim. Fauché-Prunelle, Lettres tirées des archives de Grenoble in Bull. Acad. delph., vol. ii, 1847, 1849, pp. 459, 460. Letter written by deputies, agents of a German town, in Trial, vol. v, p. 347. Letter from Jean Desch, Secretary of the town of Metz, ibid., pp. 352, 355.

[1568] Letters from Perceval de Boulainvilliers to the Duke of Milan, in Trial, vol. v, pp. 114, 116.

[1569] Anonymous poem on the coming of the Maid and the Deliverance of Orléans, Trial, vol. v, p. 27, line 70 et seq.

[1570] "In nocte Epiphaniarum," says the letter from Perceval de Boulainvilliers (Trial, vol. v, p. 116), that is, Jan. 6. For centuries, even after the fourth century, the birth of our Lord was celebrated on that day. In France it was the Feast of Kings and then was sung the anthem: Magi videntes stellam.

[1571] Trial, vol. iii, pp. 116, 192. Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 273. Journal du siège, p. 47. Jean Chartier, Chronique, vol. i, p. 67. Relation du greffier de La Rochelle, pp. 336, 337. Martial d'Auvergne, Vigiles, vol. i, p. 96.

[1572] Trial, vol. iii, pp. 103, 116, 209, passim. Journal du siège, p. 48. Th. Basin, Histoire de Charles VII, vol. i, p. 68. Mirouer des femmes vertueuses, in Trial, vol. iv, p. 271. Pierre Sala, ibid., p. 280. Morosini, vol. iii, p. 104. Eberhard Windecke, p. 153.

[1573] Journal du siège, p. 294. Chronique de l'établissement de la fête, in Trial, vol. v, p. 294.

[1574] AA. SS., April 3rd. Didron, Iconographie chrétienne, pp. 438, 439. Alba Mignati, Sainte Catherine de Sienne, p. 16.

[1575] Eberhard Windecke, p. 103.

[1576] Trial, vol. iii, pp. 116, 117.

[1577] Ibid., vol. i, pp. 55, 84 et seq., 133, 174, 232, 251, 252, 254, 331; vol. iii, pp. 99, 205, 254, 257, passim. Journal du siège, pp. 34, 44, 45, 48. Chronique de la Pucelle, pp. 212, 295. Perceval de Cagny, p. 141. Monstrelet, vol. iv, p. 320. Lefèvre de Saint-Rémy, vol. ii, p. 143. The Clerk of the Chamber of Accounts of Brabant, in Trial, vol. iv, p. 426. Chronique de Tournai (vol. iii, du recueil des chroniques de Flandre), p. 411. Morosini, vol. iii, p. 121.

[1578] Morosini, vol. iii, p. 57.

[1579] Brother Pasquerel's evidence, in Trial, vol. iii, p. 102.

[1580] Anonymous poem on the Maid, in Trial, vol. v, p. 38, lines 105 et seq.

[1581] Evidence of J. Luillier and Brother Pasquerel, in Trial, vol. iii, pp. 25, 108.

[1582] The Golden Legend. Life of Saint Ambrose.

[1583] Abbé J. Th. Bizouard, Histoire de sainte Colette et des clarisses en Franche-Comté, d'après des documents inédits et des traditions locales, Paris, 1888, in 8vo.

[1584] Morosini, vol. iii, pp. 148, 156. Eberhard Windecke, pp. 103, 105, 187. Noël Valois, Un nouveau témoignage sur Jeanne d'Arc, p. 17.

[1585] Lanéry d'Arc, Mémoires et consultations, pp. 220, 222. Théodore de Leliis, in Trial, vol. ii, pp. 39, 42. Le P. Ayroles, La Pucelle devant l'Église de son temps, p. 342. Abbé Hyacinthe Chassagnon, Les voix de Jeanne d'Arc, Lyon 1896, in 8vo, pp. 312, 313.

[1586] Eberhard Windecke, pp. 138 et seq. Morosini, vol. iii, pp. 62-63.

[1587] The monastery of the Premonstratensians, near Laon, was founded in 1122, by St. Norbert (W.S.).

[1588] Trial, vol. iii, pp. 422 et seq., 433, 434, 465; vol. v, pp. 475, 476.

[1589] Journal du siège, p. 44. Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 272.

[1590] Eberhard Windecke, p. 117.

[1591] Ibid., p. 97.

[1592] Trial, vol. i, p. 146.

[1593] Eberhard Windecke, p. 97.

[1594] Trial, vol. i, pp. 76, 234. Chronique de la Pucelle, p. 277. Jean Chartier, Chronique, vol. i, pp. 69, 70. Journal du siège, pp. 49, 50. Relation du greffier de La Rochelle, pp. 337, 338. Morosini, vol. iii, pp. 108, 109. Abbé Bourassé, Les miracles de Madame Sainte Katerine, Introduction.

[1595] Morosini, vol. iii, pp. 160, 163.

[1596] Trial, vol. i, p. 91.

[1597] Dom Marlot, Histoire de l'Église de Reims, vol. iv, p. 175. H. Jadart, Jeanne d'Arc à Reims, appendix xvii.

[1598] Trial, vol. i, p. 104.

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